Hitler: Opposition, Resistance, and Assassination Attempts

Brave martyred resisters to Hitler’s Third Reich

“The very first essential for success is a perpetually constant and regular employment of violence.” Adolf Hitler


At Last, Recognition and Praise for the Resistance in Nazi Germany


“When the British historian A. J. P. Taylor declared in the 1960′s that German resistance to the Nazis was a myth, his was a widely held view. Even today many people in Germany and elsewhere believe there was little internal opposition to Hitler. After decades of bitter debate, however, the German resistance’s tangled history is coming into sharper focus. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the cold war in 1989, newly released K.G.B. and C.I.A. files and long-ignored documents in the Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park, N.Y., reveal that the once-scorned Communist and socialist resistance deserves more credit.” Shareen Blair Brysac


Adamic, Louis. “What Hitler Did to My Friends.” Saturday Evening Post 3 July 1943: 26+. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 24 May 2011. The author used the actual names of people and places in telling the tender and tragic story of his young acquaintances in Slovenia who joined the Slovenian guerrilla operations against Fascist occupation.

Allan, Philip. “Resisting the Reich.” Hindsight Apr. 2003: 11-15. Gale OneFile. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. Different resistance efforts to the Third Reich are discussed: Communist, conservative opponents, the church, youth resistance, teenage spirit defiant, the Army and the July plot.

Anderson, Helen. “German Resistance to Hitler 1933-1945.” Helium. Helium Inc., 5 June 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <http://www.helium.com/items/2170529-german-resistance-to-hitler-1933-1945>. Despite Hitler’s efforts there were pockets of resistance in Germany: political, religious, youth/student, individual, and military/government.

Anderson, Maxwell. “Flame and Citron (New DVD Review).” Rev. of Flame and Citron. Ezine Articles 5 Mar. 2010. EzineArticles. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. <Http://ezinearticles.com/?Flame-and-Citron-%28New-DVD-Review%29&id=3876770>. “Flame and Citron is a story of Nazi-killing resistance fighters in Denmark and is based on actual events.”

Anderson, Professor Duncan. “World Wars: Killing Hitler.” BBC – Homepage. 9 Dec. 2009. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/killing_hitler_01.shtml>. What would have happened if the British plan to assassinate Hitler, Operation Foxley, had not been cancelled?

Anderson, Virginia. “Hitler’s Assassins: What Kind of Men Were They?” America 151.Aug. 18 (1984): 79. General OneFile. Web. 28 Mar. 2011.

Bennett, Rab. Under the Shadow of the Swastika: The Moral Dilemmas of Resistance and Collaboration in Hitler’s Europe. New York: New York UP, 1999. Print. “This study in the ethics of war is the only work to focus on the moral dilemmas of resistance and collaboration in Nazi-occupied Europe.”

Biddiscombe, Perry. “‘Freies Deutschland’ Guerrilla Warfare in East Prussia, 1944-1945.” German Studies Review 27.1 (2004): 45-62. JSTOR. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. “The anti-Hitler guerrillas of East Prussia … enjoyed little local sympathy and they were politically and militarily isolated.”

Bishop, Emilie. “Resisting during World War II.” Faces: People, Places, and Cultures 1 Sept. 2009: 12+. General OneFile. Web. 2 May 2011. “The Dutch had the courage to resist the Nazis and do what they believed to be right,” saving Jews.

Boyd, Jennifer. “German Resistance to Hitler 1933-1945.” Helium – Where Knowledge Rules. Helium Inc., 3 June 2011. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <http://www.helium.com/items/2168702-german-resistance-hitler-plots>. Between 1933and 1945 approximately three million Germans were imprisoned in concentration camps and another 75,000 were killed due to their political beliefs.

The Brave Fighters: Resistance Stories Near Hitler’s Ukrainian Headquarters. Dir. Edward Halitsky. Anthodium Films, 2011. DVD. “During World War II, Anti-Nazi Resistance Fighters rescued many lives near Hitler’s ‘Wehrwolf’ Ukrainian Headquarters. They saved thousand of Ukrainians, Jews and Russians. These are their true stories.”

Bruins Slot, J. A. H. I. S. “The Resistance.” American Academy of Political and Social Science 245.May (2004): 144-48. JSTOR. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. The resistance of the Netherlands was a spiritual conflict.

Brysac, Shareen B. “At Last, Recognition and Praise for the Resistance in Nazi Germany.” New York Times 7 Oct. 2000. Web. 2 Mar. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/07/arts/at-last-recognition-and-praise-for-the-resistance-in-nazi-germany.html?scp=1&sq=at%20last%20recognition%20and%20praise%20for%20the%20resistance%20in%20Nazi%20germany&st=cse>. “When the British historian A. J. P. Taylor declared in the 1960′s that German resistance to the Nazis was a myth, his was a widely held view. Even today many people in Germany and elsewhere believe there was little internal opposition to Hitler. After decades of bitter debate, however, the German resistance’s tangled history is coming into sharper focus. ”

Brysac, Shareen B. “Cast of Characters.” Traces.org Website. 2000. Web. 09 May 2011. <http://www.traces.org/castofcharacters.html>. Members of the resistance group the “Red Orchestra” included Mildred Harnack-Fish, an American who was executed on Hitler’s orders.

Carsten, F. L., Hermann Graml, and Ernst Wolf. The German Resistance to Hitler. Berkeley: University of California, 1970. Print. Resistance thinking on foreign policy, by H. Graml.–Social views and constitutional plans of the resistance, by H. Mommsen.–Resistance in the labour movement, by H.-J. Reichhardt.–Political and moral motives behind the resistance, by E. Wolf.–References (p. [235]-271)

Coady, Mary F. “Hitler & the Jesuits: Three Resisters & the Price They Paid.” Commonweal (11-22-2004): 20-21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. The story of three Jesuits on the run from the Gestapo.

“The Conspirators.” Web.archives. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. <http://web.archive.org/web/20040421151633/http://www.joric.com/Conspiracy/Resistance.htm>. A list of 226 German conspirators.

Deutsch, Harold C. “The German Resistance: Answered and Unanswered Questions.” Central European History 14.04 (1981): 322. JSTOR. Web. 27 Nov. 2011.  ”In Hitler’s Third Reich, resistance, save perhaps in the ranks of the SS. sooner or later manifested itself in quarter and over a range of forms from mere foot dragging to outright conspiracy.”

DeWeerd, Harvey A. “The German Officer Corps Versus Hitler.” Military Affairs 13.4 (1949 Winter): 199-208. JSTOR. Web. 26 Mar. 2011. “The Conspiracies of the German officer corps against Hitler make an interesting study in futility.”

“Documents on Nazism, 1919-1945 (Book Review).” Rev. of Documents on Nazism, 1919-45, by Jeremy Noakes. International Affairs 51.2 (1975): 263+. EBSCOhost. Web. 21 May 2011. “The book is divided into six parts: the Rise of Nazism, the Seizure of power, the Political Structure of the The Reich, the New Social Order, Idea and Reality, Foreign Policy 1933-39, and Germany at War 1939-45.”

Duffy, James P., and Vincent L. Ricci. Target Hitler: The Plots to Kill Adolf Hitler. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992. Print. The authors “have pulled together the known and hitherto unknown facts about the German resistance to create an absorbing tale.”

Dulles, Allen. Germany’s Underground. New York: Macmillan, 1947. Print. “This classic account of the German Resistance during World War II remains one of the primary sources on a topic that continues to generate controversy more than a half century after the war’s end.”

Dumbach, Annette E., and Jud Newborn. Sophie Scholl and the White Rose. Oxford: Oneworld Pub., 2006. Dr. Jud Newborn. Web. 9 May 2011. <htttp:www.judenewborncom/jud-whiterose.htmll>. Book review and description of the book, Sophie Scholl and the White Rose.

Ernst, E. “Commentary: The Third Reich–German Physicians Between Resistance and Participation.” International Journal of Epidemiology. Oxford Journals, 2001. Web. 2012. <http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/30/1/37.full.pdf+html>. The Third Reich medical profession in “major atrocities was, to a large extent, hushed up and recent reports of medical opposition may, in many cases, be exaggerated.”

European Resistance Archive. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. <http://www.resistance-archive.org/>. Videos of resisters talking about their experiences. Maps and articles about resistance efforts in different countries.

Fest, Joachim C. Plotting Hitler’s Death: The Story of the German Resistance. New York: Metropolitan, 1996. Print. Contains short biographies of assassination plotters.

Ford, Franklin L. “The Twentieth of July in the History of the German Resistance.” The American Historical Review 51.4 (1946): 609. JSTOR. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. Problems in the July 20 assassination attempt on Hitler “give promise of contributions to the history of World War II far outrunning the purely narrative interest of the July 20 chronicle.”

“The Forgotten Resistance (anti-Hitler Movement in Germany).” UNESCO Courier (May 1985): 16-17. General OneFile. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. “By 1937 opposition to Hitler was beginning to build up even among those who had at first supported him.” Many of those resisters are discussed in this article.

Fox, Jo. “Resistance and the Third Reich.” Rev. of Resisting Hitler; Operation Valkyrie; Righteous Deception; Post-Holocaust Politics, Britain, the United States and Jewish Refugees, 1945-1948; Holocaust and Rescue, Impotent or Indifferent? Journal of Contemporary History 39.2 (2004): 271-83. JSTOR. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. In 17 pages the author reviews five books about resistance in the Third Reich.

Frend, William H.C. “The Vatican Germans and the Anti-Hitler Plot.” History Today 54.12 (2004): 62-63. EBSCO HOST. Web. 4 May 2011. “Focuses on the revelations of German officials residing in the Vatican regarding the plot to oust dictator Adolf Hitler from power during the 1940s.”

“Fuehrer Often in Danger Since Rise to Top Position.” Milwaukee Journal 21 July 1944. Google News. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. Newspaper account of assassination attempts on Hitler.

Funk, Arthur L. “Churchill, Eisenhower, and the French Resistance.” Military Affairs 45.1 (1981): 29-34. JSTOR. Web. 22 May 2011. Churchill “occasionally … provoked powerful opposition among his political and military colleagues …This study covers one of those issues which the Prime Minister does not mention.”

Gallin, Mary Alice. Ethical and Religious Factors in the German Resistance to Hitler. Washington: Catholic University of America, 1955. Print. This book is a “revision of the author’s thesis.”

“Georg Elser: The Man Who Almost Killed Hitler.” Smithsonian.com Past Imperfect. Smithsonian, 18 Aug. 2011. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/history/2011/08/one-man-against-tyranny/>. George Elser’s story. his attempt to kill Hitler came within moments of succeeding. When asked why he took on Hitler, he said: “I considered that the situation in Germany could only be changed by the elimination of the current leadership.”

“German Resistance in the Third Reich: Arnold Hencke 1915-2003.” German Resistance in the Third Reich: A Survivor’s Story. Web. 5 May 2011. <http://home.mindspring.com/~july20>. In 1935, after two years of being a courier for the resistance, Arnold Hencke was arrested and sent to a concentration camp, but survived.

“German Resistance Memorial Center.” Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand. GDW – Biographies. Web. 09 May 2011. <http://www.gdw-berlin.de/index-e.php>. Biographies of German resisters Elisabeth Schumacher, Liselotte Hermann, and Kath Kollwitz are included in the long list of martyred Germans.

“German Resistance Plots Against Hitler – Valkyrie Conspiracy.” The Valkyrie Conspiracy. 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://valkyrie-plot.com>. This website has 8 articles about the Valkyrie Conspiracy: Resistance within Germany; Resistance of German Aristocracy; 1938 – First Coup Attempt; 1942 – Plan Valkyrie; 1943 – The “Perfect” Assassination Attempt; July 15, 1944; July 20, 1944; and General Friedrich Olbricht.

“German Resistance to Hitler.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 04 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005208>. “Opposition ranged from non-compliance with Nazi regulation to attempts to assassinate Hitler.”

Geyer, Michael, and John W. Boyer. “Introduction: Resistance against the Third Reich as Intercultural Knowledge.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S1-S7. Print. “The articles in this supplementary issue emerged from a conference sponsored by Interdisciplinary Perspectives for the Study of Europe (IPSE) at the University of Chicago and the Goethe-Institut, Chicago.”

Gildea, Robert. “Resistance, Reprisals and Community in Occupied France.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society Sixth 13 (2003): 163-85. JSTOR. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. “This essay examines the issue of armed resistance in France 1941-4 though the lens of collective reprisal inflicted on local communities as a result of armed resistance.”

Gill, Anton. An Honourable Defeat: A History of German Resistance to Hitler, 1933-1945. New York: H. Holt, 1994. Print. “This book exposes the truth about an assassination conspiracy involving high-ranking army officers.”

Gisevius, Hans Bernd, Richard Winston, and Clara Winston. Valkyrie: An Insider’s Account of the Plot to Kill Hitler. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2009. Print. “The most exhaustive and authentic-sounding account to the conspiracy to kill Hitler.”

Gisevius, Hans Bernd, Richard Winston, Clara Winston, Allen Welsh Dulles, and Peter Hoffmann. To the Bitter End: An Insider’s Account of the Plot to Kill Hitler, 1933-1944. New York: DaCapo, 1974, 1998. Print.

Grimsley, Marl. “What If the July 20 Bomb Plot Had Succeeded?” World War II 22.9. Jan/Feb (2008): 85-87. Print. “There is a surprisingly strong case that even if Hitler had been killed in the July 20 blast, the coup it was to have set in motion would have failed …”

Hamerow, Theodore S. On the Road to the Wolf’s Lair: German Resistance to Hitler. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 1997. Print. “In this engrossing account, historian Theodore S. Hamerow closely examines why these people chose to reverse their alliance not only in spirit, but to take active steps to overthrow the regime, culminating in an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Hitler at his headquarters–the “Wolf’s Lair”–in East Prussia in 1944.”

Hansen, Randall. Disobeying Hitler: German Resistance after July 29, 1944. 2011. Andrew Lownie. Andrew Lownie Literary Agency. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://www.andrewlownie.co.uk/authors/randall-hansen/books/disobeying-hitler-german-resistance-after-july-20-1944>. The author discusses his book and tells the story “of three types of disobedience to Hitler’s orders.”

Henderson, Simon. “The White Rose and the Definition of ‘Resistance’” History Review 53 (2005): 42-47. Academic Premier. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. The author explains the significance of Hans and Sophie Scholl in the history of Nazi Germany.

Heroes of the Holocaust: Tales of Resistance and Survival. The History Channel. DVD. “These are stories of ordinary men and women who acted selflessly and heroically, displaying extraordinary courage, determination and sacrifice in their effort to help their fellow man.”

Hett, Benjamin C. Crossing Hitler: The Man Who Put the Nazis on the Witness Stand. New York: Oxford UP, 2008. Print. This is a “biography of Hans Litten, a German lawyer who devoted his legal practice to fighting Adolf Hitler in the late 1920s and 1930s, as the Nazi movement was moving toward power in Germany.” The Nazis beat, tortured, and forced him into hard labor. He committed suicide in 1938.

Hill, Leonidas E. “Towards a New History of German Resistance to Hitler.” Central European History 14.04 (1981): 369-1p. EbscoHost. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. A new history of National Socialism “with different chronology, continuities and perspective, different geography and range of activity or behavior,” is needed.

“Hitler’s Popularity in Germany During WWII – Valkyrie Conspiracy.” German Resistance Plots Against Hitler – Valkyrie Conspiracy. 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://valkyrie-plot.com/hitler.html>. “Hitler’s popularity varied considerably over time.”

“Hitler’s Savage Canary.” Rev. of Hitler’s Savage Canary: A History of the Danish Resistance in World War II. Publishers Weekly 258.8 (2011): 125-26. EbscoHost. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. “The Danish ambassador to England writes that the story of the Danish occupation ‘carries within it many tales of humiliation, human strength, courage and compassion.’”

“Hitler’s Sunken Secret.” PBS: NOVA. PBS, 8 Nov. 2005. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/hydro/about.html>. “One of the most daring clandestine operations of World War II was the 1944 sinking of the Norwegian ferry Hydro with its cargo of “heavy water” destined for the Nazis’ secret atomic bomb project. Although the mission was declared a success, no one ever established if the special shipment was actually on board. In this program, NOVA descends 1,300 feet beneath a remote Norwegian lake to find the answer.”

Hoffmann, Peter. “Colonel Claus Von Stauffenberg in the German Resistance to Hitler: Between East and West.” The Historical Journal 31.03 (1988): 629-50. Print. Lieutenant-Colonel Count von Stauffenberg became a dominant figure in the conspiracy against Hitler in 1943.

Hoffmann, Peter. The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945. 3rd ed. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 1996. Print. “Hoffman succeeds as no other before him in bringing matters into proper focus.” He has “done full justice to the subject.”

Hoffmann, Peter. “Ludwig Beck: Loyalty and Resistance.” Central European History 14.04 (1981): 332-50. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “Recent attempts to revise the received postwar view of Beck … have failed insofar as they did not replace a view admittedly simplified by a paucity of sources. ”

Hoffmann, Peter. “Opposition Annihilated: Punishing the 1944 Plot against Hitler.” The North American Review 255.3 (Fall 1970): 11-36. JSTOR. Web. 26 Mar. 2011. Most of the officers who participated in the attempt to assassinate Hitler “were drawn into the whirlpool” and “perished in the wave of persecution that followed the coup.”

Hoge, Warren. “Britain Reveals Plots to Kill Hitler as War Neared End.” The New York Times 24 July 1998. The New York Times. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. A recently released (1998) 120 page dossier prepared by the British Special Operations Executive reveals secret plans to kill Hitler.

Horn, Daniel. “Youth Resistance in the Third Reich: A Social Portrait.” Journal of Social History 7.1 (1973): 26-50. JSTOR. Web. 2012. “[T]he Nazi regime encountered great difficulties and serious resistance when it tried after 1936 to enlist all German youngsters in its youth movement, compelling them to accept the harsh regimentation and perpetual activism of the HJ.” Excellent article on a previously unexplored subject.

Housden, Martyn. “Germans Against Hitler: Who Resisted the Third Reich and Why Did They Do It.” History on the Web. Sempingham ELearning Resources, Mar. 1998. Web. 23 Sept. 2011. <http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~semp/germans.htm>. ”Accepting a narrow definition of resistance as ‘active participation in an organised attempt to undermine the Third Reich’ three types of resisters are identified: those who became disillusioned with the Third Reich, those who acted out of necessity and those who resisted because of political, religious or moral principles.”

Housden, Martyn. Resistance and Conformity in the Third Reich. London: Routledge, 1997. Print. The author “analyses the twin concept of conformity with and resistance to the Nazi regime. …The chapters bring out not just the wealth of primary sources available to historians, but also the depth of historiographical controversy. …”

Howarth, David A., and Stephen E. Ambrose. We Die Alone: A WWII Epic of Escape and Endurance. Guilford, CT: Lyons/Globe Pequot, 1955, 2007. Print. An exciting true escape narrative involving expatriate Norwegian commandos and the Norwegian resistance.

“Jan Karski Honored in Poland for WWII Resistance Work.” JTA, 16 Feb. 2012. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/02/16/3091701/jan-karski-honored-in-poland-for-wwii-resistance-work>. “The Polish Senate has posthumously honored World War II hero Jan Karski for his work in revealing details of the Nazi genocide taking place in Poland.”

Johnson, Frank. “The Stauffenberg Plot to Kill Hitler Failed–and a Good Thing Too.” The Spectator 24 July (2004): 29. InfoTrac OneFile. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. The German officers who tried to kill Hitler and were not up to the task, were even less qualified to govern Germany.

Kuntz, Tom. “Word for Word/Killing Hitler; Blow the Fuhrer from the Train and Other British Plots.” The New York Times 2 Aug. 1998. TheNewYorkTimes.com. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. Some of the various plots to assassinate Hitler.

Lampe, David, and Birger Riis-Jørgensen. Hitler’s Savage Canary: A History of the Danish Resistance in World War II. Barnsley, S. Yorkshire: Frontline, 2011. Print. “Isolated from the Allies and fueled only by a sense of human decency and national pride, the Danes created an extraordinary resistance movement that proved a relentless thorn in the Nazis’ side. German troops were stymied again and again by the sabotage of railways and airbases and some 7,000 Jews were carried to safety in Sweden.”

Langbein, Hermann. Against All Hope: Resistance in the Nazi Concentration Camps. New York: Paragon House, 2009. Print. This book “is the first systematic and detailed account of the organized resistance” in the concentration camps.

Large, David Clay. Contending with Hitler: Varieties of German Resistance in the Third Reich. Washington, D.C.: German Historical Institute, 1991. Print. “Contending with Hitler is a distillation of recent scholarship on Germany’s domestic resistance to the Nazi dictatorship.”

Leber, Annedore. Conscience in Revolt: Sixty-four Stories of Resistance in Germany, 1933-45. Westport, CT: Associated Booksellers, 1957. Print. These stories are “remarkable because they record the heroism — sometimes spectacular, sometimes quiet, almost commonplace — of ordinary German people whose consciences revolted the inhumanity of the Nazi state. …”

Levene, Mark. “Genocide and Resistance in Hitler’s Bosnia: The Partisans and Chetniks, 1941-1943.” Journal of Genocide Research 12.1 (2010): 131-35. Academic Premier. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. A review of the book “Genocide & Resistance in Hitler’s Bosnia: The Partisans & the Chetniks 1941-1943,” by Marko Attila Hoare is presented.

“List of Members of the 20 July Plot.” Wikipedia. 10 Apr. 2011. Web. 3 May 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_members_ of_the_20_July_plot>. At least 7,000 persons were arrested by the Gestapo. 4,980 persons were executed. Few of these are believed to be involved.

“Lucie Aubrac.” Spartacus Educational. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FRaubracL.htm>. Lucie Samuel, with Emmanuel d’Astier, established the left-wing Liberation-sud resistance group in France.

Ludtke, Alf. “The Appeal of Exterminating ‘Others’: German Workers and the Limits of Resistance.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S46. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “In the end, participation in the extermination of ‘others’ might appear to many as the ultimate fulfillment of those cherished notions of ‘German quality work.’”

Lusseyran, Jacques. And There Was Light: Autobiography of Jacques Lusseyran, Blind Hero of the French Resistance. New York: Parabola, 1998. Print.

Luža, Radomír, and Christina Vella. The Hitler Kiss: A Memoir of the Czech Resistance. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2002. Print. “This gripping autobiography is at once a heart-pounding adventure story, a moving recollection of a larger-than-life father, and an important account of the Czech resistance.”

Manvell, Roger, and Heinrich Fraenkel. The Canaris Conspiracy: The Secret Plot of German Intelligence to Overthrow Hitler. New York: David McKay, 1969. Print. “The complete, never-before-told story of the secret plot by German Intelligence to overthrow Hitler.”

Martin, Douglas. “Freya Von Molte, Part of a Core of Nazi Resistance, Is Dead at 98.” The New York Times 10 Jan. 2010. The New York Times. 10 Jan. 2010. Web. 9 May 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/world/europe/10moltke.ht>. Obituary

Maublane, Rene. “French Teachers in the Resistance Movement.” Science & Society 11.1 (1947): 38-52. JSTOR. Web. 3 Apr. 2011. For four years French teachers and professors “gave the measure of their patriotism, courage and vision.”

McClelland, Greg. “Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp: A Place of Horror.” German Resistance in the Third Reich: A Survivor’s Story. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. <http://home.mindspring.com/~july20/page6.htm>. In Memory Of All Those Who Suffered Here “Absolute Power Soon Breeds Absolute Contempt For The Powerless”

McDonough, Frank. Opposition and Resistance in Nazi Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. Print. This “book concentrates on the individuals and groups that resisted and opposed Nazi rule…”

McGill, David. “Defying Hitler: German Resistance to the Nazis, 1933-1945.” Hindsight 19.1 (2008): 14-18. General One File. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. Good, brief outline of German resistance to Hitler.

Mears, Ray. “Hitler’s Sunken Secret | Norwegian Resistance Coup | PBS.” PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. PBS, Oct. 2005. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/hydro/resistance.html>. “Between 1940 and 1945, thousands of young Norwegians fought in Norway’s Resistance movement against the occupying Nazis. More than 2,000 of them, both men and women, died in action, by execution, or in concentration camps. Perhaps the most daring Resistance attack, which Ray Mears describes here, was a successful late-night raid that nine Norwegian saboteurs made on the Vemork heavy-water plant on February 28, 1943, over a year before the sinking of the Hydro ferry.”

“Memory of Spiritual Leader in German Resistance Lives On.” Home | Deutsche Welle. 21 Oct. 2006. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,2206790,00.html>. “October 21 marks the 50th anniversary of the death of Father Laurentius Siemer — a spiritual leader of the German resistance movement during World War II. Imprisoned by the Nazis, he later became a TV celebrity.”

Mengus, Raymond. “Dietrich Bonhoeffer and the Decision to Resist.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S134-146. JSTOR. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. In the first section of the essay the author discusses “resistance with respect to Hitler’s dictatorship.” In the second section he examines “Bonhoeffer’s motivation for taking part in the resistance against National Socialism.” He then attempts “to trace the stages of his increasingly radical engagement and to evaluate some consequences of his decision to resist.”

Molden, Fritz. Exploding Star: A Young Austrian against Hitler. New York: Morrow, 1979. Print. “Molden took a stand against the Nazis, and became a catalyst in the fragmented and often ineffectual Austrian underground.”

Mommsen, Hans, and Angus McGeoch. Alternatives to Hitler: German Resistance under the Third Reich. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2003. Print. “These seminal writings trace the real and complex history of the German Resistance from the ascent of the Nazi Party to the July 1944 attempted assassination of Hitler.”

Mommsen, Hans. “The German Resistance Against Hitler and the Restoration of Politics.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S112. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “The reform plans of the German resistance to Hitler went beyond the overthrow of the National Socialists and envisioned the restoration in religious, social, and political life of an existence commensurate with human dignity.”

Moorhouse, Roger. Killing Hitler: The Plots, the Assassins, and the Dictator Who Cheated Death. New York: Bantam, 2006. Print. “A gripping account, which is thoroughly researched, but wears its scholarship enough to be read like a good political thriller.”

Morris, Nigel. “BBC – History – World Wars: The Special Operations Executive 1940 – 1946.” BBC – History – World Wars. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,2206790,00.html>. “The agents of the British SOE “demonstrated tremendous courage, and enjoyed many successes, in their guerrilla war against Hitler’s forces.”

Neiman, Susan. “To Resist Hitler and Survive.” The New York Times – Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. New York Times, 3 Feb. 2008. Web. 1 Oct. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/03/opinion/03neiman.html?scp=1>. “Germany is not alone in its quest for the right sort of memory, and it has done a better job than most. But the 75th anniversary of Hitler’s rise to power should be an occasion to reflect on how historical crimes are remembered.”

Nelson, Anne. Red Orchestra: The Story of the Berlin Underground and the Circle of Friends Who Resisted Hitler. New York: Random House, 2009. Print. The author “shares one of the shocking and inspiring–and least chronicled–stories of domestic resistance to the Nazi regime.”

News, Hugh Schofield BBC. “Raymond Aubrac: How I Tricked the Gestapo.” BBC News Magazine. BBC, 27 Jan. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16761781>. “The capture of French Resistance hero Jean Moulin is one of the country’s darkest chapters of the war. The last surviving Resistance leader, Raymond Aubrac, recalls that night and the audacious escape that followed.”

“Non-Jewish Resistance.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 6 Jan. 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007332>. “Between 1933 and 1945, a variety of groups offered resistance to the Nazi regime, both in Germany and in German-occupied territory. Among the earliest domestic opponents of Nazism were Communists, Socialists, and trade union leaders. Although mainstream church hierarchies either supported the Nazi regime or acquiesced in its policies of discrimination and persecution, individual German theologians such as Dietrich Bonhoeffer opposed the regime.”

Odegard, Kyle. “‘White Rose’ Fought Nazis.” Corvallis Gazette-Times. Gazette-Times, 22 Apr. 2009. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.gazettetimes.com/news/local/white-rose-fought-nazis/article_462f0075-cebb-5667-91e8-95b938a211ba.html>. “Dr. George Wittenstein dared to speak out against the Nazi regime while living in Germany during World War II, and dared to denounce the persecution and killing of the Jews.”

“On This Day: Witold Pilecki Allows Himself to Be Captured by the Nazis.” FindingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources. FindingDulcinea, 19 Sept. 2011. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-This-Day–Witold-Pilecki-Allows-Himself-to-be-Captured-by-the-Nazis.html>. “On Sept. 19, 1940, Polish resistance member Witold Pilecki deliberately had himself arrested and sent to Auschwitz, where he spent two years supplying Allied forces with information about the concentration camp.”

One Hundred and Fourteenth Day: Testimony of Gisevius in the Nuremberg Trial. Nuremberg Trial Proceeding. Vol. 12. Yale Law School: The Avalon Project, 1946. Testimony of Gisevius in the Nuremberg Trial. Yale Law School. Web. 4 May 2011. <http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/04-25-46.asp>. Testimony of German resistance plotter.

Osterle, Heinz D. “The Other Germany: Resistance to the Third Reich in German Literature.” The German Quarterly 41.1 (1968): 1-22. JSTOR. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. “A number of [German] writers refused to condone the practices of the regime and attempted to express their rejection in their work.”

“Otto and Elise Hampel.” Wikipedia. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. A working-class couple who created a simple method of protest in Berlin, were executed in 1943.

“Parliament Votes Against Pardon of Three Nazis; Government to Decide Issue.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 3 Mar. 1972. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1972/03/03/2960455/parliament-votes-against-pardon-of-three-nazis-government-to-decide-issue?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=5b2c1e9d82-TWJH_2013_02_24&utm_medium=email>. “The Netherlands Parliament voted today against a government-proposed blanket pardon for the last three Nazi war criminals serving time in Breda prison. A government spokesman said afterwards that it would take into “serious account” the views of Parliament but would not necessarily be bound by them.”

Parssinen, Terry M. The Oster Conspiracy of 1938: The Unknown Story of the Military Plot to Kill Hitler and Avert World War II. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. Print. “A fascinating, blow-by-blow account of a seemingly feasible but failed attempt to prevent World War II.”

Paxton, Robert O. “The German Opposition to Hitler: A Non-Germanist’s View.” Central European History 14.04 (1981): 362. JSTOR. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. “Internal opposition, as in Germany between 1933 and 1945, is fundamentally incomparable to resistance to foreign occupation.”

Peschanski, Denis. Collaboration and Resistance: Images of Life in Vichy France, 1940-44. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2000. Print. A view of French life during World War II under German occupation. Hundreds of photographs.

“Philipp Von Boeselager – Obituaries, Frontpage -Independent.ie.” Irish Independent News in Ireland & Worldwide. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <http://www.independent.ie/obituaries/philipp-von-boeselager-1372371.html?>. Obituary of Philippp von Boeselager, a July 20 conspirator, who died 7 April 2011.

Pierard, Richard V. “Radical Resistance.” Christian History 10.4 (1991): 30. EBSCOHost. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. “Discusses the role of German theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer in opposing the Nazis’ campaign to persecute Jews in Germany.”

The Power of Conscience: The Danish Resistance and the Rescue of the Jews. Dir. Alexander M. Isles. Perf. Danish Anti-Nazi Resistance. Direct Cinema Limited, 2007. DVD. Hitler occupied Denmark in 1940. “In October of 1943, when the Gestapo decided to round up the Danish Jews, ordinary citizens banded together with resisters and overnight they created a rescue operation that hid and transported over 7,000 of their countrymen across the water to Sweden.”

Powers, Thomas. “The Conspiracy That Failed.” The New York Review of Books 44.1 (1997): 49-+. General OneFile. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. Review of six books discussing the German Resistance.

Preisinger, Arthur A. “Resisting the Third Reich: The Catholic Clergy in Hitler’s Berlin.” Review. Church History 74.2 (2005): 382-85. General OneFile. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. Review of book of same title.

Ramsay, Allen. “Claus Von Stauffenberg and the German Officer’s Plot of 1944.” Contemporary Review: 275-83. EBSCO. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. The officers’ plot of 1944 was “never likely to succeed, not because the plotters were not brave or because the planning was not detailed enough, but because some of them were doubtful about it from the start.”

Raptis, Nikos. “The First Attempt to Kill Hitler in 1938: The Story of Johann Elser.” Flame. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://ww.fantompowa.net/Flame/elser.htm>. An account of ex-Communist Johann Elser’s attempt to assassinate Hitler that failed.

“Rescue and Resisitance.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Rescue and Resistance. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 29 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007738>. In Nazi Europe “most non-Jews neither aided nor hindered the ‘Final Solution.’ Relatively few people helped Jews escape.” Some exceptions are discussed.

“Resistance.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 04 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/>. 150 articles about resistance to Hitler.

“Resisting Hitler.” Newsweek 13 May 85: 26. Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 May 2011. “While many in postwar Germany claim to have been opposed to Hitler’s rule, few challenged it in any overt fashion.”

The Restless Conscience: Resistance to Hitler within Germany 1933-1945. Dir. Hava K. Beller. Perf. Archive Footage. 1992. DVD. “This stirring documentary chronicles the anti-Nazi resistance movement within Hitler’s Germany and the countless unsuccessful attempts to remove the fuhrer from power.”

Rigden, Denis. Kill the Furhrer: Section X and Operation Foxley. Stroud: Sutton Publ., 1999. Print. Covers all the problems and failures of several Hitler assassination attempts.

Rings, Werner. Life with the Enemy: Collaboration and Resistance in Hitler’s Europe, 1939-1945. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982. Print. Translation of: Leben mit dem Feind. Includes indexes Bibliography: p. [329]-342. “Hitler in the ascendant, or power with plan or purpose.”

Rochat, Francois, and Andre Modigliani. “The Ordinary Quality of Resistance: From Milgram’s Laboratory to the Village of Le Chambon.” Journal of Social Issues (1995). Wiley Online Library. Web. 18 Jan. 2012. “This article focuses on how the people of the French village of LeChambon succeeded during World War II, is stopping the efforts of Vichy authorities to persuade them to participate in the persecution of minority persons.”

Rose, Leesha. The Tulips Are Red. South Brunswick N.J.: A.S. Barnes, 1978. Print. The author wrote this book about a part of his life in World War II Holland as a member of the resistance.

Ross, Bernie. “The Foxley Report: Plotters against Hitler.” BBC – History – World Wars. BBC, 9 Dec. 2010. Web. 2010. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/the_plotters_01.shtml>. “The men and women who would have been key players in the plot to kill Hitler if the Foxley Repory … had been acted upon.”

Rothfels, Hans. “The German Resistance in Its International Aspects.” International Affairs 34.4 (1958): 477-89. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “There is general agreement that the various resistance movements which arose in the occupied countries during the last war were part of international politics. …”

Sachs, Harvey. “Resisting (War).” The Antioch Review 52.2 (1994): 231-50. General OneFile. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. “The motivation and frame of mind of resistance fighters is shown in books by members and supporters of the Italian Resistance in World War Two. Their main motivation was to regain political freedom and lead peaceful lives.”

Savill, Richard. “Lulu, the Belgian Teen Who Took on the Gestapo.” Telegraph.co.uk – Telegraph Online, Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph. 24 Feb. 2007. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1543698/Lulu-the-Belgian-teen-who-took-on-the-Gestapo.html>. “A little-known Second World War heroine who joined the Belgian resistance at 15, and was later tortured by the Gestapo, was buried near her home in Dorset yesterday. Code named Lulu, Lucie Bruce, a Belgian national who moved to Britain in 1946, spied on Nazi troops and ammunition dumps, after joining the resistance in 1940 following Belgium’s capitulation to German occupation.”

Schoenbrun, David. Soldiers of the Night: The Story of the French Resistance. New York: Dutton, 1980. Print. Written by a former intelligence agent and war correspondent in Africa and France.

Seaman, Mark. “BBC – History – World Wars: The Foxley Report: Secret Operations in World War Two.” BBC – History – World Wars. BBC, 9 Dec. 2009. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/foxley_report_01.shtml>. “An intelligence historian … discusses whether the plan had any chance of success.”

Sears, Kenneth A. E. Opposing Hitler: Adam Von Trott Zu Solz, 1909-1944 : “To Strive and Not to Yield” Brighton: Sussex Academic, 2010. Print. “This book examines the role of one of the most charismatic leaders of the opposition to the Nazis within Germany.”

Semelin, Jacques. Unarmed against Hitler: Civilian Resistance in Europe, 1939-1943. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993. Print. “Jacques Semelin gathers evidence for the untold story of a movement that took place in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark as well as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Germany itself. A widespread campaign contested authority and paved the way for later armed resistance and the eventual defeat of the Nazis.”

Siswati, Yovita. “Eight Most Notable Unsuccessful Attempts to Kill Hitler.” Socyberty | Society on the Web. 6 Apr. 2009. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://socyberty.com/history/eight-most-notable-unsuccessful-attempts-to-kill-hitler/>. Maurice Bavaud, Georg Elser, Polish Army, Soviet Intelligence, Foxley Operation, Henning von Tresckow, Colonel Clasus von Stauffenberg, Rudolf von Gersdorff.

Smith, David, and Walter Harris. “Why My Friends Felt They Had to Kill Hitler.” Latest News, Comment and Reviews from the Guardian | Guardian.co.uk. UK News | The Observer, 11 July 2004. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2004/jul/11/germany.secondworldwar>. “Sixty years after the bungled attempt by the German resistance to kill the Führer, a survivor, Inga Haag, tells David Smith and Walter Harris of her role in the plot.”

Snyder, Louis L. Hitler’s German Enemies: The Stories of the Heroes Who Fought the Nazis. New York: Hippocrene, 1990. Print. Profiles of “fifteen courageous Germans–students, military heros, public officials, professors, pastors, and others–who dared to oppose Hitler and paid the price.”

Sophie Scholl, the Final Days. Dir. Marc Rothemund. Prod. Marc Rothemund, Christoph Müller, Sven Burgemeister, and Fred Breinersdorfer. By Fred Breinersdorfer. Perf. Julia Jentsch, Alexander Held, Fabian Hinrichs, and Johanna Gastdorf. X Verleih, 2005. Film. “The true story of Germany’s most famous anti-Nazi heroine.”

Stafford, David. Secret Agent: The True Story of the Covert War against Hitler. Woodstock, NY: Overlook, 2001. Print. In this book, “British wartime intelligence operations expert David Stafford gives a thorough history of the British government’s subversions of German incursions. ”

Steavenson, Wendell. “Wanted Dead Or Alive? Release of British Records Showing Plans to Assassinate Adolph Hitler during World War II.” Time International 150.49 (1998): 22. General OneFile. Web. 28 Mar. 2011.

Steiner, Herbert. “The Role of the Resistance in Austria, with Special Reference to the Labor Movement.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S128-133. JSTOR. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. Report from a conference that examined “how every generation confronts its inherited moral values anew, with some greater or lesser awareness of the relationship of these values to perception of historical time.”

“Sylvia Wygoda Gives Fascinating Account of Father’s Nazi Resistance.” Chattanoogan.com – Breaking News in Chattanooga. Chattanoogan.com, 9 Sept. 2006. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.chattanoogan.com/2006/9/9/92471/Sylvia-Wygoda-Gives-Fascinating-Account.aspx>. “Sylvia Wygoda…told the Chattanooga Civitan Club she never learned her father’s [Hermann Wygoda] heroic role in fighting the Nazis until after his death.”

Thomsett, Michael C. The German Opposition to Hitler: The Resistance, the Underground, and Assassination Plots, 1938-1945. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1997. Print. “Between 1933 and 1945, more than 500,000 non-Jewish German civilians were imprisoned for so-called political crimes. Most of the resistance was, therefore, underground–within the religious, political, civilian, and even military communities.”

“Towards a New History of German Resistrance to Hitler.” Rev. of Towards a New History of German Resistance to Hitler, by Leonidas E. Hill. Central European History (1981): 369+. EBSCOhost. Web. 16 Apr. 2011.

Trommler, Frank. “Between Normality and Resistance: Catastrophic Gradualism in Nazi Germany.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S82. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “The Nazi regime’s creation of states of exception is intrinsically related to its obsession with normality, its manifold strategies for normalizing the exceptional.”

Vaughan, Hal. Doctor to the Resistance: The Heroic True Story of an American Surgeon and His Family in Occupied Paris. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 2004. Print. “The Jackson story is an amazing tale of self-sacrifice under unimaginable conditions, of danger, privation, arrest and slavery.”

Vinde, Victor. “The Spirit of Resistance.” Foreign Affairs 21.1 (1942): 59-70. JSTOR. Web. 3 Apr. 2011. “Only slowly and gradually, when it became apparent that Germans had no intention of treating France as a free and independent country, did French resistance begin to take shape.”

Von Klemperer, Klemens. German Resistance against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad, 1938-1945. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994. Print. This book “uncovers the beliefs and activities of numerous individuals who fought against Nazism within Germany, and traces their many efforts to forge alliances with Hitler’s opponents outside the Third Reich.”

Von Klemperer, Klemens. “”What Is the Law That Lies behind These Words?” Antigone’s Question and the German Resistance against Hitler.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S102. JSTOR. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. “There are no set guidelines for resistance. Wherever and whenever it occurs, it marks a departure from established canons of law and ethics and a plunge into a realm of the uncertain and unknown.”

Von Schlabrendorff, Fabian. “Our Two Tries to Kill Hitler.” Saturday Evening Post 20 July 1946. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. The author gives an account of “the long, secret plotting of the German resistance movement to overthrow Hitler.”

Watkinson, Simon. “Taking the Fight to the Germans.” The Connexion – The Newspaper for English-Speakers in France. Nov. 2010. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.connexionfrance.com/expatriate-news-article.php?art=1206>. “Major John Farmer was parachuted into France as an agent of the Special Operations Executive in 1944 to help train the Resistance in the Auvergne to target the German invaders. He tells Simon Watkinson of his experiences.”

Wolfgram, Mark A. “Blood and Redemption: German Collective Memory of Elite Resistance against the Nazis.” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 35.1 (2007): 63-84. JSTOR. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. “This article advances collective memory scholarship by examining ways in which changes in societal representations are tied to changes in mass perceptions and expectations.”

Wright, Gordon. “Reflections on the French Resistance (1940-1944).” Political Science Quarterly 77.3 (1962): 336-349. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “If France since the Second World War has shown some remarkably healthy trends, some signs of vigorous self-renewal, they are to be traced for the most part … to the men, the ideals, the durable myth of the durable myth of the wartime resistance.”

Yglesias, Matthew. “The Real German Resistance to Hitler: The Social Democrats.” ThinkProgress.org. Center for American Progress Action Fund, 20 Feb. 2009. Web. 1 Oct. 2011. <http://thinkprogress.org/yglesias/2009/02/20/191828/the_read_german_resistance_to_hitler_the_social_democrats/>. “There was very real German resistance to Hitler. It just didn’t come from the army or other elements of the German conservative establishment. And it wasn’t able to stop anything in 1939 or 1944 because it had already been crushed. The opposition came primarily from the German Social Democratic Party. … a large swathe of the German public tried–very hard–to prevent Hitler from coming to power throughout the late 1920 and 1930s.”