World War II Documents

“Buchenwald Concentration Camp Prisoner Data Card for Symcho Dymant”

“Universal education is the most corroding and disintegrating poison that liberalism has ever invented for its own destruction.” Adolf Hitler

Atrocities and Other Conditions in Concentration Camps in Germany. Document No. 47, 79th Congress, 1st Session. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1945. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. “Report of the Committee Requested by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower through the Chief of Staff, Gen. George C. Marshall to the Congress of the United States Relative to Atrocities and Other Conditions in Concentration Camps in Germany.”

“Avalon Project – The International Military Tribunal for Germany.” Avalon Project. Yale University Law School, 2008. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <>. The International Military Tribunal for Germany Contents of The Nuremberg Trials Collection.

“Avalon Project – World War II : Documents.” Avalon Project., 2008. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <>.

“Documents on Nazism, 1919-1945 (Book Review).” Rev. of Documents on Nazism, 1919-45, by Jeremy Noakes. International Affairs 51.2 (1975): 263+. EBSCOhost. Web. 21 May 2011. “The book is divided into six parts: the Rise of Nazism, the Seizure of power, the Political Structure of the The Reich, the New Social Order, Idea and Reality, Foreign Policy 1933-39, and Germany at War 1939-45.”

“Documents of the Holocaust – Germany and Austria.” Yad Vashem: The Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority, 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <>. Part I contains primary source documents regarding the Holocaust in Germany and Austria. Poland and the Soviet Union are included in Parts I and II.

“Documents on Nazism, 1919-1945 (Book Review).” Rev. of Documents on Nazism, 1919-45, by Jeremy Noakes. International Affairs 51.2 (1975): 263+. EBSCOhost. Web. 21 May 2011. “The book is divided into six parts: the Rise of Nazism, the Seizure of power, the Political Structure of the The Reich, the New Social Order, Idea and Reality, Foreign Policy 1933-39, and Germany at War 1939-45.”

“Documents Related to World War II.” Documents Related to World War II. Mount Holyoke College, n.d. Web. 22 June 2012. <>.
64 pages of World War II documents chronologically. A great find!

Dodd, William E. “1935 Letter from William E. Dodd to FDR about William Randolph Hearst.” Letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 20 Mar. 1935. Web. 24 Mar. 2012. <>. William E. Dodd is writing to the president to give “an exact narrative of the conversation I had on March 15 with Karl von Wiegand, for more than 25 years principal correspondent of the International News Service in Central Europe.”

“Germany: National Socialism and World War II.” – EuroDocs. 29 Dec. 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <>. Primary documents from Nazi Germany.

Himmler, Heinrich. “The Complete Text of the Poznan Speech.” Speech. Secret Speech to OSS Officers. Poznan, Poland. 4 Oct. 1943. Holocaust History Project, 4 Mar. 2004. Web. 24 Mar. 2012. <>. “Himmler is finishing talking about weapons factories. He is about to remind his officers of the loyalty he expects in their extermination of the Jews.”

“Holocaust Documents.” A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust. Florida Center for Instructional Technology. Web. 30 Mar. 2012. <>. “Many educators appreciate the value of using primary source materials in the classroom. The documents selected for this section provide many possibilities for classroom discussion or student activities.”

The Jaeger Report: A Chronicle of Nazi Mass Murder: One Unit, One Area, Five Months – and 137,000 Victims. Rep. Holocaust History Project. Holocaust-history. Web. 24 Mar. 2012. <>. “Among all Nazi documents detailing dastardly acts of mass murder and other atrocities, the ‘Jaeger Report’ is one of the most horrifying. After his arrest by the German Police, the former SS-Standartenfuehrer Karl Jaeger defended himself by stating: ‘I was always a person with a heightened sense of duty.’”

“News Directive on Reporting the Concentration Camps.” BBC News Archive. BBC. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. <>. 19th April 1945. From the Director of European News Department. “There has never been a greater opportunity than there is now to reveal to the the world the essential truth about Nazism — Buchenwald and Belson.”

Operation Reinhard Secrecy Oath. 18 July 1942. Participants in Operation Reinhard had to swear an oath of secrecy. The oath is reproduced and translated. “Signed Obligation by SS Men Taking Part In an Extermination Operation To Observe Secrecy July 18, 1942.”

Rauff, Walter. “…ninety-seven Thousand Have Been Processed…” Letter to Walter Just. 5 June 1942. The Holocaust History Project. Web. 24 Mar. 2012. <>. “This letter, sent by Willy Just to Walter Rauff on June 5, 1942, describes in great detail the “Spezialwagen” (special vans) and their operation in the gassing murders of thousands.”

Some Documents Relevant to Germany’s Invasion of Poland and Response to Great Britain’s Ultimatum. Rep. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. <>. Documents include proclamations and an address by Adolf Hitler, and communication from the German Government to the British Government.

United States. Cong. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Punishment of War Criminals. By Samuel Rajzman. 79th Cong., 1st sess. Cong. Rept. Washington, DC: GPO, 1945. Holocaust History Project, 10 Mar. 2009. Web. 24 Mar. 2012. <>. Samuel Rajzman is one of the very few survivors of the Treblinka death camp – he was lucky enough to escape. The testimony he gave, more than 60 years ago, is still important to understand the enormity of the crimes committed in that death camp and in the Final Solution. Before the war he was employed in the Miedzyrzecki Overseas Import & Export Company in Warsaw. His account, given before the American House Committee on Foreign Affairs in 1945, follows.

Wetzel, Dr. Erhard. “Vergasungsapparate” – “Gassing Devices.” Letter to Heinrich Lohse. Reich Commissar for the East. 25 Oct. 1941. The Holocaust History Project. Web. 24 Mar. 2012. <>. “This letter, marked Secret, is thus one of the important links in the chain leading directly from the murder by gas of mentally and physically handicapped German citizens to the murder by gas of Jews behind the Eastern Front. It is especially valuable because, unlike most communications regarding the Final Solution, it refers to gassing using that word, rather than a euphemism.”

Wiesenthal Center Annual Report Points to Lack of Political Will and Holocaust Distortion as Major Obstacles to Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals; Praises Hungary for Indictment of Dr. Sandor Kepiro; Three New Names on Center’s “Most Wanted”. Rep. Wiesenthal Center. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. <>. “Jerusalem – The Simon Wiesenthal Center today released the initial findings of its tenth Annual Status Report on the Worldwide Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals, which covers the period from April 1, 2010 until March 31, 2011 and awarded grades ranging from A (highest) to F to evaluate the efforts and results achieved by more than three dozen countries which were either the site of Nazi crimes or admitted Holocaust perpetrators after World War II.”

Religion and the Third Reich

“Hitler meeting the Catholic nuncio to Germany on January 1, 1935.”

“Heaven will smile on us again.” Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

“[I]t has become abundantly clear that [the Churches'] failure to respond to the horrid events … was not due to ignorance; they knew what was happening. Ultimately, the Churches’ lapses during the Nazi era were lapses of vision and determination.” Victoria J. Barnett, “The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation.”

“Adolf Hitler, Nazi Germany: Christian Nationalism, Christian Anti-Semitism, Anti-Communism.” Agnosticism / Atheism – Skepticism & Atheism for Atheists & Agnostics. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <>. “The Nazis and Adolf Hitler are commonly thought of as representing the antithesis of Christianity and Christian values. If that’s true, why did tens of millions of German Christians adore Hitler, join the Nazis, and participate in the Holocaust (among other atrocities)? Hitler and the Nazis promoted a Christian nationalism, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, and return to traditional values which most Christians appreciated. The Nazi party platform specifically endorsed ‘positive’ Christianity.” Bibliography.

Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford UP, 1992. Print. “The book offers a thorough and insightful picture of the churches in Nazi Germany.”

Brown-Fleming, Suzanne. The Holocaust and Catholic Conscience: Cardinal Aloisius Muench and the Guilt Question in Germany, 1946-1959. Univ. of Notre Dame, 2006. Print. “In this meticulously documented and morally sensitive study, Brown-Fleming shows that evading all Catholic responsibility for Nazi Germany’s crimes often was the other side of unbroken postwar Catholic anti-Jewish hostility.”

Cline, Austin. “Catholic Complicity in Nazism, Anti-Liberal Ideologies (Book Notes: Catholic Theologians).” Agnosticism / Atheism – Skepticism & Atheism for Atheists & Agnostics., 6 Oct. 2006. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>. “There were lots of reasons why Catholic leaders should have opposed Hitler and the Nazis and this makes people wonder why they bent over backwards to accommodate the Nazis. What people need to understand is that there were also lots of reasons why Catholics and other conservative Christians wanted to work with the Nazis.”

Cline, Austin. “Christians on Hitler & Nazis: Quotes from Christians Supporting Hitler – German Catholics & Protestants Praised, Supported Hitler as a Gift from God.” Agnosticism / Atheism. New York Times. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <>. “American Christians seem to be completely unaware of the degree to which Christians in Germany threw their support behind the Nazi Party.”

Cline, Austin. “Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust.” Agnosticism / Atheism. New York Times. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <>. Review of Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust, by Daniel Jonah Golhagen.

Cline, Austin. “Nazis: Slave Labor in the Church.” Need. Know. Accomplish., 10 Apr. 2008. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <>. “Most people familiar with the history of World War II and the Nazi regime are aware of how large numbers of slave laborers from eastern regions were brought back to Germany and forced to work in various industries. What not so many people are aware of, though, is the fact that the Catholic Church took advantage of some of this free, slave labor: nearly 6,000 were forced to work for the church as gardeners, grave diggers, hospital orderlies, etc.”

Cline, Austin. “Pope Benedict XVI: Sins of Omission.” Agnosticism / Atheism. New York Times. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <>. “Has Pope Benedict XVI been completely honest about his past? The facts suggest that he hasn’t – that his activities in Nazi Germany went a bit further than what he has thus far said.”

Cline, Austin. “Under His Very Windows: The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy,” by Susan Zuccotti.” Agnosticism / Atheism. New York Times. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <>. Review of Under His Very Windows: The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy, by Susan Zuccott.

Cline, Austin. “Was Pope Benedict XVI (Joseph Ratzinger) A Nazi? Why Join the Hitler Youth?” Need. Know. Accomplish. New York Times. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <>. The author questions Joseph Ratzinger’s involvement with Nazi Germany.” Ratzinger has been less than fully candid about his past.”

“Cybrary of the Holocaust: Learning Links.” Holocaust Cybrary Remembering the Stories of the Survivors – Cybary of the Holocaust. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. <>. “Holocaust Community founded in 1995 to Remember, Zachor, Sich Erinnern. offers contributors (survivors, liberators, historians, and teachers ) a place to connect and share the best research resources and stories through art, photography, painting, audio/video, and remembrance.”

Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust and Its Unfulfilled Duty of Repair. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print. A “penetrating moral inquiry into the Catholic Church’s role in the Holocaust.”

Hammond, Alan L. “Propaganda, Fear Lead to Holocaust.” Suite 101. Com. 17 Feb. 2007. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. <>. “Sentiments of renowned, popular Germans bring racial hatred to Jews.”

The Holocaust History Project. 6 June 2011. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. <>. “The Holocaust History Project is a free archive of documents, photographs, recordings, videos and essays regarding the Holocaust, including direct refutation of Holocaust-denial.”

Humber, Paul G. “Hitler’s Evolution Versus Christian Resistance.” The Institute for Creation Research. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <>. The Institute for Creation Research claims that Hitler’s agenda met with Christian opposition.

Kimel, Alexander. “Holocaust Educational Digest – A. Kimel, Holocaust Survivor.” Holocaust Understanding and Prevention by Alexander Kimel. Alexander Kimel. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. <>. Alexander Kimel, a Holocaust survivor, has written many articles about the different aspects of the Holocaust, including its victims, survivors etc.

Mason, John B. “The Concordat with the Third Reich.” The Catholic Historical Review 20.1 (1934): 23-37. JSTOR. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. The Concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich under Hitler (1933) is examined. “The present study aims to examine certain provisions of the Reich Concordat which affect most the Church-State relationship, viz., those dealing with Catholic education and organization, priests in politics, the appointment of bishops, papal and episcopal liberty of communication, and the settlement of disputes arising over provisions of the Concordat.”

Mengus, Raymond. “Dietrich Bonhoeffer and the Decision to Resist.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S134-146. JSTOR. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. A discussion of “resistance with respect of Hitler’s dictatorship” and an examination of “Bonhoeffer’s motivations for taking part in the resistance against National Socialism.”

Phayer, Michael. “Questions about Catholic Resistance.” Church History 70.02 (2001): 328-44. JSTOR. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. “After the war was over leading Catholic laity and the lower clergy pointed their finger at their bishops, faulting them for no having the backbone and willpower to stand up to Hitler. Was this fair?” YES! “Crossing over the line of respectable warnings to courageous, outspoken protest was more than the German bishops could manage.”

Phayer, Michael. The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930-1965. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000. Print. “This book is an indispensable resource for anyone who seeks to understand one of the most tragically painful episodes in the entire history of Jewish-Christian relations.”

Phayer, Michael. “Totalitarianism: Questions about Catholic Resistance.” Church History 70.02 (2001): 328-44. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “Was there no Catholic resistance to Hitler himself and to his aggressive, unjust wars? Here is where the official church failed most conspicuously.”

Schroth, Raymond A. “Bonhoeffer Was Wrong.” National Catholic Reporter (Jan. 27, 2006): 15. Web. 2012. The author, who was not there, disagrees with Bonhoeffer.

Spicer, Kevin P. Hitler’s Priests: Catholic Clergy and National Socialism. DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 2008. Print. “Hitler’s Priests will contribute to the much debated argument of the level of Catholic Church resistance, conformity, and accommodation to the Nazi regime. Spicer’s use of archival materials is almost superhuman.”

Spicer, Kevin P. Resisting the Third Reich: The Catholic Clergy in Hitler’s Berlin. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois UP, 2004. Print. Nazism “provided—indeed demanded—a total way of life, encompassing rituals and social belonging, personal identity and charismatic leadership, moral values and a sense of purpose. In a word, it was a religion.”

Stieg, Margaret. “Catholic Libraries and Public Libraries in the Third Reich: A Reciprocal Relationship.” The Catholic Historical Review 77.2 (1991): 235-59. JSTOR. Web. 18 Jan. 2012. “By the time of the Nazi takeover a strong system of Catholic public libraries existed in Germany, concentrated in the predominantly Catholic areas of the Reich, Bavaria, Baden, the Rhineland, and Silesia. In 1933 the two Catholic library organizations, … had a total of 4,880 libraries that held over 5 million volumes and had lent more than 10 million volumes in the preceding year.”

Streich, Michael. “Humani Generis Unitas and the Jews: An Opportunity to Avert Genocide May Have Been Lost in 1939.” Suite 101: History/Philosophy Books., 29 Oct. 2008. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. <>. “History may never know how the Nazis would have reacted if the encyclical [Humani Generis Unitas] was promulgated at the height of growing Jewish persecution in the Third Reich in early 1939.”

Streich, Michael. “The Holocaust, Nazism, and Rewriting History.” Suite 101 Media Inc. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. < rewriting-history-a109376>. “Catholic and Protestant misrepresentations of the Past”

Van Suawn, Henry P. “The Church Did It.” Saturday Evening Post. Academic Search Premier, 20 Jan. 1944. Web. 2012. The author claims that the church “is the only unintimidated voice of truth, the only unshattered champion of the oppressed and persecuted.” After the War many Germans and other WWII survivors disagreed with this.

Wall, Donald D. “The Confessing Church and Hitler’s Foreign Policy: The Czechoslovakian Crisis of 1938.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion XLIV.3 (1976): 423-38. JSTOR. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. The Confessing Church’s “service set a precedent … instead of proclaiming the righteousness of Germany’s cause … Muller confessed Germany’s sins.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Going to Mass on Sunday and Killing on Monday.” 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <>. “Both ordinary Germans and their local helpers in France, Slovakia, Croatia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania and elsewhere managed to reconcile the persecution and mass murder of Jews with their religion and morality.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Membership-in-the-Nazi-Party—Is-That-OK,-Father?” Ezine. 22 July 2010. Web. 8 May 11.<,_Father.html>. “Even if the [Catholic] church cared about democracy, it would not have lifted the ban [against the Nazis] unless it thought that it was the right thing to do.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Official Church Publications: What Did the Church Have to Say?” 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <>. “Both L’Osservatore and Civilta Cattolica had a horrible and long record of publishing antisemitic rants.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Pius XII to Roosevelt: Please Spare Us.” 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <>. Pope Pius XII wrote a letter begging President Roosevelt to spare Rome from Allied bombing.

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Was Pope Pius XII a Saint?” 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <>. Pope Pius XII’s inactions contributed to the murder of six million Jews.

Zerner, Ruth. “Dietrich Bonhoeffer and the Jews: Thoughts and Actions, 1935-1945.” Jewish Social Studies 37.3/4 (2011): 235-50. JSTOR. Web. 31 May 2011. “Bonhoeffer’s scattered observations about Jews and Jewish experiences, problematic passages, ambiguities, and contradictions.”

Holocaust, Jews #1

“Synagogue of Siegen, Germany, in flames during Kristallnacht (Nov. 9/10 1938)” 

“For the dead and the living, we must bear witness. For not only are we responsible for the memories of the dead, we are also responsible for what we are doing with those memories.” Elie Wiesel


“At no time in history were JTA [Jewish Telegraphic Agency] correspondents more needed than during the 12 long years of the Hitler regime. The JTA reported on the persecution and then the annihilation of Europe’s Jews, often providing the first, and sometimes the only reports on the unfolding Holocaust. And at no time did its correspondents face more peril to the livelihood and lives.” The dates on JTA articles are highlighted in red.


“1,800,000 Jews Killed in Poland Up to May of 1943, Polish Government Announces.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 July 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “More than 1,800,000 Jews had been exterminated by the Nazi occupation authorities in Poland up to May 1, 1943, Wladyslaw Banaczyk, Minister for Home Affairs in the new Polish Cabinet, announced here today on the basis of reports reaching his Government from Polish underground groups. These same reports reveal that 1,400,000 Poles were murdered in the same period, Mr. Banaczyk stated.”

“95,000 Dutch Jews Murdered by the Germans, Official Netherlands Radio Reports.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 5 July 1945. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <>.

Ainsztein, Reuben. Jewish Resistance in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe: With a Historical Survey of the Jew as Fighter and Soldier in the Diaspora. London: Elek, 1974. Print. The author “presents a radically new account of Jews in history, showing them … at all times to have included their share of fighters possessed of a spirit of active resistance.”

“Armed Resistance Against Deportation of Jews in Slovakia, Official Report Says.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 17 June 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “Armed resistance was offered by the populations in a number of townships in Slovakia in an attempt to prevent the deportation of Jews, it is reported in a survey prepared here by the Czechoslovakian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.”

“Avoid Mistakes of Reich Jews, Einstein Warns.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 Feb. 1935. Web. 1 Mar. 2012. <>. “A warning that the Jews must learn a lesson from the Jewish situation in Germany was sounded at the Hotel Commodore yesterday by Professor Albert Einstein at a reception in his honor.”.

Bart, Michael, and Laurel Corona. Until Our Last Breath: A Holocaust Story of Love and Partisan Resistance. New York: St. Martin’s, 2008. Print. “Michael Bart’s portrayal of his parents’ marriage and survival in the Vilna ghetto and of their lives as partisan fighters, is a meaningful memorial to a great Jewish community.”

Bauer, Yehuda, and Nili Keren. A History of the Holocaust. New York: F. Watts, 1982. Print. This book “will serve to open one’s eye and mind the devastation and terror that can lie just beyond the point of human frailty.”

“BBC – Archive – WWII: Witnessing the Holocaust – Buchenwald Concentration Camp.” BBC – Archive – WWII. BBC. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <>. “Reporter Edward Ward files his account of entering one of the earliest built and biggest of the Nazi concentration camps, sharing everything that he saw and heard.” Audio report. Similar videos are available on this site.

“BBC – Archive – WWII: Witnessing the Holocaust – News Directive on Reporting the Concentration Camps.” BBC – Archive – WWII. BBC. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <>. This 1945 directive discusses “the importance of disseminating news on the liberated concentration camps.” Written document 1945.

“BBC – Archive – WWII: Witnessing the Holocaust – Personal Accounts of Persecution and Genocide by the Nazi Regime.” BBC – Archive – WWII. BBC. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <>. “These programmes and documents chart the reactions and personal testimonies of some of those who witnessed the Nazis’ ‘Final Solution.’”

“BBC NEWS | Europe | Israel Recognises ‘new Schindler.’” BBC News – Home. 29 Apr. 2005. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <>. “A German army officer [Karl Plagge] who saved hundreds of Jews from the Nazi Holocaust in Lithuania has been honoured at a ceremony in Israel.”

Beinin, Joel. “Nazis and Spies: Representations of Jewish Espionage and Terrorism in Egypt.” Jewish Social Studies 2.3 (1996): 54-84. JSTOR. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. “The Nazi mass murder of European Jews established the standard vocabulary, rhetorical frame and social experience for assessing all subsequent threats, potential or actual, to any Jewish community, includng the Jews of Egypt.”

Berenbaum, Michael, and Arnold Kramer. The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2006. Print. This book “is a skillfully organized and clearly told account of the German Holocaust that consumed, with unparalleled malevolence, six million Jews and millions of innocent others.”

“Bibliography & Bookstore – Jewish History.” Jewish Virtual Library – Homepage. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>.

Black, Edwin. “1941: When Iraqi Jews Got Butchered as Hitler Fought to Meet His Oil Needs.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 Oct. 2004. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <>. “[T]he Jews of Baghdad found themselves caught between Hitler’s master plan to dominate Europe and the Arab-Jewish conflict in Palestine. At stake was the oil Hitler needed to succeed. That day in 1941, on the Jewish festival of Shavuot, the sight of Jews returning from the Baghdad airport to greet the returning Regent Abdul al-Ilah, ruler of Iraq, was all the excuse an Iraqi mob needed to unleash its vengeance.”

Bowman, Steven. “Jews in Wartime Greece.” Jewish Social Studies 48.1 (1986): 45-62. JSTOR. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. This essay is concerned with “the tragic decline and destruction of the various Greek Jewish communities during the 1940s in the wake of the German invasion.”

Breitman, Richard. “Plans for the Final Solution in Early 1941.” German Studies Review 17.3 (1994): 483-93. Print. There is a debate among historians about whether “the Nazi regime had long planned or hastily improvised the Holocaust.”

Bronner, Ethan. “From Overseas Visitors, a Growing Demand to Study the Holocaust.” New York Times. 14 Feb. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <>. “The students were spared nothing. There were sessions on Nazi disputes over how to murder the Jews; propaganda art in the Third Reich; encounters with survivors; a history of anti-Semitism; the dilemmas faced by leaders of the Jewish ghetto councils. Yad Vashem puts on 70 seminars a year for groups of visiting educators. It was just what one might expect from a 10-day seminar at Yad Vashem, Israel’s Holocaust memorial and museum.”

Browning, Christopher R. “Nazi Resettlement Policy and the Search for a Solution to the Jewish Question, 1939-1941.” German Studies Review 9.3 (1986): 497-519. JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. “Hitler spoke about the ‘annihilation of the Jews’ years before the Holocaust, believing firmly in a ‘Jewish conspiracy’ that controlled world events.”

Buergenthal, Thomas. A Lucky Child: A Memoir of Surviving Auschwitz as a Young Boy. New York: Little, Brown, 2009. Print. The author was a prisoner at Nazi concentration and death camps for several years as a child. “Thomas managed [without parents] by his wits and some remarkable strokes of luck to survive Auschwitz and the infamous death march.” This book “demonstrates the sheer force of will and determination that even the youngest victims of the Holocaust evinced.”

Bulow, Louis. “The Rescue of the Danish Jews.” Holocaust Remembrance, Sanctuary, and Tribute to Survivors. Holocaust Survivors’ Network, 2004. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>. “This is one of the great untold stories of World War II: In 1943, in the German occupied Denmark, the Danes find out that all 7,500 Danish Jews are about to be rounded up and deported to German death camps. The Danish people make their own decision: it’s not going to happen …” Preben Munch-Nielsen and Knud Dyby are profiled.

Carmel, Philip. “Belgium Examines Its WWII Record.” JTA – Jewish & Israel News. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 21 Oct. 2004. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <>. “The Center for Historical Research and Documentation on War and Contemporary Society — a government body [in Belgium] known by its French acronym Ceges — began examining the wartime files of various government agencies. The study follows a Senate bill in 2002 that said Belgium should take a hard look at its past and “establish the facts and possible responsibilities of Belgian authorities in the deportation of Jews” during the Nazi occupation from 1940-1944.”

“Chiune (Sempo) Sugihara.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <>. “In the summer of 1940, when refugees came to him with bogus visas for Curacao and other Dutch possessions in America, Sugihara decided to facilitate their escape from war-torn Europe. In the absence of clear instructions from Tokyo, he granted 10-day visas for transit through Japan to hundreds of refugees who held Curacao destination visas. Before closing his consulate in the fall of 1940, Sugihara even gave visas to refugees who lacked all travel papers.”

Cohen, Roger. “‘The Suffering Olympics’” New York Times. 30 Jan. 2012. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <>. “The ‘double genocide’ wars that pit Stalin’s crimes against Hitler’s are raging in wide swathes of Europe and every now and again along comes a gust from the past to stoke them. The 70th anniversary … of the Nazi adoption at Wannsee of annihilation plans for the Jews provided one such squall.”

“Coming of Age Now | Home.” Coming of Age | Home. Museum of Jewish Heritage, 2010. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>. “Coming of Age features twelve stories of Holocaust survivors and one story of an individual who grew up in the Mandate of Palestine during the same period.”

Cope, Dorian. “Heroes of the Holocaust – The Jews Revolt Against the Nazis at Treblinka.” Ezine Articles., 2 Aug. 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. <—The-Jews-Revolt-Against-the-Nazis-at-Treblinka&id=4782162>. Jewish prisoners planned and executed the Treblinka Revolt on August 2, 1943.

Cummings, Denis. “On This Day: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Begins.” FindingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources. FindingDulcinea, 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. <–Warsaw-Ghetto-Uprising-Begins.html>. “On April 19, 1943, Jews living in the Warsaw ghetto launched a revolt against the German SS that would take weeks to suppress. It was the largest Jewish act of resistance during the Holocaust.”

The Danish Solution. Dir. Karen Kantor. Perf. Garrison Keillor. Garden Thieves Pictures, 2003. DVD. When Hitler threatened Denmark’s Jews, the community arose overnight to save them. Danes from all levels of society stood up to the German might at a time when most of Europe turned a blind eye. Together they hid over 7,000 people and sailed them to safety in neutral Sweden.

“Denmark Resists Nazi Efforts to Introduce Anti-jewish Laws.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 21 Jan. 1942. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <>. “Efforts by the Nazi authorities in Denmark to force anti-Jewish laws upon the population there are meeting with stiff resistance on the part of the Danish press and church leaders there, according to reports reaching here today.”

“The Deportation of Austrian and German Jews.” Jewish Virtual Library – Homepage. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <>. “Tens of thousands of Jews from Germany and Austria were deported to the Lublin district at the end of 1939/beginning of 1940, and, on a smaller scale, in the years following.”

Dickinson, John K. German & Jew: The Life and Death of Sigmund Stein. Chicago: I.R. Dee, 2001. Print. The story of Sigmund Stein, proud German lawyer. “The torment of his Jewish heritage and his proud German upbringing–the loyalties of a lifetime–was finally resolved in Auschwitz.”

Donat, Alexander. Death Camp Treblinka: A Documentary. [S.l.]: Schocken, 1987. Print. “This book is a compilation of six eyewitness accounts from Treblinka escapees, an English translation of Rachel Auerbach’s investigation, and description of the 1960′s trails of Treblinka Nazis in West Germany. Editor Donat notes that the West German government was very slow in locating and prosecuting these Nazi criminals, and then did it halfheartedly and leniently.”

Eckman, Lester Samuel., and Litai Chaim Lazar. The Jewish Resistance: The History of the Jewish Partisans in Lithuania and White Russia during the Nazi Occupation, 1940-1945. New York: Shengold, 1977. Print. A “history of Jewish men, women and children from Lithuania and White Russia, who fought valiantly and courageously as partisans in the Second World War.”

Edelheit, Abraham J., and Hershel Edelheit. History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder: Westview, 1994. Print. “A concise overview of Jewish history during the Nazi era, a comprehensive Holocaust glossary, and a tabular and graphic presentation of applicable information.” Includes a chapter on Jewish resistance.

“Eichmann Found Guilty; Reading of Judgment to Conclude Tomorrow.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. JTA Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 12 Dec. 1961. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <>. “Israel’s three-man District Court here, which tried Adolf Eichmann on a 15-count indictment, today found the ex-Nazi guilty on all counts. The verdict was unanimous. … Eichmann had been charged specifically with crimes against the Jewish people, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and membership in organizations declared ‘criminal’ by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1946.”

Eisner, Peter. “Saving the Jews of Nazi France.” History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institute, Mar. 2009. Web. 08 Oct. 2011. <>. “As Jews in France tried to flee the Nazi occupation, Harry Bingham, an American diplomat, sped them to safety.”

Epstein, Helen. Children of the Holocaust: Conversations with Sons and Daughters of Survivors. New York: Putnam, 1979. Print. “The ground-breaking book on inter-generational trauma and families of Holocaust survivors, with a bibliography by Dr. Eva Fogelman.”

“The Fate of the Jews of Denmark.” Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. <>. When Hitler declared a “final solution” for Danish Jews, no German carried out the Fuhrer’s order. Most of the Danish Jews were saved. “No rescue would have been possible if the bulk of the Danish nation had not been sympathetic and a very large number or ordinary people disposed to risk their lives out of common charity.”

“Fighting Hitler: A Holocaust Story.” Scholastic Scope. MasterFILE Premier, 18 Apr. 2011. Web. 24 May 2011. “This article presents the story of Ben Kamm, one of the Jewish teens who fought against dictator Adolf Hitler and the Nazis during World War II in Germany.”

Film about Briton Who Saved Jewish Children Premiers. Dir. Matej Minac. Film. The Jerusalem Post, 24 April. 2012. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. <>. “Sir Nicholas Winton arranged 8 trains to carry 669 children, mostly Jewish, from Czechoslovakia to Britain at the outbreak of World War II.”

Fleming, Gerald. Hitler and the Final Solution. Berkeley: University of California, 1984. Print. The author “concludes not only that Hitler deliberately designed and personally ordered the Final Solution, but also that his role was purposefully disguised so that it could not be readily traced.”

Ford, Sarah. “Jersey’s Oskar Schindler.” BBC – News. 17 June 2000. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <>. Israel has bestowed “its highest honour on a man from Jersey, Albert Bedane, who has been posthumously named Righteous Among the Nations for his bravery – just as Schindler was.”

“Fraktur: Bormann Typeface Decree – English.” Learn German. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <>. The Bormann Decree banned the use of the Fraktur typeface because it was “Jewish.” The letterhead of this decree was in the banned typeface.

“French War Prisoner Describes Mass Execution of Jews in Poland by Nazis.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 24 Nov. 1943. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <>. “The mass executions of hundreds of Jews from Germany and Nazi-occupied countries in a public square in the city of Tarnopol, in the Ukraine, was described here today by a young French war prisoner who recently succeeded in escaping to Sweden from a German prison camp in Prussia.”

Friedman, Jeanette. “Survivors Who Dared to Resist.” JTA – Jewish & Israel News. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 8 Nov. 2007. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <>. In “Daring to Resist: Jewish Defiance in the Holocaust,” the catalog that accompanies the exhibit of the same name, the director of the Museum of Jewish Heritage-A Living Memorial to the Holocaust here puts into print the question on everyone’s lips when the survivors were liberated. “Context is everything,” David Marwell writes. “In trying to understand the study of Jewish resistance during the Holocaust, this dictum becomes especially critical.”

Friedman, Philip. “The Jewish Ghettos of the Nazi Era.” Jewish Social Studiies 16.1 (1964): 61-88. JSTOR. Web. “This article deals with the activities of the Nazi agencies set up for the purpose of confining the Jews to ghettos as a step towards genocide.”

Gercke, Achim, and Johann Von Leers. “Two 1933 Nazi Articles on the Jews.” Calvin College – Minds In The Making. Calvin College: German Propaganda Archive, 2007. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <>. “This page provides two April 1933 articles about how to solve the “Jewish Question,” taken from the Nazi Party’s theoretical journal. Both propose a “Zionist” solution to the “Jewish Question,” though von Leers explicitly rejects a Jewish state in Palestine.”

Gerlach, Christian. “The Wannsee Conference, the Fate of German Jews, and Hitler’s Decision in Principle to Exterminate All European Jews.” The Journal of Modern History 70.4 (1998): 759-812. JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. Eberhard Jackel wrote “The most remarkable thing about the meeting at Wannsee … is that we do not know why it took place.” The author says he “will attempt to show that, despite all the attention paid to it, the significance of the Wannsee Conference of January 20, 1942, has not been fully appreciated.”

“German Data Reveals 1,071,600 Polish Jews Transported to Extermination Camps.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 6 Jan. 1944. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <>. “Official statistics of the German Railways operating in occupied Poland reveal that 1,071,600 doomed Jews were transported to Treblinka, Belzetz and other ‘extermination camps’ during the year beginning April 1, 1942 and ending March 31, 1943.”

“Gestapo Agrees to Release Jews from Camps; 1,200 Reach Switzerland; More Due Today.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. JTA Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 9 Feb. 1945. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <>. “One of the most fantastic feats of rescue of Jewish internees from German concentration camps has been accomplished by a group of twenty orthodox Swiss Jews who sent Jean M. Musy, a former member of the Swiss Federal Council, to Gestapo chief Heinrich Himmler in order to negotiate with him concerning the fate of Jews remaining in Germany.”

Good, Michael. The Search for Major Plagge: The Nazi Who Saved Jews. New York: Fordham UP, 2005. Print. “Karl Plagge’s story is of a unique kind of courage–that of a German army officer who subverted the system of death to save the lives of some 250 Jews in Vilna, Lithuania. One of those he saved was Michael Good’s mother.”

Grobman, Cary. “A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust Site Map.” A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust. Florida Center for Instructional Technology, 2005. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <>. This is the exhaustive teacher’s guide to the Holocaust, including 57 sections on everything about the Holocaust.

Grobman, Gary. “The Holocaust–A Guide for Teachers.” Holocaust Cybrary Remembering the Stories of the Survivors., 1990. Web. 8 Dec. 2011. <>. This is the bibliography for a very complete instructional guide for teachers. It has 16 sections including “Resisters, Rescuers, and Bystanders.”

Gross, Leonard. The Last Jews in Berlin. New York. Simon and Schuster, 1982. Print. “A handful of men and women hunted by many, protected by few … One of the most moving stories of bravery and survival to emerge from the Holocaust.”

Gross, Tom. “Goodbye, Golden Rose.” Latest News, Sport and Comment from the Guardian | The Guardian., 2 Sept. 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <>. “Last week I watched as bulldozers began to demolish the adjacent remnants of what was once one of Europe’s most beautiful synagogue complexes, the 16th-century Golden Rose in Lviv. Most of the rest of the synagogue was burned down, with Jews inside, by the Nazis in 1941. During the war, 42 other synagogues were destroyed in Lviv …”

Hall, Robert. “Czech Evacuees Thank Their Saviour.” BBC – News -UK. 4 Sept. 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <>. “Seventy years after a British man helped them flee Czechoslovakia on the eve of WWII, a group of evacuees have retraced their journey.”

Hall, Robert. “Retracing a Life-saving Journey.” BBC – News -UK. 31 Aug. 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <>. “At home in London, Lisa Midwinter packs for a journey into her past. Four days during which she, her son, and her granddaughter will relive her childhood experiences. Four days to retrace her route out of Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia, and to meet the man [Nicholas Winton] whose actions saved her life.”

Hanging by a Thread- Reflections on Being a Jew During the Holocaust. By Dr. David Silberklang. Yadvashem, 1 Aug. 2010. Web. 28 Jan. 2012. <>. This first-rate “video is part of the series Insights and Perspectives from Holocaust Researchers and Historians.” The Nazi policies were totality, relentlessness, no exceptions, no compromises.

“Hatikva at Bergen-Belsen.” Dir. Moe Ash. Perf. Jewish Prisoners at Nazi Concentration Camp. Online. Hatikva at Bergen-Belsen. Smithsonian Center for American Folklore. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <>. In 1945 a few hundred Jewish survivors at Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp sing “Hatikva” while they are surrounded by 100,000 bodies of those who were murdered by the Nazis. The camp was liberated by the British troops of the 2nd Army. Patrick Gordon Walker is the narrator of this radio broadcast. Moe Ash made the recording. Hatikva is now Israel’s national anthem. Holocaust Era Asset Restitution Taskforce. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <>. “Welcome to the official website of Project HEART, the Holocaust Era Asset Restitution Taskforce. The purpose of Project HEART is to help individuals with restitution for property that was confiscated, looted, or forcibly sold during the era of the Shoah.”

Heller, Aron. “Eichmann Exhibit Gives Glimpse of Israel’s Mossad.” News from The Associated Press. Associated Press, 7 Feb. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <>. “Lifting a half-century veil of secrecy, Israel’s Mossad spy agency is opening its archive this week to reveal the story behind the legendary 1960 capture of Nazi mastermind Adolf Eichmann.”

Hickman, Kennedy. “Warsaw Uprising – Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.” Military History – Warfare through the Ages – Battles and Conflicts – Weapons of War – Military Leaders in History. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <>. The Warsaw Ghetto contained 300,000-400,000 people. Only 60,000-70,000 Jews remained after the rest were deported to concentration camps. The remaining Jews rebelled against the German troops until the soldiers suppressed the rebellion.

History of the Swastika. By Jennifer Rosenberg. How-to Videos: How-to and DIY Videos. Web. 28 Jan. 2012. <>. “The swastika is now most closely associated with Nazi Germany, but throughout history, it’s actually had a number of meanings as discussed in this video.

“Hitler Plans to ‘liquidate’ Warsaw Ghetto; All Jews to Be Sent to Lublin Reservation.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 03 Mar. 1942. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <>. “A plan to ‘liquidate’ the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw and to transfer all the 500,000 Jews confined there to a “reservation” in the Lublin district is now being worked out by Nazi authorities in Berlin, according to a report published in the Nazi newspaper Warschauer Zeitung which reached here today.”

“Hoess Confirms Jewish Historian’s Testimony That 1,500,000 Jews Murdered at Oswiecim.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 Mar. 1947. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “Rudolf Hoess, former commandant of the Oswiecim death camp, on trial here for murdering 4,000,000 persons many of whom were Jews, today confirmed testimony by Dr. J.M. Blumenthal, director of the Jewish Historical Commission in Poland, that approximately 1,500,000 Jews were exterminated at Oswiecim.”

The Holocaust, Crimes, Heroes and Villains. Web. 21 Dec. 2011. <>. Website dedicated to the Holocaust. Topics include Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust, Josef Mengele, Louis Bulow, Irena Sendler, Amon Goeth, Hitlers Nazi Butcher, Hell of Belzec, Schindlers List, and Treblinka, Hitler’s SS Camp, and many more.

Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 May 2011. <>. Look for the Glossary, the Glossary of terms and individuals in the Nazi Judicial system.

“Holocaust History.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 4 May 2011. <>. “For the dead and the living, we must bear witness. For not only are we responsible for the memories of the dead, we are also responsible for what we are doing with those memories.” Elie Wiesel

“The Holocaust Timeline.”–20th Century History. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <>. The Holocaust 1933-40.

“Hungarian Jews Will Be Massacred Before Entry of Russians, Budapest Papers Threaten.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 18 May 1944. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <>. “ZURICH, May. 17 (JTA) – The Jewish population of Hungary will be massacred in the ghettos into which they are now being herded, in the event that an invasion by Russian troops become imminent, pro-Nazi Budapest newspapers threaten.”

“Is the World Really Unable to Save Us?”, Asks Message from Jews in Nazi Poland.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 11 Feb. 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “Somewhere in Europe, Feb. 10 (JTA) – “Is the world really unable to save us?” asks a pathetic message, in code, from Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland, which was received here today.”

Janiewicz, Kryzysztof. “Tuvia Bielski Bandits – Part I (documents).” Mining Directory. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <>. “[T]he story of Bielski brothers wasn’t forgotten. And, they weren’t too busy to promote their story. This is not the first reference that appeared on the subject. In 1993, Oxford University Press published ‘Defiance: the Bielski Partisans’ by Nechama Tec. The account based on interviews of former partisans including Tuvia Bielski before his passing away in 1987. It includes photographs, an organizational directory of the Bielski partisan group, a biographical appendix, and a glossary of foreign terms.”

Janiewicz, Krzysztof. “Tuvia Bielski Bandits – Part II (documents).” Mining Directory. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <>. “How many more innocent people did Bielski’s partisans kill nobody really knows. It is not that hard to become ‘aggressive fighters’ against unarmed men, women and children. Most likely Bielski’s partisans were just aggressive plunderers, not aggressive fighters. Probably many more peasants lost their lives trying to defend their property. Of course in reports, they all became ‘Nazi allied fighters’ and anti-semites; the peoples Jews don’t like. This sounded better since there was no glory in murdering defenseless Polish civilians.”

“Janusz Korczak.” Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Holocaust Research Project, 2007. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. Biography of Janusz Korczak, pen name of Henryk Goldszmit, physician, writer, and educator, who wrote many books on the education of children. He, his assistants, and two hundred orphans were murdered at Treblinka. He is the author of ” Ghetto Diary.”

“Jewish Community in Slovakia Reduced from 130,000 to 25,000; Many Died As Partisans.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 31 Aug. 1945. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “More than 5,000 Jewish partisans were killed in Slovakia during the underground struggle against the Germans, it was revealed here today by Salomon Weber, President of the Slovakian Jewish Committee, in an interview with the correspondent of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency.”

Johnson, Daniel. “Goodnight, Vienna .” Jewish Ideas Daily. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>. Austrians did much damage, “to not only their Jewish citizens but themselves, when they welcomed Hitler in 1938.”

Kagan, Jack, and Dov Cohen. Surviving the Holocaust with the Russian Jewish Partisans. London: Vallentine Mitchell, 1998. Print. “Two cousins relate their experiences in war-torn Russia during the Second World War.”

Khaleeli, Homa. “I Escaped from Auschwitz.” The Guardian., 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <>. “Kazimierz Piechowski is one of just 144 prisoners to have broken out of the notorious Nazi camp and survive. Today aged 91, he tells his extraordinary story.”

Korczak, Janusz. Ghetto Diary. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 2003. Print. “Korczak was sent into the Warsaw Ghetto after the Nazi occupation of Poland. He immediately set up an orphanage for more than two hundred children. Many of his admirers, Jewish and gentile, offered to rescue him from the ghetto, but Korczak refused to leave his small charges. When the Nazis ordered the children to board a train that was to carry them to the Treblinka death camp, Korczak went with them, despite the Nazis’ offer of special treatment. His selfless behavior in caring for these children’s lives and deaths has made him beloved throughout the world.”

Kuttler, Hillel. “Seeking Kin: Man Hidden as Baby Hopes to Honor Father-rescuer.” JTA – Jewish & Israel News. Jewish Telegraph Association, 13 Jan. 2012. Web. 17 Jan. 2012. <>. Even after seven decades, Peter Nurnberger’s most basic biographical facts remain elusive. The Slovakian doesn’t know his birth date, his natural parents’ fate or whether they had any other children.”

Laqueur, Walter, and Judith Tydor Baumel-Schwartz. “German Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1945.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 13 Oct. 2011. <>. “Six years of Nazi-sponsored legislation had marginalized and disenfranchised Germany’s Jewish citizenry and had expelled Jews from the professions and from commercial life.”

Laqueur, Walter, and Judith Tydor Baumel-Schwartz. The Holocaust Encyclopedia. New Haven: Yale UP, 2001. Print. “This book reaches beyond facts and details to reveal the depths of the Holocaust experience and its aftermath.” The book has a long entry on resistance.

Laqueur, Walter. Generation Exodus: The Fate of Young Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany. Hanover, NH: Brandeis UP, Published by UP of New England, 2001. Print. “Laqueur has undertaken the daunting task of writing the collective biography of a generation unique in history: the children of the German-Jewish families who fled Germany in the 1930s”

Leff, Laurel. Buried by the Times: The Holocaust and America’s Most Important Newspaper. Cambridge [UK: Cambridge UP, 2006. Print. "Laurel Leff has written an exceptional study of the darkest failures of the 'New York Times' - it's non-coverage of the Holocaust during World War II. How could the best newspaper in the United States, perhaps in the world, under-estimate and underreport the mass killing of more than 6,000,000 Jews?"

Leff, Laurel. "Holocaust: The Holocaust from Behind Enemy Lines." JTA - Jewish News Archive. JTA Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <>. "At no time in history were JTA correspondents more needed than during the 12 long years of the Hitler regime. The JTA reported on the persecution and then the annihilation of Europe’s Jews, often providing the first, and sometimes the only, reports on the unfolding Holocaust. And at no time did its correspondents face more peril to their livelihood and lives."

Leuchter, Sara. "The Holocaust in History: Eyewitnesses to Terror." The Wisconsin Magazine of History 68.3 (1985): 204-09. JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. In 1974 the State Historical Society of Wisconsin planned an oral history project with Wisconsin survivors of the Holocaust. The 200-page "Guide to Wisconsin Survivors of the Holocaust 1983" contains biographies, tape-recorded interviews, a bibliography, a glossary, and maps.

Leuner, Heinz David. When Compassion Was a Crime: Germany's Silent Heroes, 1933-45. London: Wolff, 1966. Print. Why did ordinary, non-political Germans react to Nazi indoctrination with hatred of every Jew and person of Jewish descent?

Levi, Primo, Benedetti Leonardo. De, and Robert S. C. Gordon. Auschwitz Report. London: Verso, 2006. Print. Primo Levi's report on living conditions in Auschwitz.

"Lithuania Neglects the Memory of Its Murdered Jews." The Guardian., 29 July 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <>. "[I]ndubitable western ignorance of Soviet crimes is no excuse for neglecting the historical record of the tragedy of Lithuanian Jews. Horrible as the Soviet occupation was, the largest group of genocide victims in Lithuania were the Jews murdered by the Germans with the help of the local population. These people were, of course, Lithuanian citizens.”

Lucaire, Edward. “Holocaust: 3 Million Holocaust Victims Were Non-Jews.” Holocaust – Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust – Pictures – Stories., 2002. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <>. “The best-kept secret in the U.S. about the Holocaust is that Poland lost six million citizens or about one-fifth of its population: three million of the dead were Polish Christians, predominantly Catholic, and the other three million were Polish Jews. The second best-kept secret of the Holocaust is the greatest number of Gentile rescuers of Jews were Poles, despite the fact that only in Poland were people (and their loved ones) immediately executed if caught trying to save Jews.”

Maheshawri, Vijai. “Vilnius Remembers.” History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institute, Dec. 2004. Web. 08 Oct. 2011. <>. “In Vilnius, Lithuania, preservationists are creating a living memorial to the nation’s 225,000 Holocaust victims.”

Mallmann, Klaus-Michael, Martin Cüppers, and Krista Smith. Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine. New York: Enigma, 2010. Print. “A very important study regarding German-Arab collaboration during World War II against the Jews in the Arab world in general in Palestine in particular.’

Miller, Erin C. “Elie Wiesel Profile – Biography of a Holocaust Survivor & Bestselling Author of Night.” Bestselling Books – Reviews and Resources on Bestsellers. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. <>. Profile of Elie Wiesel, author, survivor of the concentration camps.

Miller, Erin C. “Night by Elie Wiesel.” Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <>. Review of Night, by Elie Wiesel, provides a short and moving account of Wiesel’s experience in Nazi concentration camps.

Mozes, Mendel. “1,500,000 Polish Jews Face Extinction Under Hitler – Matter of Months, Mozes Reports.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 31 Oct. 1939. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. <–matter-of-months-mozes-reports>. “Editor’s Note: Following is the first authentic, comprehensive account of the fate that has overwhelmed more than 1,500,000 Jews in the Nazi-held areas of Poland.”

“Nazi Anti-jewish Atrocities Described at Meeting in Moscow.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. JTA Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Aug. 1941. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <>. “The meeting addressed an appeal to the Jews of the world ‘to listen to the guns of Gemel and the voices of the murdered Jewish woman of Berdichev’ and to realise that the Nazis are determined to wipe out the Jewish people as a national. It called on the Jews of the world to actively participate in the fight against Hitlerism wherever they are.”

“Nazi Hunters Boost Drive to Find Aging War Criminals before They Die.” MSNBC. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <>. “The Simon Wiesenthal Center on Wednesday launched a new race against time to prosecute Nazi war criminals still alive 66 years after the end of World War II.”

“Nazi Medical Experiments.” Judaism & Jewish Life – My Jewish Learning. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <>. “A series of brutal pseudo-scientific medical experiments were performed in Nazi camps from 1939 to 1945. Approximately 7,000 Jews, Gypsies, and prisoners of war were used as human guinea pigs in these experiments, conducted by trained Nazi medical doctors.”

“Nazis Start Mass-Execution of Warsaw Jews on Passover; Victims Broadcast S.O.S.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 23 Apr. 1943. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <>. “A massacre of the last 35,000 Jews in the Warsaw ghetto was started by the Nazis on Passover with the streets of Warsaw echoing to the shots of the Nazi murderers and the shrieks of the victims, while able-bodied Jews were trying to defend themselves within the walls of the ghetto.”

“News Brief.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 20 Oct. 2008. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <>. A memorial to Holocaust hero Rosa Robota was unveiled in Sydney.”

“Noremberg Laws for Soviet Jews Seen in Reich As Part of Red-nazi Pact.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 29 Dec. 1939. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <>. “Oswald Garrison Villard, noted journalist, reported in The Nation today that ‘responsible circles in Germany’ held the belief that the Nuremberg racial laws would be applied to the Jews in Soviet Russia as part of the Soviet-Nazi agreement.”

“Nowhere to Turn: Plight of German Jews in Nazi Germany, 1933-1941.” Minnesota Humanities Council. Minnesota State University. Web. 2 June 2011. <>. Valuable website covering everything related to German Jews and the Holocaust. A bibliography and links to other websites are included.

Operation: Last Chance. Simon Wiesenthal Center, 31 Mar. 2010. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <>. “OPERATION: LAST CHANCE is a campaign to bring remaining Nazi war criminals to justice by offering financial rewards for information leading to their arrest and conviction. To date the initiative has been launched in Germany, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Romania, Austria, Croatia, and Hungary.”

Pencak Schwartz, Terese. “Holocaust – Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust.” Holocaust Forgotten. 2011. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <>. “Raised by parents who had survived the Holocaust, I heard many stories about the atrocities of this World War II horror. I learned how one of my family’s homes in Poland was burned to the ground by Nazis. I learned that my uncle was shot in the head by Nazi soldiers because his family was hiding a Jewish woman.”

“Polish “death Camp” Burnt Down by Revolting Jews, Many Flee, Underground Reports.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Sept. 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “The entire Treblinka ‘death camp’ in Poland has been burnt down by revolting Jews, according to latest reports of the uprising broadcast yesterday by the underground Polish radio SWIT. Earlier this week, the Polish Government was informed that a revolt had broken out in the camp and many buildings were set afire, but up until yesterday no further details were available. The Polish broadcaster stated that many Jews at Treblinka utilized the confusion ensuing from the conflagration to escape.”

Poznanski, Renée.+. [Waltham, Mass.]: Brandeis UP in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2001. Print. “Jews in France during World War II provides a detailed and nuanced account of Jews in both occupied and Vichy France, as well as of Jewish left in French camps.”

Poznanski, Renee. “Reflections on Jewish Resistance and Jewish Resistants in France.” Jewish Social Studies 2.1 (1995): 124-58. JSTOR. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. <>. It’s hard to define “Jewish Resistance in France” during World War II. The issues involved are examined.

“Prewar German Laws Against The Jews Timeline.” Holocaust Lest We 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2011. <>. “During the first six years of Hitler’s dictatorship, from 1933 until the outbreak of war in 1939, Jews felt the effects of more than 400 decrees and regulations that restricted all aspects of their public and private lives.”

“A Priest Bears Witness.” Moment (2011). Moment Magazine. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <>. “Father Patrick Desbois is on a mission to uncover the mass graves of nearly two million Jews. 60 years after the Holocaust, time is running out.”

Rayski, Adam. The Choice of the Jews under Vichy: Between Submission and Resistance. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame, 2005. Print. “It is France that, along with Germany, has persecuted the most Jews.”

“Resources for the Holocaust.” FindingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources. Web. 17 Jan. 2012. <>.

Rigg, Bryan Mark. Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racial Laws and Men of Jewish Descent in the German Military. Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, 2002. Print. “Contrary to conventional views, Riggs reveals that a startingly large number of German military men were classified by the Nazis as Jews or “partial-Jews.”

Ringelblum, Emanuel. Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto. New York: Schoken Books, 2006. Print. “Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto is the moving account of the horror of the Warsaw Ghetto—written by the recognized archivist and historian of the area while he lived through it. Through anecdotes, stories, and notations—some as brief as was slapped today in Zlota Street,—there emerges the agonizing, eyewitness accounts of human beings caught in the furor of senseless, unrelenting brutality. … It is a portrait of man tested by crisis, stained at times by the meanness of avarice and self-preservation, illumined more often by moments of nobility.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Hidden Children.” 20th Century History. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>. “When you look at children today, many laugh, smile, play, learn. But under the persecution and terror of the Third Reich, Jewish children could not afford these simple, childlike pleasures.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “The Holocaust – Comprehensive Resources About the Holocaust.” 20th Century History – The Holocaust. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. <>. “Whether you are just beginning to learn about the Holocaust or you are looking for more in-depth stories about the subject, this page is for you. The beginner will find a glossary, a timeline, a list of the camps, a map, and much more. Those more knowledgeable about the topic will find interesting stories about spies in the SS, detailed overviews of some of the camps, a history of the yellow badge, medical experimentation, and much more.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Sobibor – Life and Death in the Sobibor Death Camp.” 20th Century History. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. <>. “The Sobibor Death Camp was one of the Nazis’ best kept secrets. When Toivi Blatt, one of the very few survivors of the camp, approached a ‘well-known survivor of Auschwitz’ in 1958 with a manuscript he had written about his experiences, he was told, ‘You have a tremendous imagination. I’ve never heard of Sobibor and especially not of Jews revolting there.’ The secrecy of the Sobibor death camp was too successful – its victims and survivors were being disbelieved and forgotten.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “The Holocaust – Comprehensive Resources About the Holocaust.” 20th Century History – The Holocaust. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. <>. “Whether you are just beginning to learn about the Holocaust or you are looking for more in-depth stories about the subject, this page is for you. The beginner will find a glossary, a timeline, a list of the camps, a map, and much more. Those more knowledgeable about the topic will find interesting stories about spies in the SS, detailed overviews of some of the camps, a history of the yellow badge, medical experimentation, and much more.”

Schleunes, Karl A. The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi Policy toward German Jews ; 1933 – 1939. [London]: Deutsch, 1972. Print. “The Nazis had a ‘peculiar genius’ for ignoring reality” … “and for acting upon totally illusory premises in their first five years.”

Schwartz, Terese P. “Half of These Holocaust Victims Were Non-Jewish.” Holocaust – Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust – Pictures – Stories. Holocaust Forgotten, 2008. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. <>. “On August 22, 1939, a few days before the official start of World War II, Hitler authorized his commanders, with these infamous words, to kill ‘without pity or mercy, all men, women, and children of Polish descent or language. Only in this way can we obtain the living space [lebensraum] we need’”.

“Shamash: Holocaust Home Page.” Shamash: The Jewish Network. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <>. Information that refutes the efforts of the Holocaust deniers.

Silver, Daniel B. Refuge in Hell: How Berlin’s Jewish Hospital Outlasted the Nazis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. Print. “Silver asks how a Jewish institution, located in the capital city of a regime dedicated above all to obliterating the Jews, could possibly have survived. … Silver has gathered the available documentary evidence and interviewed the handful of hospital staffers still alive.”

Smith, A. “Famous Holocaust Survivors: Sara Ginaite-Rubinson.” Helium – Where Knowledge Rules. Helium Inc., 10 Mar. 2009. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <>. During the Holocaust Sara Ginaite-Rubinson joined an antiNazi resistant group in a Nazi ghetto. She has written a book: Resistance and Survival.

Smolar, B. “Between the Lines.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 Feb. 1935. Web. 1 Mar. 2012. <>. The Jewish situation in Germany is again beginning to attract attention, this time because of the utterances of certain Nazi leaders that it is high time to consider the Jewish problem in Germany solved.”

“A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust: Docments.” Florida Center for Instructional Technology. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <>. Primary source materials to use in the classroom.

“A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust Site Map.” A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust. Florida Center for Instructional Technology, 2005. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <>. This site map will lead you to Movie Clips, Survivors, Bystanders, Perpetrators, Rescuers, Resistors, Resistance, Liberators, Documents and a Glossary. Text and websites.

Thorpe, Vanessa. “The Schoolgirl Who Survived the Holocaust by Fooling the Nazis.” The Guardian [London] 15 Oct. 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. < “On an Auschwitz station platform in 1944, Helga Weiss and her mother fooled one of the most reviled men in modern history, Josef Mengele, and managed to save their lives. Not long into her teens, Weiss lied about her age, claiming she was old enough to work for her keep. Her mother persuaded the Nazis under Mengele’s command that Helga was in fact her daughter’s older sister, and she was sent to the forced labour barracks and not the gas chamber.”

“The Truth About Hilter’s War on the Jews.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 22 Jan. 1934. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <>. “The Labor Front has thus isolated the Jewish worker in a ghetto. It has done the same thing with the Jewish employer. The difference between the two elements, however, is this – while the Jewish employer, is compelled by the authorities to employ non-Jewish labor, there is no law forcing the non-Jewish employer to give jobs to Jewish workers who are members of the Labor Front, from which Jews are automatically excluded.”

“U.S. Ambassador Receives Report on Jewish Suffering in Poland, Czechoslovakia.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 1 July 1942. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “A delegation of Jewish leaders from Poland and Czechoslovakia now in London today was received by Anthony Drexel-Biddle, Jr., United States Ambassador to the Polish and Czechoslovak Governments-in-Exile, and presented to him a comprehensive report on the Jewish situation in their respective countries under the Nazi occupation.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Hitler’s Aides: Willing Collaborators in the Extermination of Jews.” 2011. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <>. “Hitler was raised as a Catholic and imbibed the traditional anti-Jewish teachings in Christianity, and he took maximum advantage of them to promote his agenda.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Who Knew What, When? Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust.” 2011. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <,_When.html>. “At some point these people surely must have wondered about the brutality of the transportation process, the death of many of the people on arrival, the Selektion process (which they witnessed as it was done next to their train), and the stench of death, which was pervasive in these camps and they would not have been able to avoid. Surely these men smoked a cigarette and chatted with the guards while the trains were emptied before leaving to pick up another batch. You don’t think they would have asked what was going on there? But maybe they didn’t ask, after all. Because they already knew.”

Williams, Sandra S. “Impact of the Holocaust on Survivors and Their Children.” Papers by Sandra S. Williams. Judaic Studies Program, University of Central Florida, 1993. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <>. “One important element of the Holocaust was that the Nazi genocidal machine was aimed not only at the destruction of the European Jewish Community, but also at the Jewish seed itself. It was a war not only against the Jews racial existence, but also against the Jewish procreative potential. The very number of individuals imprisoned and murdered in the concentration camp network challenges one’s ability to comprehend the enormity of the suffering.”.

Wlizlo, Will. “The Buried History of the Holocaust.” Utne Reader: Alternative Coverage of Politics, Culture, and New Ideas. Utne Reader, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <>. “Father Patrick Desbois has been trying to broaden our collective understanding of the Holocaust for the past eight years.”

“”  Yad Vashem. Web. 10 Oct. 2011.  <> “ is the web site of the Yad Vashem History of the Holocaust–a series of multimedia tools.”

Zapotoczny, Walter S. “Short Stories About the Holocaust.” Walter S. Zapotoczny Jr. – Freelance Writer, Historian. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. <>. Twenty accounts of the Holocaust including: Who was a Jew in Nazi Germany?, From Racial Laws to the “Final Solution,” and “The Lack of Jewish Resistance and others. A bibliography is included.

Hitler: Opposition, Resistance, and Assassination Attempts

Brave martyred resisters to Hitler’s Third Reich

“The very first essential for success is a perpetually constant and regular employment of violence.” Adolf Hitler


At Last, Recognition and Praise for the Resistance in Nazi Germany


“When the British historian A. J. P. Taylor declared in the 1960′s that German resistance to the Nazis was a myth, his was a widely held view. Even today many people in Germany and elsewhere believe there was little internal opposition to Hitler. After decades of bitter debate, however, the German resistance’s tangled history is coming into sharper focus. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the cold war in 1989, newly released K.G.B. and C.I.A. files and long-ignored documents in the Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park, N.Y., reveal that the once-scorned Communist and socialist resistance deserves more credit.” Shareen Blair Brysac


Adamic, Louis. “What Hitler Did to My Friends.” Saturday Evening Post 3 July 1943: 26+. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 24 May 2011. The author used the actual names of people and places in telling the tender and tragic story of his young acquaintances in Slovenia who joined the Slovenian guerrilla operations against Fascist occupation.

Allan, Philip. “Resisting the Reich.” Hindsight Apr. 2003: 11-15. Gale OneFile. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. Different resistance efforts to the Third Reich are discussed: Communist, conservative opponents, the church, youth resistance, teenage spirit defiant, the Army and the July plot.

Anderson, Helen. “German Resistance to Hitler 1933-1945.” Helium. Helium Inc., 5 June 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <>. Despite Hitler’s efforts there were pockets of resistance in Germany: political, religious, youth/student, individual, and military/government.

Anderson, Maxwell. “Flame and Citron (New DVD Review).” Rev. of Flame and Citron. Ezine Articles 5 Mar. 2010. EzineArticles. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. <Http://>. “Flame and Citron is a story of Nazi-killing resistance fighters in Denmark and is based on actual events.”

Anderson, Professor Duncan. “World Wars: Killing Hitler.” BBC – Homepage. 9 Dec. 2009. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <>. What would have happened if the British plan to assassinate Hitler, Operation Foxley, had not been cancelled?

Anderson, Virginia. “Hitler’s Assassins: What Kind of Men Were They?” America 151.Aug. 18 (1984): 79. General OneFile. Web. 28 Mar. 2011.

Bennett, Rab. Under the Shadow of the Swastika: The Moral Dilemmas of Resistance and Collaboration in Hitler’s Europe. New York: New York UP, 1999. Print. “This study in the ethics of war is the only work to focus on the moral dilemmas of resistance and collaboration in Nazi-occupied Europe.”

Biddiscombe, Perry. “‘Freies Deutschland’ Guerrilla Warfare in East Prussia, 1944-1945.” German Studies Review 27.1 (2004): 45-62. JSTOR. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. “The anti-Hitler guerrillas of East Prussia … enjoyed little local sympathy and they were politically and militarily isolated.”

Bishop, Emilie. “Resisting during World War II.” Faces: People, Places, and Cultures 1 Sept. 2009: 12+. General OneFile. Web. 2 May 2011. “The Dutch had the courage to resist the Nazis and do what they believed to be right,” saving Jews.

Boyd, Jennifer. “German Resistance to Hitler 1933-1945.” Helium – Where Knowledge Rules. Helium Inc., 3 June 2011. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <>. Between 1933and 1945 approximately three million Germans were imprisoned in concentration camps and another 75,000 were killed due to their political beliefs.

The Brave Fighters: Resistance Stories Near Hitler’s Ukrainian Headquarters. Dir. Edward Halitsky. Anthodium Films, 2011. DVD. “During World War II, Anti-Nazi Resistance Fighters rescued many lives near Hitler’s ‘Wehrwolf’ Ukrainian Headquarters. They saved thousand of Ukrainians, Jews and Russians. These are their true stories.”

Bruins Slot, J. A. H. I. S. “The Resistance.” American Academy of Political and Social Science 245.May (2004): 144-48. JSTOR. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. The resistance of the Netherlands was a spiritual conflict.

Brysac, Shareen B. “At Last, Recognition and Praise for the Resistance in Nazi Germany.” New York Times 7 Oct. 2000. Web. 2 Mar. 2012. <>. “When the British historian A. J. P. Taylor declared in the 1960′s that German resistance to the Nazis was a myth, his was a widely held view. Even today many people in Germany and elsewhere believe there was little internal opposition to Hitler. After decades of bitter debate, however, the German resistance’s tangled history is coming into sharper focus. ”

Brysac, Shareen B. “Cast of Characters.” Website. 2000. Web. 09 May 2011. <>. Members of the resistance group the “Red Orchestra” included Mildred Harnack-Fish, an American who was executed on Hitler’s orders.

Carsten, F. L., Hermann Graml, and Ernst Wolf. The German Resistance to Hitler. Berkeley: University of California, 1970. Print. Resistance thinking on foreign policy, by H. Graml.–Social views and constitutional plans of the resistance, by H. Mommsen.–Resistance in the labour movement, by H.-J. Reichhardt.–Political and moral motives behind the resistance, by E. Wolf.–References (p. [235]-271)

Coady, Mary F. “Hitler & the Jesuits: Three Resisters & the Price They Paid.” Commonweal (11-22-2004): 20-21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. The story of three Jesuits on the run from the Gestapo.

“The Conspirators.” Web.archives. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. <>. A list of 226 German conspirators.

Deutsch, Harold C. “The German Resistance: Answered and Unanswered Questions.” Central European History 14.04 (1981): 322. JSTOR. Web. 27 Nov. 2011.  ”In Hitler’s Third Reich, resistance, save perhaps in the ranks of the SS. sooner or later manifested itself in quarter and over a range of forms from mere foot dragging to outright conspiracy.”

DeWeerd, Harvey A. “The German Officer Corps Versus Hitler.” Military Affairs 13.4 (1949 Winter): 199-208. JSTOR. Web. 26 Mar. 2011. “The Conspiracies of the German officer corps against Hitler make an interesting study in futility.”

“Documents on Nazism, 1919-1945 (Book Review).” Rev. of Documents on Nazism, 1919-45, by Jeremy Noakes. International Affairs 51.2 (1975): 263+. EBSCOhost. Web. 21 May 2011. “The book is divided into six parts: the Rise of Nazism, the Seizure of power, the Political Structure of the The Reich, the New Social Order, Idea and Reality, Foreign Policy 1933-39, and Germany at War 1939-45.”

Duffy, James P., and Vincent L. Ricci. Target Hitler: The Plots to Kill Adolf Hitler. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992. Print. The authors “have pulled together the known and hitherto unknown facts about the German resistance to create an absorbing tale.”

Dulles, Allen. Germany’s Underground. New York: Macmillan, 1947. Print. “This classic account of the German Resistance during World War II remains one of the primary sources on a topic that continues to generate controversy more than a half century after the war’s end.”

Dumbach, Annette E., and Jud Newborn. Sophie Scholl and the White Rose. Oxford: Oneworld Pub., 2006. Dr. Jud Newborn. Web. 9 May 2011. <htttp:www.judenewborncom/jud-whiterose.htmll>. Book review and description of the book, Sophie Scholl and the White Rose.

Ernst, E. “Commentary: The Third Reich–German Physicians Between Resistance and Participation.” International Journal of Epidemiology. Oxford Journals, 2001. Web. 2012. <>. The Third Reich medical profession in “major atrocities was, to a large extent, hushed up and recent reports of medical opposition may, in many cases, be exaggerated.”

European Resistance Archive. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. <>. Videos of resisters talking about their experiences. Maps and articles about resistance efforts in different countries.

Fest, Joachim C. Plotting Hitler’s Death: The Story of the German Resistance. New York: Metropolitan, 1996. Print. Contains short biographies of assassination plotters.

Ford, Franklin L. “The Twentieth of July in the History of the German Resistance.” The American Historical Review 51.4 (1946): 609. JSTOR. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. Problems in the July 20 assassination attempt on Hitler “give promise of contributions to the history of World War II far outrunning the purely narrative interest of the July 20 chronicle.”

“The Forgotten Resistance (anti-Hitler Movement in Germany).” UNESCO Courier (May 1985): 16-17. General OneFile. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. “By 1937 opposition to Hitler was beginning to build up even among those who had at first supported him.” Many of those resisters are discussed in this article.

Fox, Jo. “Resistance and the Third Reich.” Rev. of Resisting Hitler; Operation Valkyrie; Righteous Deception; Post-Holocaust Politics, Britain, the United States and Jewish Refugees, 1945-1948; Holocaust and Rescue, Impotent or Indifferent? Journal of Contemporary History 39.2 (2004): 271-83. JSTOR. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. In 17 pages the author reviews five books about resistance in the Third Reich.

Frend, William H.C. “The Vatican Germans and the Anti-Hitler Plot.” History Today 54.12 (2004): 62-63. EBSCO HOST. Web. 4 May 2011. “Focuses on the revelations of German officials residing in the Vatican regarding the plot to oust dictator Adolf Hitler from power during the 1940s.”

“Fuehrer Often in Danger Since Rise to Top Position.” Milwaukee Journal 21 July 1944. Google News. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. Newspaper account of assassination attempts on Hitler.

Funk, Arthur L. “Churchill, Eisenhower, and the French Resistance.” Military Affairs 45.1 (1981): 29-34. JSTOR. Web. 22 May 2011. Churchill “occasionally … provoked powerful opposition among his political and military colleagues …This study covers one of those issues which the Prime Minister does not mention.”

Gallin, Mary Alice. Ethical and Religious Factors in the German Resistance to Hitler. Washington: Catholic University of America, 1955. Print. This book is a “revision of the author’s thesis.”

“Georg Elser: The Man Who Almost Killed Hitler.” Past Imperfect. Smithsonian, 18 Aug. 2011. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <>. George Elser’s story. his attempt to kill Hitler came within moments of succeeding. When asked why he took on Hitler, he said: “I considered that the situation in Germany could only be changed by the elimination of the current leadership.”

“German Resistance in the Third Reich: Arnold Hencke 1915-2003.” German Resistance in the Third Reich: A Survivor’s Story. Web. 5 May 2011. <>. In 1935, after two years of being a courier for the resistance, Arnold Hencke was arrested and sent to a concentration camp, but survived.

“German Resistance Memorial Center.” Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand. GDW – Biographies. Web. 09 May 2011. <>. Biographies of German resisters Elisabeth Schumacher, Liselotte Hermann, and Kath Kollwitz are included in the long list of martyred Germans.

“German Resistance Plots Against Hitler – Valkyrie Conspiracy.” The Valkyrie Conspiracy. 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <>. This website has 8 articles about the Valkyrie Conspiracy: Resistance within Germany; Resistance of German Aristocracy; 1938 – First Coup Attempt; 1942 – Plan Valkyrie; 1943 – The “Perfect” Assassination Attempt; July 15, 1944; July 20, 1944; and General Friedrich Olbricht.

“German Resistance to Hitler.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 04 May 2011. <>. “Opposition ranged from non-compliance with Nazi regulation to attempts to assassinate Hitler.”

Geyer, Michael, and John W. Boyer. “Introduction: Resistance against the Third Reich as Intercultural Knowledge.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S1-S7. Print. “The articles in this supplementary issue emerged from a conference sponsored by Interdisciplinary Perspectives for the Study of Europe (IPSE) at the University of Chicago and the Goethe-Institut, Chicago.”

Gildea, Robert. “Resistance, Reprisals and Community in Occupied France.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society Sixth 13 (2003): 163-85. JSTOR. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. “This essay examines the issue of armed resistance in France 1941-4 though the lens of collective reprisal inflicted on local communities as a result of armed resistance.”

Gill, Anton. An Honourable Defeat: A History of German Resistance to Hitler, 1933-1945. New York: H. Holt, 1994. Print. “This book exposes the truth about an assassination conspiracy involving high-ranking army officers.”

Gisevius, Hans Bernd, Richard Winston, and Clara Winston. Valkyrie: An Insider’s Account of the Plot to Kill Hitler. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2009. Print. “The most exhaustive and authentic-sounding account to the conspiracy to kill Hitler.”

Gisevius, Hans Bernd, Richard Winston, Clara Winston, Allen Welsh Dulles, and Peter Hoffmann. To the Bitter End: An Insider’s Account of the Plot to Kill Hitler, 1933-1944. New York: DaCapo, 1974, 1998. Print.

Grimsley, Marl. “What If the July 20 Bomb Plot Had Succeeded?” World War II 22.9. Jan/Feb (2008): 85-87. Print. “There is a surprisingly strong case that even if Hitler had been killed in the July 20 blast, the coup it was to have set in motion would have failed …”

Hamerow, Theodore S. On the Road to the Wolf’s Lair: German Resistance to Hitler. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 1997. Print. “In this engrossing account, historian Theodore S. Hamerow closely examines why these people chose to reverse their alliance not only in spirit, but to take active steps to overthrow the regime, culminating in an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Hitler at his headquarters–the “Wolf’s Lair”–in East Prussia in 1944.”

Hansen, Randall. Disobeying Hitler: German Resistance after July 29, 1944. 2011. Andrew Lownie. Andrew Lownie Literary Agency. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <>. The author discusses his book and tells the story “of three types of disobedience to Hitler’s orders.”

Henderson, Simon. “The White Rose and the Definition of ‘Resistance’” History Review 53 (2005): 42-47. Academic Premier. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. The author explains the significance of Hans and Sophie Scholl in the history of Nazi Germany.

Heroes of the Holocaust: Tales of Resistance and Survival. The History Channel. DVD. “These are stories of ordinary men and women who acted selflessly and heroically, displaying extraordinary courage, determination and sacrifice in their effort to help their fellow man.”

Hett, Benjamin C. Crossing Hitler: The Man Who Put the Nazis on the Witness Stand. New York: Oxford UP, 2008. Print. This is a “biography of Hans Litten, a German lawyer who devoted his legal practice to fighting Adolf Hitler in the late 1920s and 1930s, as the Nazi movement was moving toward power in Germany.” The Nazis beat, tortured, and forced him into hard labor. He committed suicide in 1938.

Hill, Leonidas E. “Towards a New History of German Resistance to Hitler.” Central European History 14.04 (1981): 369-1p. EbscoHost. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. A new history of National Socialism “with different chronology, continuities and perspective, different geography and range of activity or behavior,” is needed.

“Hitler’s Popularity in Germany During WWII – Valkyrie Conspiracy.” German Resistance Plots Against Hitler – Valkyrie Conspiracy. 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <>. “Hitler’s popularity varied considerably over time.”

“Hitler’s Savage Canary.” Rev. of Hitler’s Savage Canary: A History of the Danish Resistance in World War II. Publishers Weekly 258.8 (2011): 125-26. EbscoHost. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. “The Danish ambassador to England writes that the story of the Danish occupation ‘carries within it many tales of humiliation, human strength, courage and compassion.’”

“Hitler’s Sunken Secret.” PBS: NOVA. PBS, 8 Nov. 2005. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <>. “One of the most daring clandestine operations of World War II was the 1944 sinking of the Norwegian ferry Hydro with its cargo of “heavy water” destined for the Nazis’ secret atomic bomb project. Although the mission was declared a success, no one ever established if the special shipment was actually on board. In this program, NOVA descends 1,300 feet beneath a remote Norwegian lake to find the answer.”

Hoffmann, Peter. “Colonel Claus Von Stauffenberg in the German Resistance to Hitler: Between East and West.” The Historical Journal 31.03 (1988): 629-50. Print. Lieutenant-Colonel Count von Stauffenberg became a dominant figure in the conspiracy against Hitler in 1943.

Hoffmann, Peter. The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945. 3rd ed. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 1996. Print. “Hoffman succeeds as no other before him in bringing matters into proper focus.” He has “done full justice to the subject.”

Hoffmann, Peter. “Ludwig Beck: Loyalty and Resistance.” Central European History 14.04 (1981): 332-50. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “Recent attempts to revise the received postwar view of Beck … have failed insofar as they did not replace a view admittedly simplified by a paucity of sources. ”

Hoffmann, Peter. “Opposition Annihilated: Punishing the 1944 Plot against Hitler.” The North American Review 255.3 (Fall 1970): 11-36. JSTOR. Web. 26 Mar. 2011. Most of the officers who participated in the attempt to assassinate Hitler “were drawn into the whirlpool” and “perished in the wave of persecution that followed the coup.”

Hoge, Warren. “Britain Reveals Plots to Kill Hitler as War Neared End.” The New York Times 24 July 1998. The New York Times. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. A recently released (1998) 120 page dossier prepared by the British Special Operations Executive reveals secret plans to kill Hitler.

Horn, Daniel. “Youth Resistance in the Third Reich: A Social Portrait.” Journal of Social History 7.1 (1973): 26-50. JSTOR. Web. 2012. “[T]he Nazi regime encountered great difficulties and serious resistance when it tried after 1936 to enlist all German youngsters in its youth movement, compelling them to accept the harsh regimentation and perpetual activism of the HJ.” Excellent article on a previously unexplored subject.

Housden, Martyn. “Germans Against Hitler: Who Resisted the Third Reich and Why Did They Do It.” History on the Web. Sempingham ELearning Resources, Mar. 1998. Web. 23 Sept. 2011. <>. ”Accepting a narrow definition of resistance as ‘active participation in an organised attempt to undermine the Third Reich’ three types of resisters are identified: those who became disillusioned with the Third Reich, those who acted out of necessity and those who resisted because of political, religious or moral principles.”

Housden, Martyn. Resistance and Conformity in the Third Reich. London: Routledge, 1997. Print. The author “analyses the twin concept of conformity with and resistance to the Nazi regime. …The chapters bring out not just the wealth of primary sources available to historians, but also the depth of historiographical controversy. …”

Howarth, David A., and Stephen E. Ambrose. We Die Alone: A WWII Epic of Escape and Endurance. Guilford, CT: Lyons/Globe Pequot, 1955, 2007. Print. An exciting true escape narrative involving expatriate Norwegian commandos and the Norwegian resistance.

“Jan Karski Honored in Poland for WWII Resistance Work.” JTA, 16 Feb. 2012. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <>. “The Polish Senate has posthumously honored World War II hero Jan Karski for his work in revealing details of the Nazi genocide taking place in Poland.”

Johnson, Frank. “The Stauffenberg Plot to Kill Hitler Failed–and a Good Thing Too.” The Spectator 24 July (2004): 29. InfoTrac OneFile. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. The German officers who tried to kill Hitler and were not up to the task, were even less qualified to govern Germany.

Kuntz, Tom. “Word for Word/Killing Hitler; Blow the Fuhrer from the Train and Other British Plots.” The New York Times 2 Aug. 1998. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. Some of the various plots to assassinate Hitler.

Lampe, David, and Birger Riis-Jørgensen. Hitler’s Savage Canary: A History of the Danish Resistance in World War II. Barnsley, S. Yorkshire: Frontline, 2011. Print. “Isolated from the Allies and fueled only by a sense of human decency and national pride, the Danes created an extraordinary resistance movement that proved a relentless thorn in the Nazis’ side. German troops were stymied again and again by the sabotage of railways and airbases and some 7,000 Jews were carried to safety in Sweden.”

Langbein, Hermann. Against All Hope: Resistance in the Nazi Concentration Camps. New York: Paragon House, 2009. Print. This book “is the first systematic and detailed account of the organized resistance” in the concentration camps.

Large, David Clay. Contending with Hitler: Varieties of German Resistance in the Third Reich. Washington, D.C.: German Historical Institute, 1991. Print. “Contending with Hitler is a distillation of recent scholarship on Germany’s domestic resistance to the Nazi dictatorship.”

Leber, Annedore. Conscience in Revolt: Sixty-four Stories of Resistance in Germany, 1933-45. Westport, CT: Associated Booksellers, 1957. Print. These stories are “remarkable because they record the heroism — sometimes spectacular, sometimes quiet, almost commonplace — of ordinary German people whose consciences revolted the inhumanity of the Nazi state. …”

Levene, Mark. “Genocide and Resistance in Hitler’s Bosnia: The Partisans and Chetniks, 1941-1943.” Journal of Genocide Research 12.1 (2010): 131-35. Academic Premier. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. A review of the book “Genocide & Resistance in Hitler’s Bosnia: The Partisans & the Chetniks 1941-1943,” by Marko Attila Hoare is presented.

“List of Members of the 20 July Plot.” Wikipedia. 10 Apr. 2011. Web. 3 May 2011. < of_the_20_July_plot>. At least 7,000 persons were arrested by the Gestapo. 4,980 persons were executed. Few of these are believed to be involved.

“Lucie Aubrac.” Spartacus Educational. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <>. Lucie Samuel, with Emmanuel d’Astier, established the left-wing Liberation-sud resistance group in France.

Ludtke, Alf. “The Appeal of Exterminating ‘Others’: German Workers and the Limits of Resistance.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S46. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “In the end, participation in the extermination of ‘others’ might appear to many as the ultimate fulfillment of those cherished notions of ‘German quality work.’”

Lusseyran, Jacques. And There Was Light: Autobiography of Jacques Lusseyran, Blind Hero of the French Resistance. New York: Parabola, 1998. Print.

Luža, Radomír, and Christina Vella. The Hitler Kiss: A Memoir of the Czech Resistance. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2002. Print. “This gripping autobiography is at once a heart-pounding adventure story, a moving recollection of a larger-than-life father, and an important account of the Czech resistance.”

Manvell, Roger, and Heinrich Fraenkel. The Canaris Conspiracy: The Secret Plot of German Intelligence to Overthrow Hitler. New York: David McKay, 1969. Print. “The complete, never-before-told story of the secret plot by German Intelligence to overthrow Hitler.”

Martin, Douglas. “Freya Von Molte, Part of a Core of Nazi Resistance, Is Dead at 98.” The New York Times 10 Jan. 2010. The New York Times. 10 Jan. 2010. Web. 9 May 2011. <>. Obituary

Maublane, Rene. “French Teachers in the Resistance Movement.” Science & Society 11.1 (1947): 38-52. JSTOR. Web. 3 Apr. 2011. For four years French teachers and professors “gave the measure of their patriotism, courage and vision.”

McClelland, Greg. “Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp: A Place of Horror.” German Resistance in the Third Reich: A Survivor’s Story. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. <>. In Memory Of All Those Who Suffered Here “Absolute Power Soon Breeds Absolute Contempt For The Powerless”

McDonough, Frank. Opposition and Resistance in Nazi Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. Print. This “book concentrates on the individuals and groups that resisted and opposed Nazi rule…”

McGill, David. “Defying Hitler: German Resistance to the Nazis, 1933-1945.” Hindsight 19.1 (2008): 14-18. General One File. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. Good, brief outline of German resistance to Hitler.

Mears, Ray. “Hitler’s Sunken Secret | Norwegian Resistance Coup | PBS.” PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. PBS, Oct. 2005. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <>. “Between 1940 and 1945, thousands of young Norwegians fought in Norway’s Resistance movement against the occupying Nazis. More than 2,000 of them, both men and women, died in action, by execution, or in concentration camps. Perhaps the most daring Resistance attack, which Ray Mears describes here, was a successful late-night raid that nine Norwegian saboteurs made on the Vemork heavy-water plant on February 28, 1943, over a year before the sinking of the Hydro ferry.”

“Memory of Spiritual Leader in German Resistance Lives On.” Home | Deutsche Welle. 21 Oct. 2006. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <,,2206790,00.html>. “October 21 marks the 50th anniversary of the death of Father Laurentius Siemer — a spiritual leader of the German resistance movement during World War II. Imprisoned by the Nazis, he later became a TV celebrity.”

Mengus, Raymond. “Dietrich Bonhoeffer and the Decision to Resist.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S134-146. JSTOR. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. In the first section of the essay the author discusses “resistance with respect to Hitler’s dictatorship.” In the second section he examines “Bonhoeffer’s motivation for taking part in the resistance against National Socialism.” He then attempts “to trace the stages of his increasingly radical engagement and to evaluate some consequences of his decision to resist.”

Molden, Fritz. Exploding Star: A Young Austrian against Hitler. New York: Morrow, 1979. Print. “Molden took a stand against the Nazis, and became a catalyst in the fragmented and often ineffectual Austrian underground.”

Mommsen, Hans, and Angus McGeoch. Alternatives to Hitler: German Resistance under the Third Reich. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2003. Print. “These seminal writings trace the real and complex history of the German Resistance from the ascent of the Nazi Party to the July 1944 attempted assassination of Hitler.”

Mommsen, Hans. “The German Resistance Against Hitler and the Restoration of Politics.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S112. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “The reform plans of the German resistance to Hitler went beyond the overthrow of the National Socialists and envisioned the restoration in religious, social, and political life of an existence commensurate with human dignity.”

Moorhouse, Roger. Killing Hitler: The Plots, the Assassins, and the Dictator Who Cheated Death. New York: Bantam, 2006. Print. “A gripping account, which is thoroughly researched, but wears its scholarship enough to be read like a good political thriller.”

Morris, Nigel. “BBC – History – World Wars: The Special Operations Executive 1940 – 1946.” BBC – History – World Wars. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <,,2206790,00.html>. “The agents of the British SOE “demonstrated tremendous courage, and enjoyed many successes, in their guerrilla war against Hitler’s forces.”

Neiman, Susan. “To Resist Hitler and Survive.” The New York Times – Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. New York Times, 3 Feb. 2008. Web. 1 Oct. 2011. <>. “Germany is not alone in its quest for the right sort of memory, and it has done a better job than most. But the 75th anniversary of Hitler’s rise to power should be an occasion to reflect on how historical crimes are remembered.”

Nelson, Anne. Red Orchestra: The Story of the Berlin Underground and the Circle of Friends Who Resisted Hitler. New York: Random House, 2009. Print. The author “shares one of the shocking and inspiring–and least chronicled–stories of domestic resistance to the Nazi regime.”

News, Hugh Schofield BBC. “Raymond Aubrac: How I Tricked the Gestapo.” BBC News Magazine. BBC, 27 Jan. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <>. “The capture of French Resistance hero Jean Moulin is one of the country’s darkest chapters of the war. The last surviving Resistance leader, Raymond Aubrac, recalls that night and the audacious escape that followed.”

“Non-Jewish Resistance.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 6 Jan. 2011. <>. “Between 1933 and 1945, a variety of groups offered resistance to the Nazi regime, both in Germany and in German-occupied territory. Among the earliest domestic opponents of Nazism were Communists, Socialists, and trade union leaders. Although mainstream church hierarchies either supported the Nazi regime or acquiesced in its policies of discrimination and persecution, individual German theologians such as Dietrich Bonhoeffer opposed the regime.”

Odegard, Kyle. “‘White Rose’ Fought Nazis.” Corvallis Gazette-Times. Gazette-Times, 22 Apr. 2009. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <>. “Dr. George Wittenstein dared to speak out against the Nazi regime while living in Germany during World War II, and dared to denounce the persecution and killing of the Jews.”

“On This Day: Witold Pilecki Allows Himself to Be Captured by the Nazis.” FindingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources. FindingDulcinea, 19 Sept. 2011. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <–Witold-Pilecki-Allows-Himself-to-be-Captured-by-the-Nazis.html>. “On Sept. 19, 1940, Polish resistance member Witold Pilecki deliberately had himself arrested and sent to Auschwitz, where he spent two years supplying Allied forces with information about the concentration camp.”

One Hundred and Fourteenth Day: Testimony of Gisevius in the Nuremberg Trial. Nuremberg Trial Proceeding. Vol. 12. Yale Law School: The Avalon Project, 1946. Testimony of Gisevius in the Nuremberg Trial. Yale Law School. Web. 4 May 2011. <>. Testimony of German resistance plotter.

Osterle, Heinz D. “The Other Germany: Resistance to the Third Reich in German Literature.” The German Quarterly 41.1 (1968): 1-22. JSTOR. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. “A number of [German] writers refused to condone the practices of the regime and attempted to express their rejection in their work.”

“Otto and Elise Hampel.” Wikipedia. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. A working-class couple who created a simple method of protest in Berlin, were executed in 1943.

“Parliament Votes Against Pardon of Three Nazis; Government to Decide Issue.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 3 Mar. 1972. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <>. “The Netherlands Parliament voted today against a government-proposed blanket pardon for the last three Nazi war criminals serving time in Breda prison. A government spokesman said afterwards that it would take into “serious account” the views of Parliament but would not necessarily be bound by them.”

Parssinen, Terry M. The Oster Conspiracy of 1938: The Unknown Story of the Military Plot to Kill Hitler and Avert World War II. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. Print. “A fascinating, blow-by-blow account of a seemingly feasible but failed attempt to prevent World War II.”

Paxton, Robert O. “The German Opposition to Hitler: A Non-Germanist’s View.” Central European History 14.04 (1981): 362. JSTOR. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. “Internal opposition, as in Germany between 1933 and 1945, is fundamentally incomparable to resistance to foreign occupation.”

Peschanski, Denis. Collaboration and Resistance: Images of Life in Vichy France, 1940-44. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2000. Print. A view of French life during World War II under German occupation. Hundreds of photographs.

“Philipp Von Boeselager – Obituaries, Frontpage” Irish Independent News in Ireland & Worldwide. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <>. Obituary of Philippp von Boeselager, a July 20 conspirator, who died 7 April 2011.

Pierard, Richard V. “Radical Resistance.” Christian History 10.4 (1991): 30. EBSCOHost. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. “Discusses the role of German theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer in opposing the Nazis’ campaign to persecute Jews in Germany.”

The Power of Conscience: The Danish Resistance and the Rescue of the Jews. Dir. Alexander M. Isles. Perf. Danish Anti-Nazi Resistance. Direct Cinema Limited, 2007. DVD. Hitler occupied Denmark in 1940. “In October of 1943, when the Gestapo decided to round up the Danish Jews, ordinary citizens banded together with resisters and overnight they created a rescue operation that hid and transported over 7,000 of their countrymen across the water to Sweden.”

Powers, Thomas. “The Conspiracy That Failed.” The New York Review of Books 44.1 (1997): 49-+. General OneFile. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. Review of six books discussing the German Resistance.

Preisinger, Arthur A. “Resisting the Third Reich: The Catholic Clergy in Hitler’s Berlin.” Review. Church History 74.2 (2005): 382-85. General OneFile. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. Review of book of same title.

Ramsay, Allen. “Claus Von Stauffenberg and the German Officer’s Plot of 1944.” Contemporary Review: 275-83. EBSCO. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. The officers’ plot of 1944 was “never likely to succeed, not because the plotters were not brave or because the planning was not detailed enough, but because some of them were doubtful about it from the start.”

Raptis, Nikos. “The First Attempt to Kill Hitler in 1938: The Story of Johann Elser.” Flame. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <>. An account of ex-Communist Johann Elser’s attempt to assassinate Hitler that failed.

“Rescue and Resisitance.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Rescue and Resistance. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 29 May 2011. <>. In Nazi Europe “most non-Jews neither aided nor hindered the ‘Final Solution.’ Relatively few people helped Jews escape.” Some exceptions are discussed.

“Resistance.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 04 May 2011. <>. 150 articles about resistance to Hitler.

“Resisting Hitler.” Newsweek 13 May 85: 26. Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 May 2011. “While many in postwar Germany claim to have been opposed to Hitler’s rule, few challenged it in any overt fashion.”

The Restless Conscience: Resistance to Hitler within Germany 1933-1945. Dir. Hava K. Beller. Perf. Archive Footage. 1992. DVD. “This stirring documentary chronicles the anti-Nazi resistance movement within Hitler’s Germany and the countless unsuccessful attempts to remove the fuhrer from power.”

Rigden, Denis. Kill the Furhrer: Section X and Operation Foxley. Stroud: Sutton Publ., 1999. Print. Covers all the problems and failures of several Hitler assassination attempts.

Rings, Werner. Life with the Enemy: Collaboration and Resistance in Hitler’s Europe, 1939-1945. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982. Print. Translation of: Leben mit dem Feind. Includes indexes Bibliography: p. [329]-342. “Hitler in the ascendant, or power with plan or purpose.”

Rochat, Francois, and Andre Modigliani. “The Ordinary Quality of Resistance: From Milgram’s Laboratory to the Village of Le Chambon.” Journal of Social Issues (1995). Wiley Online Library. Web. 18 Jan. 2012. “This article focuses on how the people of the French village of LeChambon succeeded during World War II, is stopping the efforts of Vichy authorities to persuade them to participate in the persecution of minority persons.”

Rose, Leesha. The Tulips Are Red. South Brunswick N.J.: A.S. Barnes, 1978. Print. The author wrote this book about a part of his life in World War II Holland as a member of the resistance.

Ross, Bernie. “The Foxley Report: Plotters against Hitler.” BBC – History – World Wars. BBC, 9 Dec. 2010. Web. 2010. <>. “The men and women who would have been key players in the plot to kill Hitler if the Foxley Repory … had been acted upon.”

Rothfels, Hans. “The German Resistance in Its International Aspects.” International Affairs 34.4 (1958): 477-89. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “There is general agreement that the various resistance movements which arose in the occupied countries during the last war were part of international politics. …”

Sachs, Harvey. “Resisting (War).” The Antioch Review 52.2 (1994): 231-50. General OneFile. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. “The motivation and frame of mind of resistance fighters is shown in books by members and supporters of the Italian Resistance in World War Two. Their main motivation was to regain political freedom and lead peaceful lives.”

Savill, Richard. “Lulu, the Belgian Teen Who Took on the Gestapo.” – Telegraph Online, Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph. 24 Feb. 2007. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “A little-known Second World War heroine who joined the Belgian resistance at 15, and was later tortured by the Gestapo, was buried near her home in Dorset yesterday. Code named Lulu, Lucie Bruce, a Belgian national who moved to Britain in 1946, spied on Nazi troops and ammunition dumps, after joining the resistance in 1940 following Belgium’s capitulation to German occupation.”

Schoenbrun, David. Soldiers of the Night: The Story of the French Resistance. New York: Dutton, 1980. Print. Written by a former intelligence agent and war correspondent in Africa and France.

Seaman, Mark. “BBC – History – World Wars: The Foxley Report: Secret Operations in World War Two.” BBC – History – World Wars. BBC, 9 Dec. 2009. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <>. “An intelligence historian … discusses whether the plan had any chance of success.”

Sears, Kenneth A. E. Opposing Hitler: Adam Von Trott Zu Solz, 1909-1944 : “To Strive and Not to Yield” Brighton: Sussex Academic, 2010. Print. “This book examines the role of one of the most charismatic leaders of the opposition to the Nazis within Germany.”

Semelin, Jacques. Unarmed against Hitler: Civilian Resistance in Europe, 1939-1943. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993. Print. “Jacques Semelin gathers evidence for the untold story of a movement that took place in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark as well as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Germany itself. A widespread campaign contested authority and paved the way for later armed resistance and the eventual defeat of the Nazis.”

Siswati, Yovita. “Eight Most Notable Unsuccessful Attempts to Kill Hitler.” Socyberty | Society on the Web. 6 Apr. 2009. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <>. Maurice Bavaud, Georg Elser, Polish Army, Soviet Intelligence, Foxley Operation, Henning von Tresckow, Colonel Clasus von Stauffenberg, Rudolf von Gersdorff.

Smith, David, and Walter Harris. “Why My Friends Felt They Had to Kill Hitler.” Latest News, Comment and Reviews from the Guardian | UK News | The Observer, 11 July 2004. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <>. “Sixty years after the bungled attempt by the German resistance to kill the Führer, a survivor, Inga Haag, tells David Smith and Walter Harris of her role in the plot.”

Snyder, Louis L. Hitler’s German Enemies: The Stories of the Heroes Who Fought the Nazis. New York: Hippocrene, 1990. Print. Profiles of “fifteen courageous Germans–students, military heros, public officials, professors, pastors, and others–who dared to oppose Hitler and paid the price.”

Sophie Scholl, the Final Days. Dir. Marc Rothemund. Prod. Marc Rothemund, Christoph Müller, Sven Burgemeister, and Fred Breinersdorfer. By Fred Breinersdorfer. Perf. Julia Jentsch, Alexander Held, Fabian Hinrichs, and Johanna Gastdorf. X Verleih, 2005. Film. “The true story of Germany’s most famous anti-Nazi heroine.”

Stafford, David. Secret Agent: The True Story of the Covert War against Hitler. Woodstock, NY: Overlook, 2001. Print. In this book, “British wartime intelligence operations expert David Stafford gives a thorough history of the British government’s subversions of German incursions. ”

Steavenson, Wendell. “Wanted Dead Or Alive? Release of British Records Showing Plans to Assassinate Adolph Hitler during World War II.” Time International 150.49 (1998): 22. General OneFile. Web. 28 Mar. 2011.

Steiner, Herbert. “The Role of the Resistance in Austria, with Special Reference to the Labor Movement.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S128-133. JSTOR. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. Report from a conference that examined “how every generation confronts its inherited moral values anew, with some greater or lesser awareness of the relationship of these values to perception of historical time.”

“Sylvia Wygoda Gives Fascinating Account of Father’s Nazi Resistance.” – Breaking News in Chattanooga., 9 Sept. 2006. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <>. “Sylvia Wygoda…told the Chattanooga Civitan Club she never learned her father’s [Hermann Wygoda] heroic role in fighting the Nazis until after his death.”

Thomsett, Michael C. The German Opposition to Hitler: The Resistance, the Underground, and Assassination Plots, 1938-1945. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1997. Print. “Between 1933 and 1945, more than 500,000 non-Jewish German civilians were imprisoned for so-called political crimes. Most of the resistance was, therefore, underground–within the religious, political, civilian, and even military communities.”

“Towards a New History of German Resistrance to Hitler.” Rev. of Towards a New History of German Resistance to Hitler, by Leonidas E. Hill. Central European History (1981): 369+. EBSCOhost. Web. 16 Apr. 2011.

Trommler, Frank. “Between Normality and Resistance: Catastrophic Gradualism in Nazi Germany.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S82. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “The Nazi regime’s creation of states of exception is intrinsically related to its obsession with normality, its manifold strategies for normalizing the exceptional.”

Vaughan, Hal. Doctor to the Resistance: The Heroic True Story of an American Surgeon and His Family in Occupied Paris. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 2004. Print. “The Jackson story is an amazing tale of self-sacrifice under unimaginable conditions, of danger, privation, arrest and slavery.”

Vinde, Victor. “The Spirit of Resistance.” Foreign Affairs 21.1 (1942): 59-70. JSTOR. Web. 3 Apr. 2011. “Only slowly and gradually, when it became apparent that Germans had no intention of treating France as a free and independent country, did French resistance begin to take shape.”

Von Klemperer, Klemens. German Resistance against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad, 1938-1945. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994. Print. This book “uncovers the beliefs and activities of numerous individuals who fought against Nazism within Germany, and traces their many efforts to forge alliances with Hitler’s opponents outside the Third Reich.”

Von Klemperer, Klemens. “”What Is the Law That Lies behind These Words?” Antigone’s Question and the German Resistance against Hitler.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S102. JSTOR. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. “There are no set guidelines for resistance. Wherever and whenever it occurs, it marks a departure from established canons of law and ethics and a plunge into a realm of the uncertain and unknown.”

Von Schlabrendorff, Fabian. “Our Two Tries to Kill Hitler.” Saturday Evening Post 20 July 1946. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. The author gives an account of “the long, secret plotting of the German resistance movement to overthrow Hitler.”

Watkinson, Simon. “Taking the Fight to the Germans.” The Connexion – The Newspaper for English-Speakers in France. Nov. 2010. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <>. “Major John Farmer was parachuted into France as an agent of the Special Operations Executive in 1944 to help train the Resistance in the Auvergne to target the German invaders. He tells Simon Watkinson of his experiences.”

Wolfgram, Mark A. “Blood and Redemption: German Collective Memory of Elite Resistance against the Nazis.” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 35.1 (2007): 63-84. JSTOR. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. “This article advances collective memory scholarship by examining ways in which changes in societal representations are tied to changes in mass perceptions and expectations.”

Wright, Gordon. “Reflections on the French Resistance (1940-1944).” Political Science Quarterly 77.3 (1962): 336-349. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “If France since the Second World War has shown some remarkably healthy trends, some signs of vigorous self-renewal, they are to be traced for the most part … to the men, the ideals, the durable myth of the durable myth of the wartime resistance.”

Yglesias, Matthew. “The Real German Resistance to Hitler: The Social Democrats.” Center for American Progress Action Fund, 20 Feb. 2009. Web. 1 Oct. 2011. <>. “There was very real German resistance to Hitler. It just didn’t come from the army or other elements of the German conservative establishment. And it wasn’t able to stop anything in 1939 or 1944 because it had already been crushed. The opposition came primarily from the German Social Democratic Party. … a large swathe of the German public tried–very hard–to prevent Hitler from coming to power throughout the late 1920 and 1930s.”