Hitler: Personality, Death, Plans, Biography

Mein Kampf (My Struggle), Hitler’s political program.

Adolf Hitler grimly inspects bomb damage in a German city in 1944.

On August 22, 1939, a few days before the official start of World War II, Hitler authorized his commanders, with these infamous words, to kill ‘without pity or mercy, all men, women, and children of Polish descent or language. Only in this way can we obtain the living space [lebensraum] we need.’”


“42 Ways to Kill Hitler.”  National Geographic, 2008. DVD. “Adolf Hitler is perhaps the most feared and despised man of the 20th century. Not surprisingly, there were over 40 documented attempts on Hitler’s life. Assassins ranged from simple craftsmen to high-ranking soldiers in the Führers own military. Aided by cutting-edge CGI, security experts explain why the plots failed; and using modern weapon and explosive experiments, determine what slight change could have made the missions successful.”

“Adolf Hitler (pictures, Video, Facts & News).” BBC – History. BBC. Web. 2 June 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/people/adolf_hitler>. Pictures, video, facts, news. Related BBC Links.

“Adolf.” Sparatus.schoolnet.co.uk. Spartacus Educational. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERhitler.htm>. Adolf Hitler Biography “Established by John Simkin in September 1997, the Spartacus Educational website provides a series of history encyclopaedias. Entries usually include a narrative, illustrations and primary sources. The text within each entry is linked to other relevant pages in the encyclopaedia. In this way it is possible to research individual people and events in great detail. The sources are also hyper-linked so the student is able to find out about the writer, artist, newspaper and organization that produced the material.”

Allert, Tilman. The Hitler Salute: On the Meaning of a Gesture. New York: Metropolitan /Henry Holt and, 2008. Print. “We are still living with the history of the fatal gesture that was the Hitler salute, and one of the lessons of that history is that we need to be wary of obligatory rituals, especially when they are imposed from above.”

Ascherson, Neal. “Hitler’s Revenge on Germany.” The Observer. Guardian.co.uk The Observer Ed, 11 Apr. 2004. Web. 3 Mar. 2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/apr/11/historybooks.features>. “Was the Führer plotting retribution on his own people? Neal Ascherson asseses Joachim Fest’s interpretation of the dictator’s final days, ‘Inside Hitler’s Bunker.’”

Bell, Bethany. “Adolf Hitler ‘honorary Citizen’ Row Grips Austria.” BBC News Europe. BBC. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-13582533>. “Several towns in Austria have been checking their archives this week to see if Adolf Hitler is still an honorary citizen of their communities.”

Bell, Bethany. “Hitler’s Vision for Cultural Capital.” BBC NEWS | Europe. BBC. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7703017.stm>. “Adolf Hitler’s hometown in Austria has opened an exhibition about the Nazi leader’s plans for the city.”

Bohr, Felix. “New Book Traces the Rise to Power of Adolf Hitler.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 22 Feb. 2013. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/new-book-traces-the-rise-to-power-of-adolf-hitler-a-884568.html>. ”Among Soldiers and Agitators: Hitler’s formative years in the German military from 1918-1920″ by Othmar Plockinger is reviewed. “Historian Othmar Plöckinger argues that Adolf Hilter’s time in the military facilitated his transformation into a murderous dictator. His new book traces how in the army Hilter acquired skills and an education that he would put to use during his later rise to power.”

C. “Will Hitler Save Democracy?” Foreign Affairs 17.3 (1939): 455-64. JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. In 1939 the author says “Woodrow Wilson tried to unite the postwar world in an idealism for which it was not yet ripe. It would be the height of paradox if Hitler, of all persons, were destined by his statesmanship ‘to make the world safe for Democracy.’” Look up statesmanship in the dictionary.

Carey, Benedict. “An Early Wartime Profile Depicts a Tormented Hitler.” The New York Times. 31 Mar. 2006. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/31/science/31hitler.html?scp=1&sq=An%20Early%20Wartime%20Profile%20Depicts%20a%20tormented%20hitler&st=cse>. “What is believed to be the first psychological profile of Hitler commissioned by the Office of Strategic Services, a predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, was posted this month by Cornell University Law Library on its Web site <http://library.lawschool.cornell.edu/WhatWeHave/SpecialCollections/Donovan/Hitler/index.cfm>. Although declassified some years ago, the report, written in 1943, has not been widely cited or available to the public, historians and librarians at Cornell say.”

Cline, Austin. “Adolf Hitler: Compromises with Atheism Destroy Religious, Ethical Values.” About.com Agnosticism/Atheism. About.com. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/od/adolfhitlernazigermany/a/HitlerValues.htm>. “What did Adolf Hitler think about the relationship and relative values of Christianity vs. atheism? Although it’s popular for Christian apologists to portray Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party as the practical, evil consequences of atheism and secularism, the truth is that Adolf Hitler never had anything good to say about either atheism or secularism, but he regularly praised the importance of religion and religious faith generally as well as Christianity in particular.” ( emphasis added)

Cline, Austin. “Christians on Hitler & Nazis: Quotes from Christians Supporting Hitler – German Catholics & Protestants Praised, Supported Hitler as a Gift from God.” Agnosticism / Atheism – Skepticism & Atheism for Atheists & Agnostics. About.com. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/od/adolfhitlernazigermany/tp/NaziChristiansGermany.htm>.

Drucker, Peter F. “Hitler Plans to Power.” Saturday Evening Post (5 June 1943): 20+. JSTOR. Web. 30 May 2011. “The new Nazi policy [is] to prepare against defeat by preparing latent or open civil war, class hatred and complete economic and administrative chaos all through Nazi Europe.”

Duffy, James P. Hitler Slept Late And Other Blunders That Cost Him The War. London: Greenwood, 1991. Print. “Duffy’s title refers to Hitler’s errors in preparing for the Normandy invasion, culminating in his sleeping through the first hours of D-Day. Duffy describes the Fuhrer as making war on the basis of will and intuition, scorning the advice of professionals as he followed his destiny to catastrophe.”

Englehart, Katie. “The Return of Hitler.” Maclean’s 26 (Apr. 2010): 30-36. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 30 May 2011. “The article discusses the global resurgence of National Socialist party leader Adolf Hitler’s ideology.”

Farmer, Alan. “Hitler and the Holocaust.” History Review 58 (Sept. 2007): 4-9. Print. “In April 1945, German leader Adolf Hitler claimed with pride that the extermination of the Jews was his legacy to the world.”

Fox, John. “(Untitled).” Rev. of Hitler and His Generals/The ‘X’ Documents. International Affairs April (1975): 265-68. Academic Premier. Web. 10 Jan. 2012.

Gavin, Philip. “The Rise of Adolf Hitler.” The History Place. 1996. Web. 1 June 2011. <http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/index.html>. This biography of Adolf has 24 chapters and a bibliography.

Goode, Erica. “Insane or Just Evil? A Psychiatrist Takes a New Look at Hitler – New York Times.” Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. The New York Times, 17 Nov. 1998. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/1998/11/17/science/insane-or-just-evil-a-psychiatrist-takes-a-new-look-at-hitler.html?scp=1>. “Adolf Hitler is often referred to as a madman, in part because most people are loath to accept such enormity of evil as anything other than the byproduct of psychosis. Yet just how ‘mad’ Hitler was, and how much of the evil he perpetrated can be attributed to illness, either physical or mental, has been a subject of disagreement among historians.”

Grimsley, Mark. “What If … Hitler Had Won World War II?” World War II (Oct. 2007): 85-87. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 23 May 2011. In Hitler’s mind, “the sequel to a victorious World War II would have been World War III.”

Hildebran, Regan. “”Hitler’s Aggression: Could Adolf Hitler Have Been Deterred from Launching WWII?” History in Dispute. Gale U.S. History in Context, 2007. Web. 30 June 2011. “A strong consensus among scholars is that World War II was Adolf Hitler’s war–a conflict he desired for ideological, political, economic, and psychological reasons, all unsusceptible to external persuasion.”

“Hitler and World Peace.” World Affairs 98.4 (1935): 242-45. JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. The author, an American Exchange student to Austria in 1935, says “Hitler needs and wants peace. The tremendous internal problems can be solved only with peace.” I believe he was wrong.

“Hitler’s New Year’s Message to Nazis Bears Tone of Pessimism; Victory No Longer Predicted.” JTA – Jewish News Archive, 1933. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1933/01/03/2800202/hitlers-new-years-message-to-nazis-bears-tone-of-pessimism-victory-no-longer-predicted>. “Liberals Forecast the Complete Collapse of the Nazi Movement in 1933 Berlin, Jan. 2 (JTA) – A New Year’s message issued by Adolph Hitler, the National Socialist leader and his chief lieutenant Paul Joseph Goebbels, head of the Berlin Nazi Party, bears a tone of pessimism unlike previous messages.”

Hoge, Warren. “Britain Reveals Elaborate Plots to Kill Hitler as War Neared End.” The New York Times. 24 July 1998. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/1998/07/24/world/britain-reveals-elaborate-plots-to-kill-hitler-as-war-neared-end.html?scp=1&sq=Britain%20reveals%20elaborate%20plots%20to%20kill%20hitler&st=cse>. “British agents planned a series of bizarre plots to assassinate Adolf Hitler during the last months of World War II, according to wartime papers made public today by the Public Records Office.”

Honan, William H. “On the Trail of Hitler’s Love Letters – New York Times.” Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. The New York Times, 13 Mar. 1993. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/1993/03/13/arts/on-the-trail-of-hitler-s-love-letters.html?scp=1>. “[I]nvestigators converged on a bleak unpainted stucco hacienda at the fringe of the desert here to acquire what they hoped would be one of the biggest publishing discoveries to come out of World War II: several hundred letters exchanged by Adolf Hitler and his mistress, Eva Braun. Historians have long suspected that many letters between Hitler and his mistress of more than 12 years still exist.”

Horne, A. “If Hitler Hadn’t.” National Review 43.23 (1991): 36-40. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 30 May 2011. “This article presents information on the events before Adolf Hitler declared war on the U.S.”

“An Interview with Hitler, August 17, 1932.” Interview by Hans V. Kaltenborn. Wisconsin Magazine of History 1967: 283-90. JSTOR. Web. 1 June 2011. Hitler is “a great agitator, a compelling speaker, a superb propagandist, a self-hypnotized popular leader who believes his own lies.”

Johnson, Ramon. “Adolf Hitler, Gays and the Pink Triangle.” Gay Life Blog Site from About.com. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://gaylife.about.com/od/gayhistoryfacts/a/hitlerpink.htm>. Speculation about Hitler’s sexuality.

Kershaw, Ian. Hitler. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999. Print. “This innovative best-seller explores the nature and mechanics of Hitler’s power, and how he used it. On the face of it, Adolf Hitler was an unlikely candidate for dictatorial power.”

Kershaw, Ian. “How Democracy Produced a Monster.” The New York Times. 3 Feb. 2008. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/03/opinion/03kershaw.html?ref=adolfhitler>. “Hitler came to power in a democracy with a highly liberal Constitution, and in part by using democratic freedoms to undermine and then destroy democracy itself.”

Kinzer, Stephen. “The Day of Hitler’s Death: Even Now, New Glimpses.” The New York Times. 4 May 1995. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/1995/05/04/world/the-day-of-hitler-s-death-even-now-new-glimpses.html>. “Because no clearly identifiable corpse was known to have been found, uncertainty about Hitler’s fate persisted for years. But in recent weeks, new information has emerged that not only proves conclusively that the Nazi dictator killed himself in his underground bunker, but also illuminates details of the hours immediately before and after his death as well as the way the Soviets disposed of his remains a quarter-century later.”

Langer, Walter C. “A Psychological Analysis of Adolph Hitler His Life and Legend.” The Nizkor     Project. 2011. Web. 2 June 2011. <http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/h/hitler-adolf/oss-papers/text/profile-index.html>. OSS psychological analysis of Adolf Hitler.

Lavik, Nils J. “A Psychiatrist Who Confonted Nazism.” Political Psychology 10.4 (1989): 757-65. JSTOR. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. In 1933, the Norwegian psychiatrist, Johan Scharffenber, made a psychiatric diagnosis of Hitler and “concluded that Hitler was a paranoid psychopath of the prophetic type, bordering on the insane.”

Machtan, Lothar. The Hidden Hitler. New York, NY: Basic, 2001. Print. “Machtan here presents a documented study of Hitler’s homosexuality and its impact upon his life and career. Machtan asserts that Hitler’s homosexuality was known to some of his associates by the beginning of World War I and later in Vienna.”

Meier, David A. “Adolf Hitler’s Rise to Power.” DSU Computer Services. Dickinson State   University, 2000. Web. 21 Jan. 2012. <http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/hitler.html>. A lengthy Hitler biography.

Moorhouse, Roger. “Germania: Hitler’s Dream Capital.” History Today. 2012. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. <http://www.historytoday.com/roger-moorhouse/germania-hitlers-dream-capital>. Roger Moorhouse explains that “Albert Speer’s plan to transform Berlin into the capital of a 1,000-year Reich would have created a vast monument to misanthropy.”

Murphy, Brian J. “Getting Inside Hitler’s Head.” America in WWII: The Magazine of a People at War, 1941-1945. Aug. 2009. Web. 30 June 2011. <http://www.americainwwii.com/articles/2009/getting-inside.html>. “When America’s spymaster hired a psychiatrist to figure out the Fuhrer, the result was disturbing–and as history showed, accurate.”

“On This Day: Himmler Orders the Deportation of the Roma.” On This Day: Himmler Orders the Deportation of the Roma. 16 Dec. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/42608>.

“There were five million non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust, including up to 500,000 members of the Roma community. At Auschwitz alone, it is estimated that 19,000 of the 23,000 Roma sent there during the war died.”

Payne, Robert. The Life and Death of Hitler. New York: Praeger, 1973. Print. “The defects in Payne’s work are indeed serious, but so long as one doesn’t use” this book “as the sole source of his knowledge on the subject, I would recommend it highly for people who are interested in achieving a personal understanding one of the most enigmatic and terrible men in history.”

Rosefield, Jayne. “Wagner’s Influence on Hitler — and Hitler’s on Wagner.” History Review. History in Review. Gale U.S. History in Context., 1 Dec. 1998. Web. 30 June 2011. “Wagner had a immense effect upon Hitler.” Wagner “was not only Hitler’s great exemplar; he was also the young man’s ideological mentor.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Hitler Facts – 34 Facts You Should Know About Adolf Hitler.” 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/hitleradolf/a/Hitler-Facts.htm>.

Ryback, Timothy W. “Hitler’s Forgotten Library: The Man, His Books, and His Search for God.” The Atlantic. May 2003. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/2003/05/ryback.htm>. ”You can tell a lot about a person from what he reads. The surviving—and largely ignored—remnants of Adolf Hitler’s personal library reveal a deep but erratic interest in religion and theology”

Scheffer, Paul. “Hitler: Phenomenon and Portent.” Foreign Affairs 10.3 (1932): 382-90. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 22 May 2011. “This article contains information about Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Party.”

“Snyder’s Treasures — Original Adolf Hitler Artworks.” Snyder’s Treasure Trove: Collectible Militaria. Web. 2 June 2011. <http://www.snyderstreasures.net/pages/hartworks.htm>. Pictures of Hitler’s artworks divided into historical time periods.

Soniak, Matt. “How the Führer Stole Christmas – Mental Floss.” Random, Interesting, Amazing Facts – Fun Quizzes and Trivia – Mental Floss. Mental_floss, 25 Dec. 2011. Web. 31 Dec. 2011. <http://www.mentalfloss.com/blogs/archives/77596>. “While the Third Reich was described by many as having many of the trappings of a religious sect – it was led by a cult figure with Messianic visions, had its own dogma and rituals and earned, by merit of by force, the faith of a congregation – Hitler was very clear about having no intention to turn Nazism from a political movement to a religious one.”

Sweeting, C. G. “The Day Hitler Got Cold Feet.” Aviation History (Sept. 2010): 36-41. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 30 May 2011. “During an impromptu flight to the Russian Front, the Fuhrer was to forgo the comforts of his usual transport.”

Vinciguerra, Thomas. “Duty Calls – Dinner With the Führer.” Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. The New York Times, 07 Mar. 2009. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/08/weekinreview/08vinciguerra.html?scp=1>. “More than 60 years after Adolf Hitler died, the details of his private life still grip the public imagination. Some additional glimpses emerged from a British intelligence report. … Written by an unnamed British agent and dated May 3, 1945 — three days after Hitler’s death — it summarizes the interrogation of a German lieutenant colonel who was a staff member at Hitler’s headquarters in Berlin during World War II.”

Waite, R. G. L. “Adolf Hitler’s Guilt Feelings: A Problem in History and Psychology.” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 1.2 (1971): 229-49. JSTOR. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <http://www.jstor.org/pss/202642>. ” This essay will discuss one aspect of his [Hitler] remarkably complex personality, and will show that one of history’s most ruthless rulers was beset by feelings of guilt and the need for self-punishment.”

“What Hitler Wants You to Think.” Saturday Evening Post 9 May 1942: 14+. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 30 May 2011. “The article focuses on psychological war waged by German chancellor Adolf Hitler.”