Religion and the Third Reich


“Hitler meeting the Catholic nuncio to Germany on January 1, 1935.”

“Heaven will smile on us again.” Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

“[I]t has become abundantly clear that [the Churches'] failure to respond to the horrid events … was not due to ignorance; they knew what was happening. Ultimately, the Churches’ lapses during the Nazi era were lapses of vision and determination.” Victoria J. Barnett, “The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation.”

“Adolf Hitler, Nazi Germany: Christian Nationalism, Christian Anti-Semitism, Anti-Communism.” Agnosticism / Atheism – Skepticism & Atheism for Atheists & Agnostics. About.com. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/b/2012/03/25/adolf-hitler-nazi-germany-christian-nationalism-anti-semitism.htm>. “The Nazis and Adolf Hitler are commonly thought of as representing the antithesis of Christianity and Christian values. If that’s true, why did tens of millions of German Christians adore Hitler, join the Nazis, and participate in the Holocaust (among other atrocities)? Hitler and the Nazis promoted a Christian nationalism, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, and return to traditional values which most Christians appreciated. The Nazi party platform specifically endorsed ‘positive’ Christianity.” Bibliography.

Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford UP, 1992. Print. “The book offers a thorough and insightful picture of the churches in Nazi Germany.”

Brown-Fleming, Suzanne. The Holocaust and Catholic Conscience: Cardinal Aloisius Muench and the Guilt Question in Germany, 1946-1959. Univ. of Notre Dame, 2006. Print. “In this meticulously documented and morally sensitive study, Brown-Fleming shows that evading all Catholic responsibility for Nazi Germany’s crimes often was the other side of unbroken postwar Catholic anti-Jewish hostility.”

Cline, Austin. “Catholic Complicity in Nazism, Anti-Liberal Ideologies (Book Notes: Catholic Theologians).” Agnosticism / Atheism – Skepticism & Atheism for Atheists & Agnostics. About.com, 6 Oct. 2006. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/b/2006/10/04/catholic-complicity-in-nazism-anti-liberal-ideologies-book-notes-catholic-theologians.htm>. “There were lots of reasons why Catholic leaders should have opposed Hitler and the Nazis and this makes people wonder why they bent over backwards to accommodate the Nazis. What people need to understand is that there were also lots of reasons why Catholics and other conservative Christians wanted to work with the Nazis.”

Cline, Austin. “Christians on Hitler & Nazis: Quotes from Christians Supporting Hitler – German Catholics & Protestants Praised, Supported Hitler as a Gift from God.” About.com Agnosticism / Atheism. New York Times. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/od/adolfhitlernazigermany/tp/NaziChristiansGermany.htm>. “American Christians seem to be completely unaware of the degree to which Christians in Germany threw their support behind the Nazi Party.”

Cline, Austin. “Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust.” About.com Agnosticism / Atheism. New York Times. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/od/bookreviews/fr/MoralReckoning.htm>. Review of Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust, by Daniel Jonah Golhagen.

Cline, Austin. “Nazis: Slave Labor in the Church.” About.com: Need. Know. Accomplish. About.com, 10 Apr. 2008. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/b/2008/04/10/christian-nazis-slave-labor-in-the-catholic-church.htm>. “Most people familiar with the history of World War II and the Nazi regime are aware of how large numbers of slave laborers from eastern regions were brought back to Germany and forced to work in various industries. What not so many people are aware of, though, is the fact that the Catholic Church took advantage of some of this free, slave labor: nearly 6,000 were forced to work for the church as gardeners, grave diggers, hospital orderlies, etc.”

Cline, Austin. “Pope Benedict XVI: Sins of Omission.” About.com Agnosticism / Atheism. New York Times. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/b/2005/05/20/pope-benedict-xvi-sins-of-omission.htm>. “Has Pope Benedict XVI been completely honest about his past? The facts suggest that he hasn’t – that his activities in Nazi Germany went a bit further than what he has thus far said.”

Cline, Austin. “Under His Very Windows: The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy,” by Susan Zuccotti.” About.com Agnosticism / Atheism. New York Times. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/od/bookreviews/fr/UnderWindows.htm>. Review of Under His Very Windows: The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy, by Susan Zuccott.

Cline, Austin. “Was Pope Benedict XVI (Joseph Ratzinger) A Nazi? Why Join the Hitler Youth?” About.com: Need. Know. Accomplish. New York Times. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/od/benedictxvi/i/RatzingerNazi.htm>. The author questions Joseph Ratzinger’s involvement with Nazi Germany.” Ratzinger has been less than fully candid about his past.”

“Cybrary of the Holocaust: Learning Links.” Holocaust Cybrary Remembering the Stories of the Survivors – Remember.org. Cybary of the Holocaust. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. <http://remember.org/links>. “Holocaust Community founded in 1995 to Remember, Zachor, Sich Erinnern. Remember.org offers contributors (survivors, liberators, historians, and teachers ) a place to connect and share the best research resources and stories through art, photography, painting, audio/video, and remembrance.”

Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust and Its Unfulfilled Duty of Repair. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print. A “penetrating moral inquiry into the Catholic Church’s role in the Holocaust.”

Hammond, Alan L. “Propaganda, Fear Lead to Holocaust.” Suite 101. Com. 17 Feb. 2007. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. <http://alan-l-hammond.suite101.com/propaganda-fear-lead-to-holocaust-a14030#ixzz0blijb6zwY7>. “Sentiments of renowned, popular Germans bring racial hatred to Jews.”

The Holocaust History Project. 6 June 2011. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. <http://www.holocaust-history.org/>. “The Holocaust History Project is a free archive of documents, photographs, recordings, videos and essays regarding the Holocaust, including direct refutation of Holocaust-denial.”

Humber, Paul G. “Hitler’s Evolution Versus Christian Resistance.” The Institute for Creation Research. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://www.icr.org/article/hitlers-evolution-versus-christian-resistance/>. The Institute for Creation Research claims that Hitler’s agenda met with Christian opposition.

Kimel, Alexander. “Holocaust Educational Digest – A. Kimel, Holocaust Survivor.” Holocaust Understanding and Prevention by Alexander Kimel. Alexander Kimel. Web. 03 Nov. 2011. <http://kimel.net/digest.html>. Alexander Kimel, a Holocaust survivor, has written many articles about the different aspects of the Holocaust, including its victims, survivors etc.

Mason, John B. “The Concordat with the Third Reich.” The Catholic Historical Review 20.1 (1934): 23-37. JSTOR. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. The Concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich under Hitler (1933) is examined. “The present study aims to examine certain provisions of the Reich Concordat which affect most the Church-State relationship, viz., those dealing with Catholic education and organization, priests in politics, the appointment of bishops, papal and episcopal liberty of communication, and the settlement of disputes arising over provisions of the Concordat.”

Mengus, Raymond. “Dietrich Bonhoeffer and the Decision to Resist.” The Journal of Modern History 64.S1 (1992): S134-146. JSTOR. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. A discussion of “resistance with respect of Hitler’s dictatorship” and an examination of “Bonhoeffer’s motivations for taking part in the resistance against National Socialism.”

Phayer, Michael. “Questions about Catholic Resistance.” Church History 70.02 (2001): 328-44. JSTOR. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. “After the war was over leading Catholic laity and the lower clergy pointed their finger at their bishops, faulting them for no having the backbone and willpower to stand up to Hitler. Was this fair?” YES! “Crossing over the line of respectable warnings to courageous, outspoken protest was more than the German bishops could manage.”

Phayer, Michael. The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930-1965. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000. Print. “This book is an indispensable resource for anyone who seeks to understand one of the most tragically painful episodes in the entire history of Jewish-Christian relations.”

Phayer, Michael. “Totalitarianism: Questions about Catholic Resistance.” Church History 70.02 (2001): 328-44. JSTOR. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. “Was there no Catholic resistance to Hitler himself and to his aggressive, unjust wars? Here is where the official church failed most conspicuously.”

Schroth, Raymond A. “Bonhoeffer Was Wrong.” National Catholic Reporter (Jan. 27, 2006): 15. Web. 2012. The author, who was not there, disagrees with Bonhoeffer.

Spicer, Kevin P. Hitler’s Priests: Catholic Clergy and National Socialism. DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 2008. Print. “Hitler’s Priests will contribute to the much debated argument of the level of Catholic Church resistance, conformity, and accommodation to the Nazi regime. Spicer’s use of archival materials is almost superhuman.”

Spicer, Kevin P. Resisting the Third Reich: The Catholic Clergy in Hitler’s Berlin. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois UP, 2004. Print. Nazism “provided—indeed demanded—a total way of life, encompassing rituals and social belonging, personal identity and charismatic leadership, moral values and a sense of purpose. In a word, it was a religion.”

Stieg, Margaret. “Catholic Libraries and Public Libraries in the Third Reich: A Reciprocal Relationship.” The Catholic Historical Review 77.2 (1991): 235-59. JSTOR. Web. 18 Jan. 2012. “By the time of the Nazi takeover a strong system of Catholic public libraries existed in Germany, concentrated in the predominantly Catholic areas of the Reich, Bavaria, Baden, the Rhineland, and Silesia. In 1933 the two Catholic library organizations, … had a total of 4,880 libraries that held over 5 million volumes and had lent more than 10 million volumes in the preceding year.”

Streich, Michael. “Humani Generis Unitas and the Jews: An Opportunity to Avert Genocide May Have Been Lost in 1939.” Suite 101: History/Philosophy Books. Suite101.com, 29 Oct. 2008. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. <http://www.suite101.com/content/humani-generis-unitas-and-the-jews-a75725>. “History may never know how the Nazis would have reacted if the encyclical [Humani Generis Unitas] was promulgated at the height of growing Jewish persecution in the Third Reich in early 1939.”

Streich, Michael. “The Holocaust, Nazism, and Rewriting History.” Suite101.com. Suite 101 Media Inc. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <http://michael-streich.suite101.com/the-holocaust-nazism-and rewriting-history-a109376>. “Catholic and Protestant misrepresentations of the Past”

Van Suawn, Henry P. “The Church Did It.” Saturday Evening Post. Academic Search Premier, 20 Jan. 1944. Web. 2012. The author claims that the church “is the only unintimidated voice of truth, the only unshattered champion of the oppressed and persecuted.” After the War many Germans and other WWII survivors disagreed with this.

Wall, Donald D. “The Confessing Church and Hitler’s Foreign Policy: The Czechoslovakian Crisis of 1938.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion XLIV.3 (1976): 423-38. JSTOR. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. The Confessing Church’s “service set a precedent … instead of proclaiming the righteousness of Germany’s cause … Muller confessed Germany’s sins.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Going to Mass on Sunday and Killing on Monday.” Sixmillioncrucifixions.com. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sixmillioncrucifixions.com/Going_to_Mass_on_Sunday_and_Killing_on_Monday.html>. “Both ordinary Germans and their local helpers in France, Slovakia, Croatia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania and elsewhere managed to reconcile the persecution and mass murder of Jews with their religion and morality.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Membership-in-the-Nazi-Party—Is-That-OK,-Father?” Ezine. 22 July 2010. Web. 8 May 11.<http://www.sixmillioncrucifixions.com/Membership_in_the_Nazi_Party_-_Is_that_OK,_Father.html>. “Even if the [Catholic] church cared about democracy, it would not have lifted the ban [against the Nazis] unless it thought that it was the right thing to do.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Official Church Publications: What Did the Church Have to Say?” Sixmillioncrucifixions.com. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sixmillioncrucifixions.com/Official_Church_Publications_-_What_Did_the_Church_Have_to_Say.html>. “Both L’Osservatore and Civilta Cattolica had a horrible and long record of publishing antisemitic rants.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Pius XII to Roosevelt: Please Spare Us.” Sixmilllioncrucifixions.com. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sixmillioncrucifixions.com/Pius_XII_to_Roosevelt_-_Please_Spare_Us.html>. Pope Pius XII wrote a letter begging President Roosevelt to spare Rome from Allied bombing.

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Was Pope Pius XII a Saint?” Sixmillioncrucifixions.com. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sixmillioncrucifixions.com/Was_Pope_Pius_XII_a_Saint.html>. Pope Pius XII’s inactions contributed to the murder of six million Jews.

Zerner, Ruth. “Dietrich Bonhoeffer and the Jews: Thoughts and Actions, 1935-1945.” Jewish Social Studies 37.3/4 (2011): 235-50. JSTOR. Web. 31 May 2011. “Bonhoeffer’s scattered observations about Jews and Jewish experiences, problematic passages, ambiguities, and contradictions.”

Holocaust, Jews #1



“Synagogue of Siegen, Germany, in flames during Kristallnacht (Nov. 9/10 1938)” 

“For the dead and the living, we must bear witness. For not only are we responsible for the memories of the dead, we are also responsible for what we are doing with those memories.” Elie Wiesel

 

“At no time in history were JTA [Jewish Telegraphic Agency] correspondents more needed than during the 12 long years of the Hitler regime. The JTA reported on the persecution and then the annihilation of Europe’s Jews, often providing the first, and sometimes the only reports on the unfolding Holocaust. And at no time did its correspondents face more peril to the livelihood and lives.” The dates on JTA articles are highlighted in red.

 

“1,800,000 Jews Killed in Poland Up to May of 1943, Polish Government Announces.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 July 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/07/27/2861581/1800000-jews-killed-in-poland-up-to-may-of-1943-polish-government-announces>. “More than 1,800,000 Jews had been exterminated by the Nazi occupation authorities in Poland up to May 1, 1943, Wladyslaw Banaczyk, Minister for Home Affairs in the new Polish Cabinet, announced here today on the basis of reports reaching his Government from Polish underground groups. These same reports reveal that 1,400,000 Poles were murdered in the same period, Mr. Banaczyk stated.”

“95,000 Dutch Jews Murdered by the Germans, Official Netherlands Radio Reports.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 5 July 1945. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/07/05/2867570/95000-dutch-jews-murdered-by-the-germans-official-netherlands-radio-reports>.

Ainsztein, Reuben. Jewish Resistance in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe: With a Historical Survey of the Jew as Fighter and Soldier in the Diaspora. London: Elek, 1974. Print. The author “presents a radically new account of Jews in history, showing them … at all times to have included their share of fighters possessed of a spirit of active resistance.”

“Armed Resistance Against Deportation of Jews in Slovakia, Official Report Says.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 17 June 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/06/17/2861261/armed-resistance-against-deportation-of-jews-in-slovakia-official-report-says>. “Armed resistance was offered by the populations in a number of townships in Slovakia in an attempt to prevent the deportation of Jews, it is reported in a survey prepared here by the Czechoslovakian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.”

“Avoid Mistakes of Reich Jews, Einstein Warns.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 Feb. 1935. Web. 1 Mar. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1935/02/28/2825953/avoid-mistakes-of-reich-jews-einstein-warns>. “A warning that the Jews must learn a lesson from the Jewish situation in Germany was sounded at the Hotel Commodore yesterday by Professor Albert Einstein at a reception in his honor.”.

Bart, Michael, and Laurel Corona. Until Our Last Breath: A Holocaust Story of Love and Partisan Resistance. New York: St. Martin’s, 2008. Print. “Michael Bart’s portrayal of his parents’ marriage and survival in the Vilna ghetto and of their lives as partisan fighters, is a meaningful memorial to a great Jewish community.”

Bauer, Yehuda, and Nili Keren. A History of the Holocaust. New York: F. Watts, 1982. Print. This book “will serve to open one’s eye and mind the devastation and terror that can lie just beyond the point of human frailty.”

“BBC – Archive – WWII: Witnessing the Holocaust – Buchenwald Concentration Camp.” BBC – Archive – WWII. BBC. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/holocaust/5107.shtml>. “Reporter Edward Ward files his account of entering one of the earliest built and biggest of the Nazi concentration camps, sharing everything that he saw and heard.” Audio report. Similar videos are available on this site.

“BBC – Archive – WWII: Witnessing the Holocaust – News Directive on Reporting the Concentration Camps.” BBC – Archive – WWII. BBC. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/holocaust/5133.shtml?page=txt>. This 1945 directive discusses “the importance of disseminating news on the liberated concentration camps.” Written document 1945.

“BBC – Archive – WWII: Witnessing the Holocaust – Personal Accounts of Persecution and Genocide by the Nazi Regime.” BBC – Archive – WWII. BBC. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/holocaust/index.shtml>. “These programmes and documents chart the reactions and personal testimonies of some of those who witnessed the Nazis’ ‘Final Solution.’”

“BBC NEWS | Europe | Israel Recognises ‘new Schindler.’” BBC News – Home. 29 Apr. 2005. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4432075.stm>. “A German army officer [Karl Plagge] who saved hundreds of Jews from the Nazi Holocaust in Lithuania has been honoured at a ceremony in Israel.”

Beinin, Joel. “Nazis and Spies: Representations of Jewish Espionage and Terrorism in Egypt.” Jewish Social Studies 2.3 (1996): 54-84. JSTOR. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. “The Nazi mass murder of European Jews established the standard vocabulary, rhetorical frame and social experience for assessing all subsequent threats, potential or actual, to any Jewish community, includng the Jews of Egypt.”

Berenbaum, Michael, and Arnold Kramer. The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2006. Print. This book “is a skillfully organized and clearly told account of the German Holocaust that consumed, with unparalleled malevolence, six million Jews and millions of innocent others.”

“Bibliography & Bookstore – Jewish History.” Jewish Virtual Library – Homepage. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/bibhist.html>.

Black, Edwin. “1941: When Iraqi Jews Got Butchered as Hitler Fought to Meet His Oil Needs.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 Oct. 2004. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/2004/10/5/2920793/1941>. “[T]he Jews of Baghdad found themselves caught between Hitler’s master plan to dominate Europe and the Arab-Jewish conflict in Palestine. At stake was the oil Hitler needed to succeed. That day in 1941, on the Jewish festival of Shavuot, the sight of Jews returning from the Baghdad airport to greet the returning Regent Abdul al-Ilah, ruler of Iraq, was all the excuse an Iraqi mob needed to unleash its vengeance.”

Bowman, Steven. “Jews in Wartime Greece.” Jewish Social Studies 48.1 (1986): 45-62. JSTOR. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. This essay is concerned with “the tragic decline and destruction of the various Greek Jewish communities during the 1940s in the wake of the German invasion.”

Breitman, Richard. “Plans for the Final Solution in Early 1941.” German Studies Review 17.3 (1994): 483-93. Print. There is a debate among historians about whether “the Nazi regime had long planned or hastily improvised the Holocaust.”

Bronner, Ethan. “From Overseas Visitors, a Growing Demand to Study the Holocaust.” New York Times. 14 Feb. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/15/world/middleeast/lessons-from-the-holocaust-are-widespread-and-varied.html?emc=tnt&tntemail1=y>. “The students were spared nothing. There were sessions on Nazi disputes over how to murder the Jews; propaganda art in the Third Reich; encounters with survivors; a history of anti-Semitism; the dilemmas faced by leaders of the Jewish ghetto councils. Yad Vashem puts on 70 seminars a year for groups of visiting educators. It was just what one might expect from a 10-day seminar at Yad Vashem, Israel’s Holocaust memorial and museum.”

Browning, Christopher R. “Nazi Resettlement Policy and the Search for a Solution to the Jewish Question, 1939-1941.” German Studies Review 9.3 (1986): 497-519. JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. “Hitler spoke about the ‘annihilation of the Jews’ years before the Holocaust, believing firmly in a ‘Jewish conspiracy’ that controlled world events.”

Buergenthal, Thomas. A Lucky Child: A Memoir of Surviving Auschwitz as a Young Boy. New York: Little, Brown, 2009. Print. The author was a prisoner at Nazi concentration and death camps for several years as a child. “Thomas managed [without parents] by his wits and some remarkable strokes of luck to survive Auschwitz and the infamous death march.” This book “demonstrates the sheer force of will and determination that even the youngest victims of the Holocaust evinced.”

Bulow, Louis. “The Rescue of the Danish Jews.” Holocaust Remembrance, Sanctuary, and Tribute to Survivors. Holocaust Survivors’ Network, 2004. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://isurvived.org/Rightheous_Folder/danish_jews-rescue.html>. “This is one of the great untold stories of World War II: In 1943, in the German occupied Denmark, the Danes find out that all 7,500 Danish Jews are about to be rounded up and deported to German death camps. The Danish people make their own decision: it’s not going to happen …” Preben Munch-Nielsen and Knud Dyby are profiled.

Carmel, Philip. “Belgium Examines Its WWII Record.” JTA – Jewish & Israel News. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 21 Oct. 2004. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2004/10/21/12089/AftermanyyearsBe>. “The Center for Historical Research and Documentation on War and Contemporary Society — a government body [in Belgium] known by its French acronym Ceges — began examining the wartime files of various government agencies. The study follows a Senate bill in 2002 that said Belgium should take a hard look at its past and “establish the facts and possible responsibilities of Belgian authorities in the deportation of Jews” during the Nazi occupation from 1940-1944.”

“Chiune (Sempo) Sugihara.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005594>. “In the summer of 1940, when refugees came to him with bogus visas for Curacao and other Dutch possessions in America, Sugihara decided to facilitate their escape from war-torn Europe. In the absence of clear instructions from Tokyo, he granted 10-day visas for transit through Japan to hundreds of refugees who held Curacao destination visas. Before closing his consulate in the fall of 1940, Sugihara even gave visas to refugees who lacked all travel papers.”

Cohen, Roger. “‘The Suffering Olympics’” New York Times. 30 Jan. 2012. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/the-suffering-olympics.html>. “The ‘double genocide’ wars that pit Stalin’s crimes against Hitler’s are raging in wide swathes of Europe and every now and again along comes a gust from the past to stoke them. The 70th anniversary … of the Nazi adoption at Wannsee of annihilation plans for the Jews provided one such squall.”

“Coming of Age Now | Home.” Coming of Age | Home. Museum of Jewish Heritage, 2010. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <http://comingofagenow.org/survivor-stories/>. “Coming of Age features twelve stories of Holocaust survivors and one story of an individual who grew up in the Mandate of Palestine during the same period.”

Cope, Dorian. “Heroes of the Holocaust – The Jews Revolt Against the Nazis at Treblinka.” Ezine Articles. Ezinearticles.com, 2 Aug. 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. <http://ezinearticles.com/?Heroes-of-the-Holocaust—The-Jews-Revolt-Against-the-Nazis-at-Treblinka&id=4782162>. Jewish prisoners planned and executed the Treblinka Revolt on August 2, 1943.

Cummings, Denis. “On This Day: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Begins.” FindingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources. FindingDulcinea, 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. <http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March-April-08/On-this-Day–Warsaw-Ghetto-Uprising-Begins.html>. “On April 19, 1943, Jews living in the Warsaw ghetto launched a revolt against the German SS that would take weeks to suppress. It was the largest Jewish act of resistance during the Holocaust.”

The Danish Solution. Dir. Karen Kantor. Perf. Garrison Keillor. Garden Thieves Pictures, 2003. DVD. When Hitler threatened Denmark’s Jews, the community arose overnight to save them. Danes from all levels of society stood up to the German might at a time when most of Europe turned a blind eye. Together they hid over 7,000 people and sailed them to safety in neutral Sweden.

“Denmark Resists Nazi Efforts to Introduce Anti-jewish Laws.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 21 Jan. 1942. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/01/21/2856947/denmark-resists-nazi-efforts-to-introduce-antijewish-laws>. “Efforts by the Nazi authorities in Denmark to force anti-Jewish laws upon the population there are meeting with stiff resistance on the part of the Danish press and church leaders there, according to reports reaching here today.”

“The Deportation of Austrian and German Jews.” Jewish Virtual Library – Homepage. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/The_Deportation_of_Austrian_and_German_Jews.html>. “Tens of thousands of Jews from Germany and Austria were deported to the Lublin district at the end of 1939/beginning of 1940, and, on a smaller scale, in the years following.”

Dickinson, John K. German & Jew: The Life and Death of Sigmund Stein. Chicago: I.R. Dee, 2001. Print. The story of Sigmund Stein, proud German lawyer. “The torment of his Jewish heritage and his proud German upbringing–the loyalties of a lifetime–was finally resolved in Auschwitz.”

Donat, Alexander. Death Camp Treblinka: A Documentary. [S.l.]: Schocken, 1987. Print. “This book is a compilation of six eyewitness accounts from Treblinka escapees, an English translation of Rachel Auerbach’s investigation, and description of the 1960′s trails of Treblinka Nazis in West Germany. Editor Donat notes that the West German government was very slow in locating and prosecuting these Nazi criminals, and then did it halfheartedly and leniently.”

Eckman, Lester Samuel., and Litai Chaim Lazar. The Jewish Resistance: The History of the Jewish Partisans in Lithuania and White Russia during the Nazi Occupation, 1940-1945. New York: Shengold, 1977. Print. A “history of Jewish men, women and children from Lithuania and White Russia, who fought valiantly and courageously as partisans in the Second World War.”

Edelheit, Abraham J., and Hershel Edelheit. History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder: Westview, 1994. Print. “A concise overview of Jewish history during the Nazi era, a comprehensive Holocaust glossary, and a tabular and graphic presentation of applicable information.” Includes a chapter on Jewish resistance.

“Eichmann Found Guilty; Reading of Judgment to Conclude Tomorrow.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. JTA Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 12 Dec. 1961. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1961/12/12/3067983/eichmann-found-guilty-reading-of-judgment-to-conclude-tomorrow>. “Israel’s three-man District Court here, which tried Adolf Eichmann on a 15-count indictment, today found the ex-Nazi guilty on all counts. The verdict was unanimous. … Eichmann had been charged specifically with crimes against the Jewish people, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and membership in organizations declared ‘criminal’ by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1946.”

Eisner, Peter. “Saving the Jews of Nazi France.” History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institute, Mar. 2009. Web. 08 Oct. 2011. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Binghams-List.html>. “As Jews in France tried to flee the Nazi occupation, Harry Bingham, an American diplomat, sped them to safety.”

Epstein, Helen. Children of the Holocaust: Conversations with Sons and Daughters of Survivors. New York: Putnam, 1979. Print. “The ground-breaking book on inter-generational trauma and families of Holocaust survivors, with a bibliography by Dr. Eva Fogelman.”

“The Fate of the Jews of Denmark.” Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/nazioccupation/danishjews.html>. When Hitler declared a “final solution” for Danish Jews, no German carried out the Fuhrer’s order. Most of the Danish Jews were saved. “No rescue would have been possible if the bulk of the Danish nation had not been sympathetic and a very large number or ordinary people disposed to risk their lives out of common charity.”

“Fighting Hitler: A Holocaust Story.” Scholastic Scope. MasterFILE Premier, 18 Apr. 2011. Web. 24 May 2011. “This article presents the story of Ben Kamm, one of the Jewish teens who fought against dictator Adolf Hitler and the Nazis during World War II in Germany.”

Film about Briton Who Saved Jewish Children Premiers. Dir. Matej Minac. Film. The Jerusalem Post, 24 April. 2012. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. <http://www.jpost.com/LandedPages/PrintArticle.aspx?id=204557#>. “Sir Nicholas Winton arranged 8 trains to carry 669 children, mostly Jewish, from Czechoslovakia to Britain at the outbreak of World War II.”

Fleming, Gerald. Hitler and the Final Solution. Berkeley: University of California, 1984. Print. The author “concludes not only that Hitler deliberately designed and personally ordered the Final Solution, but also that his role was purposefully disguised so that it could not be readily traced.”

Ford, Sarah. “Jersey’s Oskar Schindler.” BBC – News. 17 June 2000. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/792329.stm>. Israel has bestowed “its highest honour on a man from Jersey, Albert Bedane, who has been posthumously named Righteous Among the Nations for his bravery – just as Schindler was.”

“Fraktur: Bormann Typeface Decree – English.” Learn German. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <http://german.about.com/library/gallery/blfoto_fraktur06E.htm>. The Bormann Decree banned the use of the Fraktur typeface because it was “Jewish.” The letterhead of this decree was in the banned typeface.

“French War Prisoner Describes Mass Execution of Jews in Poland by Nazis.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 24 Nov. 1943. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/11/24/2862354/french-war-prisoner-describes-mass-execution-of-jews-in-poland-by-nazis>. “The mass executions of hundreds of Jews from Germany and Nazi-occupied countries in a public square in the city of Tarnopol, in the Ukraine, was described here today by a young French war prisoner who recently succeeded in escaping to Sweden from a German prison camp in Prussia.”

Friedman, Jeanette. “Survivors Who Dared to Resist.” JTA – Jewish & Israel News. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 8 Nov. 2007. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2007/11/08/105199/friedmanoped>. In “Daring to Resist: Jewish Defiance in the Holocaust,” the catalog that accompanies the exhibit of the same name, the director of the Museum of Jewish Heritage-A Living Memorial to the Holocaust here puts into print the question on everyone’s lips when the survivors were liberated. “Context is everything,” David Marwell writes. “In trying to understand the study of Jewish resistance during the Holocaust, this dictum becomes especially critical.”

Friedman, Philip. “The Jewish Ghettos of the Nazi Era.” Jewish Social Studiies 16.1 (1964): 61-88. JSTOR. Web. “This article deals with the activities of the Nazi agencies set up for the purpose of confining the Jews to ghettos as a step towards genocide.”

Gercke, Achim, and Johann Von Leers. “Two 1933 Nazi Articles on the Jews.” Calvin College – Minds In The Making. Calvin College: German Propaganda Archive, 2007. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/gercke.htm>. “This page provides two April 1933 articles about how to solve the “Jewish Question,” taken from the Nazi Party’s theoretical journal. Both propose a “Zionist” solution to the “Jewish Question,” though von Leers explicitly rejects a Jewish state in Palestine.”

Gerlach, Christian. “The Wannsee Conference, the Fate of German Jews, and Hitler’s Decision in Principle to Exterminate All European Jews.” The Journal of Modern History 70.4 (1998): 759-812. JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. Eberhard Jackel wrote “The most remarkable thing about the meeting at Wannsee … is that we do not know why it took place.” The author says he “will attempt to show that, despite all the attention paid to it, the significance of the Wannsee Conference of January 20, 1942, has not been fully appreciated.”

“German Data Reveals 1,071,600 Polish Jews Transported to Extermination Camps.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 6 Jan. 1944. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1944/01/06/2862729/german-data-reveals-1071600-polish-jews-transported-to-extermination-camps>. “Official statistics of the German Railways operating in occupied Poland reveal that 1,071,600 doomed Jews were transported to Treblinka, Belzetz and other ‘extermination camps’ during the year beginning April 1, 1942 and ending March 31, 1943.”

“Gestapo Agrees to Release Jews from Camps; 1,200 Reach Switzerland; More Due Today.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. JTA Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 9 Feb. 1945. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/02/09/2866478/gestapo-agrees-to-release-jews-from-camps-1200-reach-switzerland-more-due-today>. “One of the most fantastic feats of rescue of Jewish internees from German concentration camps has been accomplished by a group of twenty orthodox Swiss Jews who sent Jean M. Musy, a former member of the Swiss Federal Council, to Gestapo chief Heinrich Himmler in order to negotiate with him concerning the fate of Jews remaining in Germany.”

Good, Michael. The Search for Major Plagge: The Nazi Who Saved Jews. New York: Fordham UP, 2005. Print. “Karl Plagge’s story is of a unique kind of courage–that of a German army officer who subverted the system of death to save the lives of some 250 Jews in Vilna, Lithuania. One of those he saved was Michael Good’s mother.”

Grobman, Cary. “A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust Site Map.” A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust. Florida Center for Instructional Technology, 2005. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/sitemap/sitemap.htm>. This is the exhaustive teacher’s guide to the Holocaust, including 57 sections on everything about the Holocaust.

Grobman, Gary. “The Holocaust–A Guide for Teachers.” Holocaust Cybrary Remembering the Stories of the Survivors. Remember.org, 1990. Web. 8 Dec. 2011. <http://remember.org/guide/>. This is the bibliography for a very complete instructional guide for teachers. It has 16 sections including “Resisters, Rescuers, and Bystanders.”

Gross, Leonard. The Last Jews in Berlin. New York. Simon and Schuster, 1982. Print. “A handful of men and women hunted by many, protected by few … One of the most moving stories of bravery and survival to emerge from the Holocaust.”

Gross, Tom. “Goodbye, Golden Rose.” Latest News, Sport and Comment from the Guardian | The Guardian. Guardian.co.uk, 2 Sept. 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/sep/02/ukraine-holocaust-denial-lviv/>. “Last week I watched as bulldozers began to demolish the adjacent remnants of what was once one of Europe’s most beautiful synagogue complexes, the 16th-century Golden Rose in Lviv. Most of the rest of the synagogue was burned down, with Jews inside, by the Nazis in 1941. During the war, 42 other synagogues were destroyed in Lviv …”

Hall, Robert. “Czech Evacuees Thank Their Saviour.” BBC – News -UK. 4 Sept. 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8237231.stm>. “Seventy years after a British man helped them flee Czechoslovakia on the eve of WWII, a group of evacuees have retraced their journey.”

Hall, Robert. “Retracing a Life-saving Journey.” BBC – News -UK. 31 Aug. 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8227929.stm>. “At home in London, Lisa Midwinter packs for a journey into her past. Four days during which she, her son, and her granddaughter will relive her childhood experiences. Four days to retrace her route out of Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia, and to meet the man [Nicholas Winton] whose actions saved her life.”

Hanging by a Thread- Reflections on Being a Jew During the Holocaust. By Dr. David Silberklang. Yadvashem.org. Yadvashem, 1 Aug. 2010. Web. 28 Jan. 2012. <http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/holocaust/insights/video/jewish_experience.asp>. This first-rate “video is part of the series Insights and Perspectives from Holocaust Researchers and Historians.” The Nazi policies were totality, relentlessness, no exceptions, no compromises.

“Hatikva at Bergen-Belsen.” Dir. Moe Ash. Perf. Jewish Prisoners at Nazi Concentration Camp. Online. Hatikva at Bergen-Belsen. Smithsonian Center for American Folklore. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=syUSmEbGLs4>. In 1945 a few hundred Jewish survivors at Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp sing “Hatikva” while they are surrounded by 100,000 bodies of those who were murdered by the Nazis. The camp was liberated by the British troops of the 2nd Army. Patrick Gordon Walker is the narrator of this radio broadcast. Moe Ash made the recording. Hatikva is now Israel’s national anthem.

Heartwebsite.org. Holocaust Era Asset Restitution Taskforce. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <http://www.heartwebsite.org>. “Welcome to the official website of Project HEART, the Holocaust Era Asset Restitution Taskforce. The purpose of Project HEART is to help individuals with restitution for property that was confiscated, looted, or forcibly sold during the era of the Shoah.”

Heller, Aron. “Eichmann Exhibit Gives Glimpse of Israel’s Mossad.” News from The Associated Press. Associated Press, 7 Feb. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. < http://www.anti-semitism.net/israel/eichmann-exhibit-gives-glimpse-of-israels-mossad.php>. “Lifting a half-century veil of secrecy, Israel’s Mossad spy agency is opening its archive this week to reveal the story behind the legendary 1960 capture of Nazi mastermind Adolf Eichmann.”

Hickman, Kennedy. “Warsaw Uprising – Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.” Military History – Warfare through the Ages – Battles and Conflicts – Weapons of War – Military Leaders in History. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/p/World-War-Ii-Warsaw-Ghetto-Uprising.htm>. The Warsaw Ghetto contained 300,000-400,000 people. Only 60,000-70,000 Jews remained after the rest were deported to concentration camps. The remaining Jews rebelled against the German troops until the soldiers suppressed the rebellion.

History of the Swastika. By Jennifer Rosenberg. How-to Videos: How-to and DIY Videos. About.com. Web. 28 Jan. 2012. <http://video.about.com/history1900s/The-History-of-the-Swastika.htm?nl=1>. “The swastika is now most closely associated with Nazi Germany, but throughout history, it’s actually had a number of meanings as discussed in this video.

“Hitler Plans to ‘liquidate’ Warsaw Ghetto; All Jews to Be Sent to Lublin Reservation.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 03 Mar. 1942. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/03/03/2856962/hitler-plans-to-liquidate-warsaw-ghetto-all-jews-to-be-sent-to-lublin-reservation>. “A plan to ‘liquidate’ the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw and to transfer all the 500,000 Jews confined there to a “reservation” in the Lublin district is now being worked out by Nazi authorities in Berlin, according to a report published in the Nazi newspaper Warschauer Zeitung which reached here today.”

“Hoess Confirms Jewish Historian’s Testimony That 1,500,000 Jews Murdered at Oswiecim.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 Mar. 1947. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1947/03/28/3009328/hoess-confirms-jewish-historians-testimony-that-1500000-jews-murdered-at-oswiecim>. “Rudolf Hoess, former commandant of the Oswiecim death camp, on trial here for murdering 4,000,000 persons many of whom were Jews, today confirmed testimony by Dr. J.M. Blumenthal, director of the Jewish Historical Commission in Poland, that approximately 1,500,000 Jews were exterminated at Oswiecim.”

The Holocaust, Crimes, Heroes and Villains. Web. 21 Dec. 2011. <http://www.auschwitz.dk/>. Website dedicated to the Holocaust. Topics include Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust, Josef Mengele, Louis Bulow, Irena Sendler, Amon Goeth, Hitlers Nazi Butcher, Hell of Belzec, Schindlers List, and Treblinka, Hitler’s SS Camp, and many more.

Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 May 2011. < http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/a2z.php?type=article>. Look for the Glossary, the Glossary of terms and individuals in the Nazi Judicial system.

“Holocaust History.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 4 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org>. “For the dead and the living, we must bear witness. For not only are we responsible for the memories of the dead, we are also responsible for what we are doing with those memories.” Elie Wiesel

“The Holocaust Timeline.” About.com–20th Century History. About.com. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://history1900s.about.com/library/holocaust/bltimeline3.htm>. The Holocaust 1933-40.

“Hungarian Jews Will Be Massacred Before Entry of Russians, Budapest Papers Threaten.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 18 May 1944. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1944/05/18/2863993/hungarian-jews-will-be-massacred-before-entry-of-russians-budapest-papers-threaten>. “ZURICH, May. 17 (JTA) – The Jewish population of Hungary will be massacred in the ghettos into which they are now being herded, in the event that an invasion by Russian troops become imminent, pro-Nazi Budapest newspapers threaten.”

“Is the World Really Unable to Save Us?”, Asks Message from Jews in Nazi Poland.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 11 Feb. 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/02/11/2859871/is-the-world-really-unable-to-save-us-asks-message-from-jews-in-nazi-poland>. “Somewhere in Europe, Feb. 10 (JTA) – “Is the world really unable to save us?” asks a pathetic message, in code, from Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland, which was received here today.”

Janiewicz, Kryzysztof. “Tuvia Bielski Bandits – Part I (documents).” Mining Directory. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <http://www.minelinks.com/war/bandits.html>. “[T]he story of Bielski brothers wasn’t forgotten. And, they weren’t too busy to promote their story. This is not the first reference that appeared on the subject. In 1993, Oxford University Press published ‘Defiance: the Bielski Partisans’ by Nechama Tec. The account based on interviews of former partisans including Tuvia Bielski before his passing away in 1987. It includes photographs, an organizational directory of the Bielski partisan group, a biographical appendix, and a glossary of foreign terms.”

Janiewicz, Krzysztof. “Tuvia Bielski Bandits – Part II (documents).” Mining Directory. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <http:www.minelinks.com/war/bandits_1.html>. “How many more innocent people did Bielski’s partisans kill nobody really knows. It is not that hard to become ‘aggressive fighters’ against unarmed men, women and children. Most likely Bielski’s partisans were just aggressive plunderers, not aggressive fighters. Probably many more peasants lost their lives trying to defend their property. Of course in reports, they all became ‘Nazi allied fighters’ and anti-semites; the peoples Jews don’t like. This sounded better since there was no glory in murdering defenseless Polish civilians.”

“Janusz Korczak.” Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Holocaust Research Project, 2007. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/ghettos/korczak.html>. Biography of Janusz Korczak, pen name of Henryk Goldszmit, physician, writer, and educator, who wrote many books on the education of children. He, his assistants, and two hundred orphans were murdered at Treblinka. He is the author of ” Ghetto Diary.”

“Jewish Community in Slovakia Reduced from 130,000 to 25,000; Many Died As Partisans.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 31 Aug. 1945. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/08/31/2868033/jewish-community-in-slovakia-reduced-from-130000-to-25000-many-died-as-partisans>. “More than 5,000 Jewish partisans were killed in Slovakia during the underground struggle against the Germans, it was revealed here today by Salomon Weber, President of the Slovakian Jewish Committee, in an interview with the correspondent of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency.”

Johnson, Daniel. “Goodnight, Vienna .” Jewish Ideas Daily. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/content/module/2012/1/4/main-feature/1/goodnight-vienna/r>. Austrians did much damage, “to not only their Jewish citizens but themselves, when they welcomed Hitler in 1938.”

Kagan, Jack, and Dov Cohen. Surviving the Holocaust with the Russian Jewish Partisans. London: Vallentine Mitchell, 1998. Print. “Two cousins relate their experiences in war-torn Russia during the Second World War.”

Khaleeli, Homa. “I Escaped from Auschwitz.” The Guardian. Guardian.co.uk, 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/11/i-escaped-from-auschwitz/>. “Kazimierz Piechowski is one of just 144 prisoners to have broken out of the notorious Nazi camp and survive. Today aged 91, he tells his extraordinary story.”

Korczak, Janusz. Ghetto Diary. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 2003. Print. “Korczak was sent into the Warsaw Ghetto after the Nazi occupation of Poland. He immediately set up an orphanage for more than two hundred children. Many of his admirers, Jewish and gentile, offered to rescue him from the ghetto, but Korczak refused to leave his small charges. When the Nazis ordered the children to board a train that was to carry them to the Treblinka death camp, Korczak went with them, despite the Nazis’ offer of special treatment. His selfless behavior in caring for these children’s lives and deaths has made him beloved throughout the world.”

Kuttler, Hillel. “Seeking Kin: Man Hidden as Baby Hopes to Honor Father-rescuer.” JTA – Jewish & Israel News. Jewish Telegraph Association, 13 Jan. 2012. Web. 17 Jan. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/01/13/3091180/seeking-kin-man-hidden-as-baby-hopes-to-honor-father-rescuer>. Even after seven decades, Peter Nurnberger’s most basic biographical facts remain elusive. The Slovakian doesn’t know his birth date, his natural parents’ fate or whether they had any other children.”

Laqueur, Walter, and Judith Tydor Baumel-Schwartz. “German Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1945.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 13 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005357>. “Six years of Nazi-sponsored legislation had marginalized and disenfranchised Germany’s Jewish citizenry and had expelled Jews from the professions and from commercial life.”

Laqueur, Walter, and Judith Tydor Baumel-Schwartz. The Holocaust Encyclopedia. New Haven: Yale UP, 2001. Print. “This book reaches beyond facts and details to reveal the depths of the Holocaust experience and its aftermath.” The book has a long entry on resistance.

Laqueur, Walter. Generation Exodus: The Fate of Young Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany. Hanover, NH: Brandeis UP, Published by UP of New England, 2001. Print. “Laqueur has undertaken the daunting task of writing the collective biography of a generation unique in history: the children of the German-Jewish families who fled Germany in the 1930s”

Leff, Laurel. Buried by the Times: The Holocaust and America’s Most Important Newspaper. Cambridge [UK: Cambridge UP, 2006. Print. "Laurel Leff has written an exceptional study of the darkest failures of the 'New York Times' - it's non-coverage of the Holocaust during World War II. How could the best newspaper in the United States, perhaps in the world, under-estimate and underreport the mass killing of more than 6,000,000 Jews?"

Leff, Laurel. "Holocaust: The Holocaust from Behind Enemy Lines." JTA - Jewish News Archive. JTA Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/topic/holocaust>. "At no time in history were JTA correspondents more needed than during the 12 long years of the Hitler regime. The JTA reported on the persecution and then the annihilation of Europe’s Jews, often providing the first, and sometimes the only, reports on the unfolding Holocaust. And at no time did its correspondents face more peril to their livelihood and lives."

Leuchter, Sara. "The Holocaust in History: Eyewitnesses to Terror." The Wisconsin Magazine of History 68.3 (1985): 204-09. JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. In 1974 the State Historical Society of Wisconsin planned an oral history project with Wisconsin survivors of the Holocaust. The 200-page "Guide to Wisconsin Survivors of the Holocaust 1983" contains biographies, tape-recorded interviews, a bibliography, a glossary, and maps.

Leuner, Heinz David. When Compassion Was a Crime: Germany's Silent Heroes, 1933-45. London: Wolff, 1966. Print. Why did ordinary, non-political Germans react to Nazi indoctrination with hatred of every Jew and person of Jewish descent?

Levi, Primo, Benedetti Leonardo. De, and Robert S. C. Gordon. Auschwitz Report. London: Verso, 2006. Print. Primo Levi's report on living conditions in Auschwitz.

"Lithuania Neglects the Memory of Its Murdered Jews." The Guardian. Guardian.co.uk, 29 July 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jul/29/lithuania-murdered-jews-wartime-crimes/>. "[I]ndubitable western ignorance of Soviet crimes is no excuse for neglecting the historical record of the tragedy of Lithuanian Jews. Horrible as the Soviet occupation was, the largest group of genocide victims in Lithuania were the Jews murdered by the Germans with the help of the local population. These people were, of course, Lithuanian citizens.”

Lucaire, Edward. “Holocaust: 3 Million Holocaust Victims Were Non-Jews.” Holocaust – Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust – Pictures – Stories. Holocaustforgotten.com, 2002. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <http://holocaustforgotten.com/Lucaire.htm>. “The best-kept secret in the U.S. about the Holocaust is that Poland lost six million citizens or about one-fifth of its population: three million of the dead were Polish Christians, predominantly Catholic, and the other three million were Polish Jews. The second best-kept secret of the Holocaust is the greatest number of Gentile rescuers of Jews were Poles, despite the fact that only in Poland were people (and their loved ones) immediately executed if caught trying to save Jews.”

Maheshawri, Vijai. “Vilnius Remembers.” History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institute, Dec. 2004. Web. 08 Oct. 2011. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/vilnius.html>. “In Vilnius, Lithuania, preservationists are creating a living memorial to the nation’s 225,000 Holocaust victims.”

Mallmann, Klaus-Michael, Martin Cüppers, and Krista Smith. Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine. New York: Enigma, 2010. Print. “A very important study regarding German-Arab collaboration during World War II against the Jews in the Arab world in general in Palestine in particular.’

Miller, Erin C. “Elie Wiesel Profile – Biography of a Holocaust Survivor & Bestselling Author of Night.” Bestselling Books – Reviews and Resources on Bestsellers. About.com. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. <http://bestsellers.about.com/od/authorprofilesaz/p/wiesel_bio.htm>. Profile of Elie Wiesel, author, survivor of the concentration camps.

Miller, Erin C. “Night by Elie Wiesel.” Bestsellers.about.com. About.com. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <http://bestsellers.about.com/od/nonfictionreviews/gr/Night_r.htm>. Review of Night, by Elie Wiesel, provides a short and moving account of Wiesel’s experience in Nazi concentration camps.

Mozes, Mendel. “1,500,000 Polish Jews Face Extinction Under Hitler – Matter of Months, Mozes Reports.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 31 Oct. 1939. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1939/10/31/2848344/1500000-polish-jews-face-extinction-under-hitler–matter-of-months-mozes-reports>. “Editor’s Note: Following is the first authentic, comprehensive account of the fate that has overwhelmed more than 1,500,000 Jews in the Nazi-held areas of Poland.”

“Nazi Anti-jewish Atrocities Described at Meeting in Moscow.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. JTA Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Aug. 1941. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1941/08/26/2855221/nazi-antijewish-atrocities-described-at-meeting-in-moscow>. “The meeting addressed an appeal to the Jews of the world ‘to listen to the guns of Gemel and the voices of the murdered Jewish woman of Berdichev’ and to realise that the Nazis are determined to wipe out the Jewish people as a national. It called on the Jews of the world to actively participate in the fight against Hitlerism wherever they are.”

“Nazi Hunters Boost Drive to Find Aging War Criminals before They Die.”
Worldnews.msnbc.msn.com. MSNBC. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://worldnews.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2011/12/14/9448959-nazi-hunters-boost-drive-to-find-aging-war-criminals-before-they-die>. “The Simon Wiesenthal Center on Wednesday launched a new race against time to prosecute Nazi war criminals still alive 66 years after the end of World War II.”

“Nazi Medical Experiments.” Judaism & Jewish Life – My Jewish Learning. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/1914-1948/The_Holocaust/War/Final_Solution/Medical_Experiments.shtml>. “A series of brutal pseudo-scientific medical experiments were performed in Nazi camps from 1939 to 1945. Approximately 7,000 Jews, Gypsies, and prisoners of war were used as human guinea pigs in these experiments, conducted by trained Nazi medical doctors.”

“Nazis Start Mass-Execution of Warsaw Jews on Passover; Victims Broadcast S.O.S.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 23 Apr. 1943. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/04/23/2860642/nazis-start-massexecution-of-warsaw-jews-on-passover-victims-broadcast-sos>. “A massacre of the last 35,000 Jews in the Warsaw ghetto was started by the Nazis on Passover with the streets of Warsaw echoing to the shots of the Nazi murderers and the shrieks of the victims, while able-bodied Jews were trying to defend themselves within the walls of the ghetto.”

“News Brief.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 20 Oct. 2008. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. < http://archive.jta.org/article/2008/10/20/2941533/news-brief>. A memorial to Holocaust hero Rosa Robota was unveiled in Sydney.”

“Noremberg Laws for Soviet Jews Seen in Reich As Part of Red-nazi Pact.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. 29 Dec. 1939. Web. 02 Jan. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1939/12/29/2849084/noremberg-laws-for-soviet-jews-seen-in-reich-as-part-of-rednazi-pact>. “Oswald Garrison Villard, noted journalist, reported in The Nation today that ‘responsible circles in Germany’ held the belief that the Nuremberg racial laws would be applied to the Jews in Soviet Russia as part of the Soviet-Nazi agreement.”

“Nowhere to Turn: Plight of German Jews in Nazi Germany, 1933-1941.” Minnesota Humanities Council. Minnesota State University. Web. 2 June 2011. < http://web.mnstate.edu/shoptaug/Titlepage.htm>. Valuable website covering everything related to German Jews and the Holocaust. A bibliography and links to other websites are included.

Operation: Last Chance. Simon Wiesenthal Center, 31 Mar. 2010. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <http://www.operationlastchance.org/>. “OPERATION: LAST CHANCE is a campaign to bring remaining Nazi war criminals to justice by offering financial rewards for information leading to their arrest and conviction. To date the initiative has been launched in Germany, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Romania, Austria, Croatia, and Hungary.”

Pencak Schwartz, Terese. “Holocaust – Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust.” Holocaust Forgotten. 2011. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <http://holocaustforgotten.com>. “Raised by parents who had survived the Holocaust, I heard many stories about the atrocities of this World War II horror. I learned how one of my family’s homes in Poland was burned to the ground by Nazis. I learned that my uncle was shot in the head by Nazi soldiers because his family was hiding a Jewish woman.”

“Polish “death Camp” Burnt Down by Revolting Jews, Many Flee, Underground Reports.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Sept. 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/09/26/2862040/polish-death-camp-burnt-down-by-revolting-jews-many-flee-underground-reports>. “The entire Treblinka ‘death camp’ in Poland has been burnt down by revolting Jews, according to latest reports of the uprising broadcast yesterday by the underground Polish radio SWIT. Earlier this week, the Polish Government was informed that a revolt had broken out in the camp and many buildings were set afire, but up until yesterday no further details were available. The Polish broadcaster stated that many Jews at Treblinka utilized the confusion ensuing from the conflagration to escape.”

Poznanski, Renée.+. [Waltham, Mass.]: Brandeis UP in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2001. Print. “Jews in France during World War II provides a detailed and nuanced account of Jews in both occupied and Vichy France, as well as of Jewish left in French camps.”

Poznanski, Renee. “Reflections on Jewish Resistance and Jewish Resistants in France.” Jewish Social Studies 2.1 (1995): 124-58. JSTOR. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/4467463>. It’s hard to define “Jewish Resistance in France” during World War II. The issues involved are examined.

“Prewar German Laws Against The Jews Timeline.” Holocaust Lest We Forget.com. 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2011. <http://www.holocaust-lest-we-forget.com/prewar-german-laws-against-the-jews-timeline/2010/02/>. “During the first six years of Hitler’s dictatorship, from 1933 until the outbreak of war in 1939, Jews felt the effects of more than 400 decrees and regulations that restricted all aspects of their public and private lives.”

“A Priest Bears Witness.” Moment (2011). Moment Magazine. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://momentmag.com/moment/issues/2011/12/desbois.html>. “Father Patrick Desbois is on a mission to uncover the mass graves of nearly two million Jews. 60 years after the Holocaust, time is running out.”

Rayski, Adam. The Choice of the Jews under Vichy: Between Submission and Resistance. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame, 2005. Print. “It is France that, along with Germany, has persecuted the most Jews.”

“Resources for the Holocaust.” FindingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources. Web. 17 Jan. 2012. <http://www.findingdulcinea.com/guides/Reference/World-War-II.pg_01.html#01>.

Rigg, Bryan Mark. Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racial Laws and Men of Jewish Descent in the German Military. Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, 2002. Print. “Contrary to conventional views, Riggs reveals that a startingly large number of German military men were classified by the Nazis as Jews or “partial-Jews.”

Ringelblum, Emanuel. Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto. New York: Schoken Books, 2006. Print. “Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto is the moving account of the horror of the Warsaw Ghetto—written by the recognized archivist and historian of the area while he lived through it. Through anecdotes, stories, and notations—some as brief as was slapped today in Zlota Street,—there emerges the agonizing, eyewitness accounts of human beings caught in the furor of senseless, unrelenting brutality. … It is a portrait of man tested by crisis, stained at times by the meanness of avarice and self-preservation, illumined more often by moments of nobility.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Hidden Children.” About.com 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/a/hiddenchildren.htm>. “When you look at children today, many laugh, smile, play, learn. But under the persecution and terror of the Third Reich, Jewish children could not afford these simple, childlike pleasures.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “The Holocaust – Comprehensive Resources About the Holocaust.” 20th Century History – The Holocaust. About.com. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/tp/holocaust.htm>. “Whether you are just beginning to learn about the Holocaust or you are looking for more in-depth stories about the subject, this page is for you. The beginner will find a glossary, a timeline, a list of the camps, a map, and much more. Those more knowledgeable about the topic will find interesting stories about spies in the SS, detailed overviews of some of the camps, a history of the yellow badge, medical experimentation, and much more.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Sobibor – Life and Death in the Sobibor Death Camp.” 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/a/sobibor.htm>. “The Sobibor Death Camp was one of the Nazis’ best kept secrets. When Toivi Blatt, one of the very few survivors of the camp, approached a ‘well-known survivor of Auschwitz’ in 1958 with a manuscript he had written about his experiences, he was told, ‘You have a tremendous imagination. I’ve never heard of Sobibor and especially not of Jews revolting there.’ The secrecy of the Sobibor death camp was too successful – its victims and survivors were being disbelieved and forgotten.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “The Holocaust – Comprehensive Resources About the Holocaust.” 20th Century History – The Holocaust. About.com. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/tp/holocaust.htm>. “Whether you are just beginning to learn about the Holocaust or you are looking for more in-depth stories about the subject, this page is for you. The beginner will find a glossary, a timeline, a list of the camps, a map, and much more. Those more knowledgeable about the topic will find interesting stories about spies in the SS, detailed overviews of some of the camps, a history of the yellow badge, medical experimentation, and much more.”

Schleunes, Karl A. The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi Policy toward German Jews ; 1933 – 1939. [London]: Deutsch, 1972. Print. “The Nazis had a ‘peculiar genius’ for ignoring reality” … “and for acting upon totally illusory premises in their first five years.”

Schwartz, Terese P. “Half of These Holocaust Victims Were Non-Jewish.” Holocaust – Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust – Pictures – Stories. Holocaust Forgotten, 2008. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. <http://holocaustforgotten.com/poland.htm>. “On August 22, 1939, a few days before the official start of World War II, Hitler authorized his commanders, with these infamous words, to kill ‘without pity or mercy, all men, women, and children of Polish descent or language. Only in this way can we obtain the living space [lebensraum] we need’”.

“Shamash: Holocaust Home Page.” Shamash: The Jewish Network. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.shamash.org/holocaust>. Information that refutes the efforts of the Holocaust deniers.

Silver, Daniel B. Refuge in Hell: How Berlin’s Jewish Hospital Outlasted the Nazis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. Print. “Silver asks how a Jewish institution, located in the capital city of a regime dedicated above all to obliterating the Jews, could possibly have survived. … Silver has gathered the available documentary evidence and interviewed the handful of hospital staffers still alive.”

Smith, A. “Famous Holocaust Survivors: Sara Ginaite-Rubinson.” Helium – Where Knowledge Rules. Helium Inc., 10 Mar. 2009. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <http://www.helium.com/items/1372016-sara-ginaite-rubinson-holocaust-survivor>. During the Holocaust Sara Ginaite-Rubinson joined an antiNazi resistant group in a Nazi ghetto. She has written a book: Resistance and Survival.

Smolar, B. “Between the Lines.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 Feb. 1935. Web. 1 Mar. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1935/02/28/2825951/between-the-lines>. The Jewish situation in Germany is again beginning to attract attention, this time because of the utterances of certain Nazi leaders that it is high time to consider the Jewish problem in Germany solved.”

“A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust: Docments.” Florida Center for Instructional Technology. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/default.htm>. Primary source materials to use in the classroom.

“A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust Site Map.” A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust. Florida Center for Instructional Technology, 2005. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/sitemap/sitemap.htm>. This site map will lead you to Movie Clips, Survivors, Bystanders, Perpetrators, Rescuers, Resistors, Resistance, Liberators, Documents and a Glossary. Text and websites.

Thorpe, Vanessa. “The Schoolgirl Who Survived the Holocaust by Fooling the Nazis.” The Guardian [London] 15 Oct. 2011. Guardian.co.uk. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/16/schoolgirl-who-fooled-the-nazis/. “On an Auschwitz station platform in 1944, Helga Weiss and her mother fooled one of the most reviled men in modern history, Josef Mengele, and managed to save their lives. Not long into her teens, Weiss lied about her age, claiming she was old enough to work for her keep. Her mother persuaded the Nazis under Mengele’s command that Helga was in fact her daughter’s older sister, and she was sent to the forced labour barracks and not the gas chamber.”

“The Truth About Hilter’s War on the Jews.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 22 Jan. 1934. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1934/01/22/2812388/the-truth-about-hilters-war-on-the-jews>. “The Labor Front has thus isolated the Jewish worker in a ghetto. It has done the same thing with the Jewish employer. The difference between the two elements, however, is this – while the Jewish employer, is compelled by the authorities to employ non-Jewish labor, there is no law forcing the non-Jewish employer to give jobs to Jewish workers who are members of the Labor Front, from which Jews are automatically excluded.”

“U.S. Ambassador Receives Report on Jewish Suffering in Poland, Czechoslovakia.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 1 July 1942. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/07/01/2858101/us-ambassador-receives-report-on-jewish-suffering-in-poland-czechoslovakia>. “A delegation of Jewish leaders from Poland and Czechoslovakia now in London today was received by Anthony Drexel-Biddle, Jr., United States Ambassador to the Polish and Czechoslovak Governments-in-Exile, and presented to him a comprehensive report on the Jewish situation in their respective countries under the Nazi occupation.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Hitler’s Aides: Willing Collaborators in the Extermination of Jews.” Sixmillionscrucifixions.com. 2011. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sixmillioncrucifixions.com/Hitlers_Aides.html>. “Hitler was raised as a Catholic and imbibed the traditional anti-Jewish teachings in Christianity, and he took maximum advantage of them to promote his agenda.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “Who Knew What, When? Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust.” Sixmillioncrucifixions.com. 2011. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sixmillioncrucifixions.com/Who_Knew_What,_When.html>. “At some point these people surely must have wondered about the brutality of the transportation process, the death of many of the people on arrival, the Selektion process (which they witnessed as it was done next to their train), and the stench of death, which was pervasive in these camps and they would not have been able to avoid. Surely these men smoked a cigarette and chatted with the guards while the trains were emptied before leaving to pick up another batch. You don’t think they would have asked what was going on there? But maybe they didn’t ask, after all. Because they already knew.”

Williams, Sandra S. “Impact of the Holocaust on Survivors and Their Children.” Papers by Sandra S. Williams. Judaic Studies Program, University of Central Florida, 1993. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <http://sandrawilliams.org/HOLOCAUST/holocaust.html>. “One important element of the Holocaust was that the Nazi genocidal machine was aimed not only at the destruction of the European Jewish Community, but also at the Jewish seed itself. It was a war not only against the Jews racial existence, but also against the Jewish procreative potential. The very number of individuals imprisoned and murdered in the concentration camp network challenges one’s ability to comprehend the enormity of the suffering.”.

Wlizlo, Will. “The Buried History of the Holocaust.” Utne Reader: Alternative Coverage of Politics, Culture, and New Ideas. Utne Reader, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://www.utne.com/print-article.aspx?id=2147491829>. “Father Patrick Desbois has been trying to broaden our collective understanding of the Holocaust for the past eight years.”

“WWW.history-of-the-holocaust.org.”  Yad Vashem. Web. 10 Oct. 2011.  < http://www.zupdom.com/icons-multimedia/ClientsArea/HoH/> “History-of-the-holocaust.org is the web site of the Yad Vashem History of the Holocaust–a series of multimedia tools.”

Zapotoczny, Walter S. “Short Stories About the Holocaust.” Walter S. Zapotoczny Jr. – Freelance Writer, Historian. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. <http://www.wzaponline.com/Page3.html>. Twenty accounts of the Holocaust including: Who was a Jew in Nazi Germany?, From Racial Laws to the “Final Solution,” and “The Lack of Jewish Resistance and others. A bibliography is included.