Additional Germany, Nazis, War

Market-Garden_-_Landings

Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the First Allied Airborne Army.

 

Adler, Libby, and Peer Zumbansen. “The Forgetfulness of Noblesse: A Critique of the German Foundation Law Compensating Slave and Forced Laborers of the Third Reich.” Harvard Journal on Legislation 39.1 (2002): 1-61. Social Science Research Network. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2007249>. “In August 2000, Germany’s twin houses of parliament enacted a law establishing a foundation to compensate survivors of the Nazi forced labor program. The Foundation Law was acclaimed as a victory for Holocaust survivors, despite that it sharply limits compensation amounts, denies recovery to some potential claimants, and purports to preclude further litigation of Holocaust-era claims. Proponents of the Foundation Law defended the choice to use legislation to resolve Holocaust-related claims initially brought in a judicial forum on the grounds that litigation is inherently ill-suited to that task, and justified the terms of the Law by reference to the claimants’ poor chances in the courtroom. In this article, the co-authors identify some troubling assumptions underlying these rationales and highlight the historical and political context in which they were offered.”

“After WWII, Europe Was A ‘Savage Continent’ Of Devastation.” NPR. 29 July 2013. Web. 1 Aug. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/2013/07/24/204538728/after-wwii-europe-was-a-savage-continent-of-devastation>. “In the introduction to his book, Savage Continent, Keith Lowe writes: Imagine a world without institutions. No governments. No school or universities. No access to any information. No banks. Money no longer has any worth. There are no shops, because no one has anything to sell. Law and order are virtually non-existent because there is no police force and no judiciary. Men with weapons roam the streets taking what they want. Women of all classes and ages prostitute themselves for food and protection. This is not the beginning to a futuristic thriller, but a history of Europe in the years directly following World War II, when many European cities were in ruins, millions of people were displaced, and vengeance killings were common, as was rape.”

Baecker, Dirk. “The Hitler Swarm.” Papers.ssrn. Social Science Research Network, 30 Sept. 2011. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1919472>. “Explaining the seizure of power by the National Socialist Party and the totalitarian workings of the Nazi regime in the Third Reich is still difficult not only with respect to the atrocities committed but also to understanding whether the German population and society had to be terrorized into complying with the regime or were part and parcel of it. The paper introduces a notion of swarm to advance the idea that the German population was terrorized into a deliberate compliance with the regime. The notion of swarm is sociologically controlled by a complementary notion of form, which serves to reconstruct and model the social calculus realized by the swarm to differentiate and reproduce itself inside a complex society. The data we use are the results of historical research done in the last sixty years.”

“Before the Holocaust: Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany, 1933-1939.” Birkbeck, University of London. Arts & Humanities Research Council. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.camps.bbk.ac.uk/>. “The Nazi concentration camps during the Second World War and the Holocaust have been heavily researched and continue to deserve much scholarly attention. But what about the early years of Nazi rule? This AHRC-funded research project looks at the Nazi concentration camp system between 1933 and 1939, trying to uncover the foundations for wartime terror.”

“Best World War II Documentary Series.” Cloudworth. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://cloudworth.com/WW2-articles/ww2-documentary-series.html>. “This list contains WWII series which have made a lasting impression over the years for one reason or the other. These documentaries are warmly recommended to anyone interested in history, and especially to those keen to learn more about the Second World War. In addition to concise evaluation of each series, various pros and cons are contemplated. Note: This list only includes series with multiple parts. Individual WWII related documentary films are excluded. ”

Black, Edwin. The Transfer Agreement: The Dramatic Story of the Pact between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine. Cambridge, MA: Brookline, 1999. Print. “The Transfer Agreement is Edwin Black’s compelling, award-winning story of a negotiated arrangement in 1933 between Zionist organizations and the Nazis to transfer some 50,000 Jews, and $100 million of their assets, to Jewish Palestine in exchange for stopping the worldwide Jewish-led boycott threatening to topple the Hitler regime in its first year. 25th Anniversary Edition.”

Cohen, Patricia. “Diary of a Hitler Aide Resurfaces After a Hunt That Lasted Years.” The New York Times. 14 June 2013. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/14/world/europe/diary-of-a-hitler-aide-resurfaces-after-a-hunt-that-lasted-years.html>. This article describes the arduous search for the infamous diary. The search again and again led to Herbert Richardson. “The idiosyncratic Mr. Richardson, 81, has long been a figure of controversy within some scholarly precincts for the quality of the books he published and for suing critics of his press for libel.”

“Collaboration During WWII.” Web log post. Thoughts on History and Current Affairs. Sam Spiegelman, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://samspiegelman1.wordpress.com/2011/02/17/collaboration-during-wwii/>. “We must learn to accept a world and a history wherein millions, perhaps the majority of people in any given situation, are complicit in the evil which occurs in their midst. We will undoubtedly never be able to fully understand the actions or inaction of every individual who experienced the scourge of Nazi occupation and brutality. While there exists thousands of cases wherein moral transgression is undoubtable, perhaps more haunting is the revelation that millions of men and women, although they may not be guilty, must carry the ‘burden of blame’ for their acquiescent collaboration.”

“Down, Not Out, in London: LIFE in the Underground, 1940.” LIFE. Ed. Ben Cosgrove. 30 Dec. 1940. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://life.time.com/ipad-app/news/london-underground-down-not-out-in-the-great-subway-in-world-war-ii/>. “The Hans Wild photograph here — which ran in the Dec. 30, 1940 issue of LIFE above the caption, ‘In cold and discomfort far below the hell above, London tries to sleep in its deep subways’ — this Wild photo is a testament to what Churchill, in his inimitable way, called ‘the courage, the unconquerable grit and stamina’ of the English. But there is nothing terribly romantic, high-minded or even noble about shivering a night away while an enemy tries to kill you, or lays waste to your city, or both.”

Epstein, Helen. “”I Was a Nazi, and Here’s Why”" The New Yorker. 29 May 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2013/05/i-was-a-nazi-and-heres-why.html>. Book – “Account Rendered,” Melita Maschmann. “In recent years, many victims of violence have written memoirs in which they seek out and confront the perpetrators who harmed them. The opposite is rare. Few perpetrators seek out their victims, let alone write books about them. But fifty years ago this month, Melita Maschmann, a former Nazi, published just such a book. ‘Fazit,’ which was translated as ‘Account Rendered’ in 1964, is the memoir of a woman who, as a fifteen-year-old and against her family’s wishes, joined the Hitler Youth. Before and during the Second World War, Maschmann worked in the high echelons of press and propaganda of the Bund Deutscher Mädel, the girls’ section of the Nazi youth organization, and, later, she supervised the eviction of Polish farmers and the resettlement of ethnic Germans on their farms. Arrested in 1945 at the age of twenty-seven, she completed a mandatory de-Nazification course and became a freelance journalist.”

Ernst, E. “Commentary: The Third Reich-German Physicians between Resistance and Participation.” International Journal of Epidemiology 30.1 (2001): 37-42. Oxford Journals. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/30/1/37.long>. “To evaluate the role of the medical profession in the Third Reich is a delicate and difficult task. Its participation in major atrocities was, to a large extent, hushed up and recent reports of medical opposition may, in many cases, be exaggerated. Much of the evidence has been destroyed or is not easily accessible. Furthermore, an objective view is potentially clouded by a number of issues related to the past or outlook of the evaluator. Finally, when looking at history with hindsight, there is the danger of arrogance in those who have not actually lived through it.”

Gallagher, Hugh Gregory. By Trust Betrayed: Patients, Physicians, and the License to Kill in the Third Reich. New York: H. Holt, 1995 Rev. Ed. Print. “Gallagher’s strong study of the murder of disabled people in the Third Reich receives new attention in a revised edition which includes some modern sentiments and moral issues relating to both the events of the past and the concerns of modern times.”

Garber, Megan. “‘Pilot’s Salt’: The Third Reich Kept Its Soldiers Alert With Meth.” The Atlantic. May 2003. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/05/pilots-salt-the-third-reich-kept-its-soldiers-alert-with-meth/276429/>. “And it [Meth] was, as such, put to wide use. The Wehrmacht, Germany’s World War II army, ended up distributing millions of the Pervitin tablets to soldiers on the front (they called it ‘Panzerschokolade,’ or ‘tank chocolate’). The air force gave the tablets to its flyers (in this case, it was ‘pilot’s chocolate’ or ‘pilot’s salt’). Hitler himself was given intravenous injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician, Theodor Morell.”

Gellately, Robert. “Denunciations and Nazi Germany : New Insights and Methodological Problems.” Historical Social Research 22.3/4 (1997): 228-39. SSOAR. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/29157>. “Since 1990 or so, the role of denunciations in the Nazi terror system has been highlighted by a number of writers interested in the functioning of the Gestapo in the context of everyday life in Germany. Several historians have claimed that ordinary citizens who volunteered information on suspected infringements of the letter or spirit of the laws played a crucial role in everyday terror under Hitler’s dictatorship. This cooperation by German citizens and their apparent willingness to denounce calls for historical analysis.”

Gordon, Robert J. “Did Economics Cause World War II?” Papers.ssrn. Social Science Research Network, 15 Jan. 2009. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1327233>. “Historians have long recognized the role of economic resources and organization in determining the outcome of World War II: the Nazi economy lacked the economic resources and organization to oppose the combined might of the U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R. A minority view is that the Germans were defeated not by economics, but by Hitler’s many strategic and tactical mistakes, of which the most important was the invasion of the Soviet Union. Compared to this debate about the outcome of the war, there has been less attention to economics as the cause of World War II. This is a review article of a new economic history of the Nazi economy by Adam Tooze which cuts through the debate between economics and Hitler’s mistakes as fundamental causes of the outcome. Instead, Tooze argues that the invasion of the Soviet Union was the inevitable result of Hitler’s paranoia about the land-starved backwardness of German agriculture as contrasted with the raw material and land resources of America’s continent and Britain’s empire. …  Far better than other histories of the Third Reich, Tooze reveals the shocking details of General Plan Ost, the uber-holocaust which would have removed, largely through murder, as many as 45 million people from eastern agricultural land.”

Goss, Jennifer L. “1936 Olympic Games.” About.com 20th Century History. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/a/1936-Olympics.htm>. In August 1936, the world came together for the quadrennial Summer Olympics in Berlin, the capital of Nazi Germany. Although several countries had threatened to boycott the Summer Olympics that year due to Adolf Hitler’s controversial regime, in the end they put their differences aside and sent their athletes to Germany. This Olympics would see the first Olympic torch relay and the historic performance of Jesse Owens.”

Goss, Jennifer L. “Evian Conference.” About.com 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/a/Evian.htm>. “From July 6 to 15, 1938, representatives from 32 countries met at the resort town of Evian-les-Bains, France, at the request of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, to discuss the issue of Jewish immigration from Nazi Germany. It was the hope of many that these countries could find a way to open their doors to allow more than their usual quotas of immigrants into their countries. Instead, although they commiserated with the plight of the Jews under the Nazis, every country but one refused to allow in more immigrants; the Dominican Republic was the only exception. In the end, the Evian Conference showed Germany that no one wanted the Jews, leading the Nazis to a different solution to the ‘Jewish question’ – extermination.” 

Herf, Jeffrey. Reactionary Modernism: Technology, Culture, and Politics in Weimar and the Third Reich. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 1993. Print. “In a unique application of critical theory to the study of the role of ideology in politics, Jeffrey Herf explores the paradox inherent in the German fascists’ rejection of the rationalism of the Enlightenment while fully embracing modern technology. He documents evidence of a cultural tradition he calls ‘reactionary modernism’ found in the writings of German engineers and of the major intellectuals of the. Weimar right: Ernst Juenger, Oswald Spengler, Werner Sombart, Hans Freyer, Carl Schmitt, and Martin Heidegger. The book shows how German nationalism and later National Socialism created what Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s propaganda minister, called the ‘steel-like romanticism of the twentieth century’. By associating technology with the Germans, rather than the Jews, with beautiful form rather than the formlessness of the market, and with a strong state rather than a predominance of economic values and institutions, these right-wing intellectuals reconciled Germany’s strength with its romantic soul and national identity.”

Hiden, John W., and John E. Farquharson. Explaining Hitler’s Germany: Historians and the Third Reich. 2nd ed. London: BT Batsford, 1989. Print. “A revised, updated survey of the vast amount of literature produced on the Third Reich, this now covers material written between 1983 and 1988. The book is no mere bibliography but a product of the debate between the authors and the variety of views and arguments put forward by other historians. Thus a solid foundation of empirical information about Nazi Germany is included, without which some of the issues being debated would be unintelligible to non-specialist readers. Professor Hiden is the author of many books and articles on 20th century German history, including ‘Germany and Europe’. John Farquharson has written ‘The Plough and the Swastika’ and ‘The Western Allies and the Politics of Food’.”

Jones, Nigel. “The Making of a Nazi Hero.” History Today. 23 May 2013. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2013/05/making-nazi-hero>. The Making of a Nazi Hero: The Murder and Myth of Horst Wessel, Danial Siemens, I.B. Tauris. “Horst Wessel, or so ran the propaganda legend created by Goebbels, was the ideal Nazi hero. Young, idealistic and dedicated to the movement for which he had sacrificed his middle-class status and a promising career. Moreover he was a talented speaker and Stormtroop organiser and a few lines of doggerel penned by him became the ubiquitous Nazi anthem Die Fahne Hoch … aka the ‘Horst Wessel Lied’. Finally, to set the myth in stone, he had been murdered by ‘subhuman Communist bandits’. The truth, as Daniel Siemens convincingly demonstrates in this definitive study, is rather different.”

Kayser, Zach. “Staples Man Recalls Last Days of the Third Reich.” Wadena PJ. 14 June 2013. Web. 20 June 2013. <http://www.wadenapj.com/content/staples-man-recalls-last-days-third-reich>. This article is first in a two-part series on Heinrich (Henry) Kopka and his family, who lived in Germany during the World War II and later emigrated to the United States. Heinrich, now a retired mathematics and German teacher, lives with his wife north of Staples. During the last winter of the Second World War, Heinrich Kopka and his family fled their farm in eastern Prussia while desperately trying to stay ahead of Stalin’s Red Army as it swarmed into Germany. The Kopkas traveled by horse-drawn cart at night to avoid being strafed by Russian planes. They would pass the ‘graves’ of those fellow refugees who had perished along the way; buried in the snow since the soil was frozen solid. At one point, the Russian advance got too close to the the main road the Kopkas were using, thereby forcing the family to abandon what few possessions they had packed in the horse cart and proceed on foot. Heinrich was nine years old at the time.”

King, Gilbert. “The Candor and Lies of Nazi Officer Albert Speer.” Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian, 08 Jan. 2013. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/history/2013/01/albert-speers-candor-and-lies/>. “On April 30, 1945, as Soviet troops fought toward the Reich Chancellery in Berlin in street-to-street combat, Adolf Hitler put a gun to his head and fired. Berlin quickly surrendered and World War II in Europe was effectively over. Yet Hitler’s chosen successor, Grand Admiral Karl Donitz, decamped with others of the Nazi Party faithful to northern Germany and formed the Flensburg Government. As Allied troops and the U.N. War Crimes Commission closed in on Flensburg, one Nazi emerged as a man of particular interest: Albert Speer, the brilliant architect, minister of armaments and war production for the Third Reich and a close friend to Hitler.

Lebor, Adam. “Never Mind the Czech Gold the Nazis Stole…” The Telegraph. 31 July 2013. Web. 4 Aug. 2013. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/bank-of-england/10213988/Never-mind-the-Czech-gold-the-Nazis-stole….html>. “The documents reveal a shocking story: just six months before Britain went to war with Nazi Germany, the Bank of England willingly handed over £5.6 million worth of gold to Hitler – and it belonged to another country. The official history of the bank, written in 1950 but posted online for the first time on Tuesday, reveals how we betrayed Czechoslovakia – not just with the infamous Munich agreement of September 1938, which allowed the Nazis to annex the Sudetenland, but also in London, where Montagu Norman, the eccentric but ruthless governor of the Bank of England agreed to surrender gold owned by the National Bank of Czechoslovakia.”

Linker, Damon. “On the Natural History of Destruction.” First Things. The Institute on Religion and Public, May 2003. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/article/2007/01/on-the-natural-history-of-destruction-24>. “In the summer of 1943, the British Royal Air Force (with support from the Eighth Army Air Force of the United States) flew a series of raids on Hamburg, Germany. Dubbed ‘Operation Gomorrah,’ the bombing missions did not target factories or fuel installations, railway junctions or transportation arteries. Their aim, in the words of acclaimed German novelist and essayist W. G. Sebald, ‘was to destroy the city and reduce it as completely as possible to ashes.’ On one such raid, early in the morning of July 27, ten thousand tons of high-explosive and incendiary bombs were intentionally dropped on the city’s densely populated residential districts. Twenty minutes after the bombing commenced, the city was engulfed by flames rising a mile into the air. As Sebald writes in On the Natural History of Destruction, the inferno consumed so much oxygen so quickly that it stirred up hurricane-force winds that ‘lifted gables and roofs from buildings, flung rafters and entire advertising billboards through the air, tore trees from the ground, and drove human beings before it like living torches.’”

Luks, Leonid. “A ‘Third Way’ – or Back to the Third Reich?” Russian Politics and Law 47 (2009): 7-23. Edoc.ku. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://edoc.ku-eichstaett.de/2014/>.

McGuigan, Brendan, and Bronwyn Harris. “Were There Non-Nazi German Soldiers in WWII?” WiseGeek. Conjecture. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.wisegeek.com/were-there-non-nazi-german-soldiers-in-wwii.htm>. “There were certainly non-Nazi German soldiers in World War II (WWII), although many members of the German armed forces were ideologically supportive of or even affiliated with Nazism and Hitler. From one perspective, however, because members of the German armed forces weren’t allowed to affiliate with a political party, one could say all German soldiers in WWII were non-Nazis. The Nazi political party, however, had its own armed soldiers in the Waffen-SS and these soldiers therefore were Nazi soldiers.”

Meyer, Joachim E. “The Fate of the Mentally Il in Germany during the Third Reich.” Psychological Medicine 18.3 (1988): 575-81. Cambridge Journals. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=3C2AE96EAB833832D32AB28BA2AC8BB4.journals?fromPage=online&aid=4993076>. “This paper surveys the measures taken against mental patients in Germany during the National Socialist regime. It covers the eugenic sterilization programme, the killing of handicapped children, the so called Action T4 (the killing of adult psychiatric patients) and the second phase of Action T4 after its official termination, i.e. between 1941 and 1945. The possible social and political causes of these measures, and the attitude of German psychiatrists to them are discussed. In particular, attention is drawn to a prevalent fear of national degeneration, to social Darwinism, and the ideas of Binding & Hoche on ‘permission for the extermination of worthless life’.”

“Nazi Germany.” World War 2 on History. History. Web. 06 July 2013. <http://www.history.co.uk/explore-history/ww2/nazi-germany.html>. “At the beginning of the 1930s, Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party exploited widespread and deep-seated discontent in Germany to attract popular and political support. There was resentment at the crippling territorial, military and economic terms of the Versailles Treaty, which Hitler blamed on treacherous politicians and promised to overturn. The democratic post-World War I Weimar Republic was marked by a weak coalition government and political crisis, in answer to which the Nazi party offered strong leadership and national rebirth. From 1929 onwards, the worldwide economic depression provoked hyperinflation, social unrest and mass unemployment, to which Hitler offered scapegoats such as the Jews.

Nazi Megaweapons (series). PBS, 2013. PBS, 17 July 2013. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://video.pbs.org/video/2365036680>. Six part PBS series: Atlantic Wall, U-Boat Base, V2 Rocket, Super Tanks, Me262, Fortress Berlin. “In a quest for world domination, the Nazis built some of the biggest and deadliest pieces of military hardware and malevolent technology in history. This new six-part series recounts World War II from a unique new perspective, uncovering the engineering secrets of iconic megastructures, telling the stories of the engineers who designed them.”

“Nazism.” Fordham.edu. Fordham University. Web. 6 July 2013. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook43.asp>. Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook’s section on Nazism contains links to resources on the Weimar Republic and National Socialism.

Nelson, Soraya Sarhaddi. “Dresden Marks WWII Bombing 68 Years Ago.” NPR. 14 Feb. 2013. Web. 01 Aug. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/2013/02/14/171975384/dresden-marks-wwii-bombing-68-years-ago>. “Toward the end of World War II, allied forces bombed the lightly defended city of Dresden, creating a firestorm that destroyed it and killed tens of thousands of people. The attack was designed to destroy German morale and hasten the end of the war. These days, neo-Nazis are using the anniversary to march and stir up nationalistic sentiment in a bid to boost their political and popular clout.”

Newman, L. “The Continuing Legacy of Medicine of the Third Reich.” The British Journal of General Practice 50.459 (2000): 829-30. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1313836/pdf/11127185.pdf>. “I would like to draw the attention of your readers to some important issues that I was made aware of when attending the Sixth European Conference of the World Organisation of General Practice (WONCA) in Vienna in July this year. The opening session, which was attended by international television and radio, dealt with ‘The Continuing Legacy of Medicine of the Third Reich’ and ‘Lessons of the Holocaust’.”

“On “Nazism and German Society: 1933-1945″ Edited by David F. Crew.” Web log post. Thoughts on History and Current Affairs. Sam Spiegelman, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://samspiegelman1.wordpress.com/2011/02/17/on-nazism-and-german-society-1933-1945-edited-by-david-f-crew/>. “The various perspectives and opinions in Nazism and German Society all possess a common, overarching theme. Historical phenomena, those which warrant as much academic research and study as do Nazism and Nazi Germany, necessarily have to be examined and analyzed from manifold perspectives. Thus seeking to break away from previous approaches to the study of Nazi Germany, these authors emphasize social history, and individually focus upon a particular piece of the larger historical narrative. This microcosmic, particularized approach allows contemporary students of history to understand an historical event as the convergence of diverse developments, rather than solely a grand chapter in the annals of history.

Panayi, Panikos. “Victims, Perpetrators and Bystanders in a German Town: The Jews of Osnabrück Before, During and after the Third Reich.” European History Quarterly 33.4 (2003): 451-92. Dora.dmu.ac.uk. Web. 24 June 2013. <https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/1892>. This article may be obtained through ILL.

“Pre-1945 Ethnic German Areas (in Black).” Pre.doc.com. 11 Mar. 2012. Web. 18 July 2013. <http://pre.docdat.com/docs/index-125569.html>. “From 1918 to 1938, after the break up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, several million ethnic Bohemian Germans wound up in the Czech Lands of newly created state of Czechoslovakia. Germans lived in Bohemia, a part of the Holy Roman Empire, since the 14th Century (and in some areas from at least the 12th century), mostly in the border regions of Sudetenland (so-called Sudeten Germans). Another German ethnic group, the Carpathian Germans, lived in Slovakia.”

Reimann, Bruno W. “The Defeat of the German Universities 1933.” Historical Social Research (1986): 101-05. SSOAR. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/3461>. ” ‘The German universities still have difficulties when they approach their history from 1933 to 1945. Prevailing over attempts at a critical reexamination are interpretations which downplay the significance of, or even ignore or repress this history. In lofty commemorative volumes one can learn much about brilliant periods of science and scholarship, but only little or nothing about the darkest phase in the history of the German university. What lies at the root of this difficulty in dealing with its own past?”

Richter, Wolfgang G.A. Forced Labor and ‘Foreign Workers’ in the Third Reich. Rep. Dtic.mil. U.S. Army War College, 2009. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA501290>. “The introduction of a foreign labor force was a central strategic economic and military factor for Hitler’s Nazi regime. By late autumn of 1941, if not before, the entire German war economy had become heavily and irreversibly dependent on foreign labor. There is no evidence of a masterplan for a comprehensive foreign labor program in Germany before World War II. The employment of foreign workers was rather an emergency solution to the manpower shortage during the war; this solution then developed from voluntary foreign labor to forced labor.”

Rosenbaum, Ron. “Revisiting the Rise and Fall of the Third Reich.” Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Magazine, Feb. 2012. Web. 06 July 2013. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Revisiting-The-Rise-and-Fall-of-the-Third-Reich.html>. “Recently reissued, William L. Shirer’s seminal 1960 history of Nazi Germany is still important reading. . . . William L. Shirer captured something else, both massive and elusive, within the four corners of a book: The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. He captured it in a way that made amnesia no longer an option. The issue of a new edition on the 50th anniversary of the book’s winning the National Book Award recalls an important point of inflection in American historical consciousness.”

Rubin, Charles T. “When Wombs Became Weapons: Women, Policy, and Propaganda in the Third Reich.” Thesis. McAnulty College and Graduate School of Liberal Arts. OAister.Worldcat. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://oaister.worldcat.org/title/when-wombs-became-weapons-women-policy-and-propaganda-in-the-third-reich/oclc/613450542>. “The purpose of this thesis is to examine how the Nazi State used visual forms of propaganda in order to convey certain gender-specific policy aims to women living in the Third Reich. This will be accomplished by using the novel scholarly approach (referred to as the New Intentionalist approach) that these policy aims were not only fulfilling a State-centered need, but they also were reflecting a desire and a voice of agreement within the German population of women. In other words, while these policies were certainly driven by the immediate political needs of the National Socialists, such policies could not and would not have succeeded had they not made use of pre-existing cultural sensibilities and a uniquely German sense of gender-specific possibilities, thereby allowing an “old but new” version of engendered socio-cultural goals, responsibilities, and even moral imperatives to emerge.”

“Scientists under Hitler. Politics and the Physics Community in the Third Reich.” Medical History 22.4 (1978): 465. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1082388/>. Review of Scientists under Hitler: Politics and the Physics Community in the Third Reich by Alan D. Beyerchen. Yale University, 1977. “The effects of the treatment of German physicists under the Nazi regime has never before been studied at this depth, and to do so the author has had to combine a knowledge of political history with that of the history of science.”

Shiffman, John. “Exclusive: U.S. Finds Long-lost Diary of Top Nazi Leader, Hitler Aide.” Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 09 June 2013. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/06/09/us-nazi-diary-idUSBRE9580HL20130609>. “The government has recovered 400 pages from the long-lost diary of Alfred Rosenberg, a confidant of Adolf Hitler who played a central role in the extermination of millions of Jews and others during World War Two. A preliminary U.S. government assessment reviewed by Reuters asserts the diary could offer new insight into meetings Rosenberg had with Hitler and other top Nazi leaders, including Heinrich Himmler and Herman Goering. It also includes details about the German occupation of the Soviet Union, including plans for mass killings of Jews and other Eastern Europeans.”

“Some Thoughts on the Political Structure of Nazi Germany.” Web log post. Thoughts on History and Current Affairs. Sam Spiegelman. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://samspiegelman1.wordpress.com/2011/02/17/some-thoughts-on-the-political-structure-of-nazi-germany/>. “The chaotic nature of the Third Reich was a direct consequence of Nazi ideology. The notion of ‘will to power,’ which the Nazis misappropriated from philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, made competition the fundamental element of social, economic, and political relationships. Central to Nazi ideology was the spencerian notion of ‘survival of the fittest’ which necessitated persistent struggle. It is important to realize, however, the distinction the Nazis’ made between the chaotic nature of everyday life and bureaucracy, and the stabilizing energy and force of the Fuhrer.”

Spivak, John L. Secret Armies: Exposing Hitler’s Undeclared War on the Americas. New York: Starling, 1939. Print. Secret Armies is the author’s “inside story of Hitler’s far-flung, under-cover poison campaign in the Americas [that would] seem scarcely credible, were it not so thoroughly document with original letters and records, citing chapter and verse, naming names, dates and places. His unanswerable, uncontradicted facts should go far toward jolting many of us out of our false sense of security [in 1939].”

Streb, Jochen, and Mark Spoerer. “Guns and Butter – But No Margarine: The Impact of Nazi Economic Policies on German Food Consumption, 1933-1938.” Papers.ssrn. Social Science Research Network, 11 Jan. 2011. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1734743>. “The German population’s material standard of living during the ‘peace years’ of the Nazi regime (1933-38) is much debated. We use hitherto disregarded consumption data and the axiom of revealed preferences to test whether the material standard of living improved. We find that the food consumption bundle realized in 1935-36 must have been inferior to that of 1927-28 although GDP per capita was much higher. Even in 1937-38 consumers were probably worse off compared to 1927-28. We conclude that increasing consumption constraints forced German consumers to a diet and thus to a material standard of living that were much more frugal than national income figures suggest.”

Tietze, Felix. “Eugenic Measures in the Third Reich.” The Eugenics Review 31.2 (1939): 105-07. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2962393/>. The essential items of The Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Disease of July 14, 1933 are examined.

Turner, Philip. “Still More to Learn about Corporations’ Complicity with the Third Reich.” The Great Gray Bridge. Philip Turner Book Productions, 26 June 2013. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://philipsturner.com/2013/06/26/still-more-to-learn-about-corporations-complicity-hitler/>. “In 2000, while an editor at Crown Publishing, I acquired a book that later became an international sensation and a bestseller in the US. It was IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation by Edwin Black. I believed it was imperative that the book be published because it documented hitherto unknown revelations such as the fact that IBM’s punch card tabulation system was licensed to the Third Reich which then used the technology to catalog and keep track of Jews and others under its rule they deemed undesirables. Turned out that corporate complicity with Hitler was as American as cherry pie.” Ben Unward’s excellent video is included. He is the author of The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact with Hitler.

Vagts, Detlev F. “International Law in the Third Reich.” American Society of International Law 84.3 (1990): 661-704. JTOR. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2202920?uid=3739680&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21102534155867>. “[T]he peculiarities of the period enable one to develop some hypotheses about the interactions in the law among people, institutions, ideas and policies in a way that is starker and clearer than the path one must try to trace in calmer times when movements are more gradual and subtle.”

“Welcome to World War II News!” World War II News. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://hitlernews.cloudworth.com/>. “This website provides a daily edited review of World War II news. Each article is hand-picked, with the intention that the selected source is either reliable, unique, has many WWII photos, or gives us the best insight or coverage on a particular topic.” “Hitler’s Third Reich and World War II in the News is a daily edited review of WWII articles – including German WW2 militaria – providing thought-provoking collection of hand-picked WW2 information.”

Wellershoff, Marianne. “Memories of WWII: A German Family’s Tangled Wartime History.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/marianne-wellershoff-traces-complicated-world-war-ii-family-history-a-894667.html>. “Her aunt was executed by the Nazis, her uncle was a far-right political leader and her father told her stories of nighttime battles on the Eastern Front. SPIEGEL’s Marianne Wellershoff traces her family’s complicated place in World War II history.”

Wiesen, S. J. “German Industry and the Third Reich: Fifty Years of Forgetting and Remembering.” Archive.adl. Anti-Defamation League’s Braun Holocaust Institute. Web. 06 July 2013. <http://archive.adl.org/braun/dim_13_2_forgetting.asp>. “The great majority of German businessmen behaved in a decidedly unheroic manner during the Nazi era. Most of them, especially leaders of larger companies, not only refrained from risking their lives to save Jews, but actually profited from the use of forced and slave labor, the ‘Aryanization’ of Jewish property, and the plundering of companies in Nazi-occupied Europe.”

“World War II Remembered: The Generals and the Admirals.” Mcc.commnet.libguides. Manchester Community College. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://mcc.commnet.libguides.com/ww2generals>. Profiles of American generals and admirals, German Cabinet Officials, German generals and admirals plus European offices are included.

Zarifi, Maria. German Science as a Medium of Cultural Policy and Propaganda? : The Scientific Relations between Greece and the Third Reich : A Case Study. Diss. European University Institute, 2005. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/6025>. “This dissertation studies the scientific relations the German National Socialists developed with Greece and how they tried through these relations to exercise cultural, political and economic influence. The investigation, however, goes back to the Weimar years and unfolds the beginnings of Germany’s Foreign Cultural Policy and the mobilization of science in the country’s efforts to regain its lost place in the sun and escape the isolation after its defeat in WWI. The author tries to cast some light to problems like continuities and discontinuities or analogies in concepts and practices between the Weimar and the Nazi period in the interacted fields of science, culture and foreign affairs. The study focuses on the small peripheral country of Europe, Greece, well known for its ancient culture but not its scientific achievements, and tries to understand Germany’s interest to promote its scientific relations with a country with poor performance in modern science but with high geo-strategic importance.”