Additional Righteous, Saviors, Searchers

                                    Righteous of the Nations




 Irena Sendler (1910-2008), Polish social worker and activist, Righteous Among the Nations. Above in 1942. Below in 2005.


 Józef and Wiktoria Ulma, Polish World War II heroes named Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem.


 Most rescuers were ordinary people. Some acted out of political, ideological or religious convictions; others were not idealists, but merely human beings who cared about the people around them. In many cases they never planned to become rescuers and were totally unprepared for the moment in which they had to make such a far-reaching decision. They were ordinary human beings, and it is precisely their humanity that touches us and should serve as a model. So far Yad Vashem recognized Righteous from 44 countries and nationalities; there are Christians from all denominations and churches, Muslims and agnostics; men and women of all ages; they come from all walks of life; highly educated people as well as illiterate peasants; public figures as well as people from society’s margins; city dwellers and farmers from the remotest corners of Europe; university professors, teachers, physicians, clergy, nuns, diplomats, simple workers, servants, resistance fighters, policemen, peasants, fishermen, a zoo director, a circus owner, and many more.  Yad Vashem



Aleksiun, Natalia. “Huberman, Bronisław.” YIVO. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <>. “In the early 1930s, Huberman took on the responsibilty of creating a symphony orchestra in Palestine. To that end, he organized the American Association of Friends of the Palestine Orchestra, with Albert Einstein as its chair, and in 1936 founded the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra in Tel Aviv with refugees from Europe. The orchestra made its debut under Huberman’s leadership. Huberman left for America in 1940. He returned to tour Europe after the war and died at Nant-sur-Corsier in Switzerland. His archives were placed in the Central Music Library in Tel Aviv.”

“American Lois Gunden Named Righteous Gentile.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 July 2013. Web. 18 July 2013. <>. “Lois Gunden, an American Mennonite who helped save Jewish children in France during the Holocaust, was recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations.”

Bildner, Elisa S. “Shining a Light on the Holocaust Saga of Bronislaw Huberman.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 18 Oct. 25012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <>. “This is the Holocaust story you don’t know. Almost guaranteed. Bronislaw Huberman, a Polish-Jewish violin prodigy from the late 19th into the 20th century, is the protagonist, joined by familiar names such as Albert Einstein and the acclaimed (non-Jewish) conductor Arturo Toscanini. It is the tale of the founding in 1936 of what would become the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and how Huberman, its founder, saved more than 1,000 Jews in the process.”

Block, Gay, and Malka Drucker. Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1992. Print. “A welcome addition to Holocaust literature, this work presents a series of 49 personal reminiscences of non-Jewish citizens in various European nations who risked their lives to hide resident Jews from the Nazi horror. Most of those interviewed felt their actions were done out of friendship and for people caught in a web of hatred and anti-Semitism. They did not feel that they were acting heroically but that they were doing what was right. Portraits by Block of each of the rescuers accompany the text. These 49 are representative of the 9,295 rescuers honoured at the Yad Vashem in Israel. This is recommended reading for general readers as well as for college and university libraries.”

The Children of Chabannes. By Lisa Gossels and Dean Wetherell. Good Egg Productions: Wetherell & Associates, 1999. IMDb. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <>. “This uplifting documentary that premiered on HBO recounts a small miracle in the midst of sweeping tragedy. Between 1939 and ’42, more than 400 Jewish children were given sanctuary at Château de Chabannes, a school in an outlying region of France.”

Cohen, Patricia. “Italian Praised for Saving Jews Is Now Seen as Nazi Collaborator.” The New York Times 19 June 2013. The New York Times. 20 June 2013. Web. 20 June 2013. <>. He [Giovanni Palatucci] has been called the Italian Schindler, credited with helping to save 5,000 Jews during the Holocaust. Giovanni Palatucci, a wartime police official, has been honored in Israel, in New York and in Italy, where squares and promenades have been named in his honor, and in the Vatican, where Pope John Paul II declared him a martyr, a step toward potential sainthood. But at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, the tale of his heroic exploits is being removed from an exhibition after officials there learned of new evidence suggesting that, far from being a hero, he was an enthusiastic Nazi collaborator involved in the deportation of Jews to Auschwitz.”

“Escape from the Third Reich; the Harrowing True Story of the Largest Rescue Effort inside Nazi Germany (Book Review).” Highbeam. Reference & Research Book News, 1 Nov. 2010. Web. 27 May 2013. <>. Review: Escape from the Third Reich; the harrowing true story of the largest rescue effort inside Nazi Germany. Persson, Sune. Trans. by Graham Long. Skyhorse Pub. Co. 2009 “Persson’s engaging narrative recounts the daring rescue of some 17,000 concentration camp prisoners from the heart of Germany towards the end of the Second World War. The Red Cross expedition, sponsored by the Swedish government . . . carried the prisoners to the safety of Sweden between March and May of 1945.”

Grunwald-Spier, Agnes. The Other Schindlers: Why Some People Chose to save Jews in the Holocaust. Stroud: History, 2010. Print. “Thanks to Thomas Keneally’s book Schindler’s Ark, and the film based on it, Schindler’s List, people have become more aware of the fact that, in the midst of Hitler’s extermination of the Jews, courage and humanity could still overcome evil. While six million Jews were murdered by the Nazi regime, some were saved through the actions of non-Jews whose consciences would not allow them to pass by on the other side, and many are honored by Israel’s official memorial to Jewish Holocaust victims, Yad Vashem, as “Righteous among the Nations” for their actions. As a baby, Agnes Grunwald-Spier was herself saved from the horrors of Auschwitz by an unknown official, and is now a trustee of the Holocaust Memorial Day Trust. She has collected the stories of 30 individuals who rescued Jews, providing a new insight into why these people were prepared to risk so much for their fellow men and women. With a foreword by one of the leading experts on the subject, this is an ultimately uplifting account of how some good deeds really do shine in a weary world.”

Michaelson, Elizabeth. “The Knight Who Saved 700 Jews.” Jewniverse. 24 July 2013. Web. 25 July 2013. <>. “Nicky’s Family, a new film by Slovak director Matej Mináč, tells the story of a 20th-century hero you probably don’t know, but should: A British stockbroker named Nicholas Winton who rescued nearly 700 Jewish children from Nazi-occupied Sudetenland.”

Minder, Raphael. “In Portugal, a Protector of a People Is Honored.” The New York Times. 9 July 2013. Web. 18 July 2013. <>. “For his efforts, Mr. Sousa Mendes received some acknowledgment after his death, starting with Israel, where the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial honored him as a “Righteous Among the Nations” in 1966. But the search for those who received his visas or their descendants began in earnest only much more recently, as part of a building campaign to grant him the recognition he deserves, particularly in his own country, where he remains relatively unknown.”

O’Rourke, John. “How Bulgaria Saved Its Jews.” BU Today. Jewish Ideas Daily, 26 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <>. “While the Holocaust claimed the lives of six million Jews living across Europe, one country was able to shield nearly all of its Jewish citizens from deportation and death. That newly revealed godsend is the subject of a provocative exhibition at BU’s Florence and Chafetz Hillel House Rubin-Frankel Gallery. The Power of Civil Society: The Fate of Jews in Bulgaria During the Holocaust, 1940–1944 chronicles the courageous refusal of that country’s citizenry to comply with government plans to surrender its Jews to Germany.”

“Rescue.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia: Rescue. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 29 May 2011. <>. “Despite the indifference of most Europeans and the collaboration of others in the murder of Jews during the Holocaust, individuals in every European country and from all religious backgrounds risked their lives to help Jews.”

“Rescuers of Jews.” Website. Northwest Minnesota Center, Minnesota State University Moorhead. Web. 09 May 2011. <>. This website’s purpose is help people “to learn more about the subjects of Jewish Refugees and the Holocaust.” Herman Stern, an American German-Jewish immigrant, helped 125 Jews flee Nazi Germany, during the depression with proceeds from his business to “buy the lives of individuals who otherwise might have perished.”

Rewald, Ilse. “Berliners Who Helped Us to Survive the Hitler Dictatorship.” Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand. German Resistance Memorial Center, 1990. Web. 02 May 2011. <>. The author uses her war diary to recount the brave Berliners who helped her and her husband survive the Holocaust.

Steinfeld, Irena. “Tracing the Memory of Goodness.” Ehri-project-eu. European Holocaust Research Infrastructure. Web. 27 May 2013. <>. “The Righteous Among the Nations program is an unprecedented attempt by victims to pay tribute to people who stood by them at a time of persecution and tragedy. Its purpose is to single out, within the nations of perpetrators, collaborators, and bystanders, individuals who bucked the general trend and protected Jews from death and deportation.”

Tzur, Nissan. “Poles Finally Learn about Their Holocaust Whistleblower.” The 12 May 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <>. ”The late Jan Karski is a national hero in Poland for his role as a resistance fighter during the Second World War. Few, however, knew that he was also one of the first eyewitnesses of the Holocaust and documented the horrors of the Warsaw Ghetto – despite having been recognised as ‘Righteous Among the Nations’ by Yad Vashem in 1982.”

“The Woman Who Smuggled Children From the Ghetto.” Jewniverse. 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 25 July 2013. <>. “When Nazi tanks rolled into Warsaw in 1939, a 29-year-old Catholic woman named Irena Sendler made a decision: she would not stand by as her country’s Jews were persecuted. Despite smuggling approximately 2500 Jewish children out of the Warsaw Ghetto, Sendler lived in relative obscurity until her death in 2008. But just 2 years ago, PBS released a moving documentary that brought her posthumous fame … Irena Sendler: In the Name of Their Mothers.”