America and the Third Reich

 

Living legends

 A group of B-17 planes in formation over Germany in April, 1945.

 

Abzug, Robert H. America Views the Holocaust, 1933-1945: A Brief Documentary History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1999. Print. “Were Americans the heroic liberators of Nazi concentration camp victims in 1945, or were they knowing and apathetic bystanders to unspeakable brutality and annihilation for a dozen years? Historians have long debated what the United States knew about Hitler’s gruesome Final Solution, when they knew it, and whether they should have intervened sooner. Wrapping historical narrative around 60 primary sources — including news clippings, speeches, letters, magazine articles, and government reports — Abzug chronicles the unfolding events in Nazi Germany while tracing the resurgence of anti-Semitism and tightening immigration policies in the United States.”

“American POWs in Europe.” Guests of the Third Reich. The National WWII Museum, 11 Nov. 2012. Web. 03 June 2013. <http://www.guestsofthethirdreich.org/home/>. “Sixteen million Americans served in World War II. Of these, over 120,000 lived out part of the war behind barbed wire. In the European theater, 93,941 Americans were held as prisoners of war (POWs). These ‘Kriegies,’ short for Kriegsgefangener (German for POW) counted the days until liberation and created dream worlds for themselves inside the camps.”

“America’s Nazis.” American History Illustrated 21.2 (1986): 40. EbscoHost. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. “Patterning itself after the Third Reich, the fanatically pro-Nazi German-American Bund advocated National Socialism as a solution to the Great Depression. Led by its self-styled fuhrer, Fritz Kuhn, the Bund had roots dating from the early 1930s when pro-Nazis took over German-American societies in New York and Michigan.”

Bard, Mitchell G. Forgotten Victims: The Abandonment of Americans in Hitlerʼs Camps. Boulder: Westview, 1994. Print. “Michell Bard’s compelling account of American G.I.’s and citizens who were herded into Nazi concentration camps and abandoned by their government exposes yet another outrage in the dark history of the Holocaust. Bard shatters the belief that American citizenship guarantees safe passage abroad.”

Berman, Aaron. “American Response to the Holocaust.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/american-response-to-the-holocaust>. “The systematic persecution of German Jewry began with Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in 1933. Facing economic, social, and political oppression, thousands of German Jews wanted to flee the Third Reich but found few countries willing to accept them. Eventually, under Hitler’s leadership, some 6 million Jews were murdered during World War II.”

Berrin, Danielle. “Did Hollywood Heil Hitler?” Jewishjournal.com. Jewish Journal, 26 June 2013. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://www.jewishjournal.com/hollywoodjew/item/did_hollywood_heil_hitler>. “In a twisted tale that could be called Confessions of a Nazi Scholar comes a shocking revelation that Hollywood’s association with Hitler’s Third Reich may have been much closer and more collaborative than previously known. According to a new book by historian Ben Urwand … Hollywood actively collaborated with Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler in order to assure their stronghold in the German film market.”

Bredemus, Jim. “American Bund.” TRACES: We Bring HISTORY to LIFE. Traces. Web. 03 June 2013. <http://traces.org/americanbund.html>. “The Failure of American Nazism: The German-American Bund’s Attempt to Create an American ‘Fifth Column.’ Many Americans feared the presence of a German ‘Fifth Column’ before World War II. In the case of the disorganized and poorly led American Bund, for the most part these fears ultimately proved unjustified.”

Breuer, William B. Nazi Spies in America: Hitler’s Undercover War. New York: St. Martin’s Paperbacks, 1990. Print. Nazi spies in America “waged one of the most ferocious covert struggles in the history of espionage.”

Brown, Daniel. The Boys in the Boat: Nine Americans and Their Epic Quest for Gold at the 1936 Berlin Olympics. New York: Vking, 2013. Print. “In 1936 nine working-class American boys burst from their small towns into the international limelight, unexpectedly wiping the smile off Adolph Hitler’s face by beating his vaunted German team to capture the Olympic gold medal.”

Cummins, Sharon. “Nazi U-boats Plagued Maine Coast during WWII.” Seacostonline.com. 29 Apr. 2010. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.seacostonline.com/articles/20100429-LIFE-4290332>. “German submarines swarmed to American waters when the United States formally declared war on Germany and Italy on Dec. 11, 1941. By the following June, 171 American vessels had been torpedoed off the east coast of the Unites [sic] States. Coastal Mainers, many of whom made their living from the sea, felt like sitting ducks.”

Cunningham, Finian. “US Driven by Nazi War Machine.” PressTV. 15 May 2013. Web. 17 May 2013. <http://www.presstv.ir/detail/2013/05/11/302975/us-driven-by-nazi-war-machine/>. “The annual VE Day – victory in Europe – celebrations held this month see, as usual, Western governments indulging in self-glory and moral superiority for their supposed defeat of German fascism. However, the official history books do not tell of the secret pact that Western governments and Washington in particular formed with the remnants of the Nazi war machine.”

Day, Dorothy. “Our Brothers, the Jews.” America Magazine. 9 Nov. 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://americamagazine.org/issue/714/article/our-brothers-jews>. “Unlike any other Catholic writer at the time, Dorothy Day saw Adolf Hitler’s emerging policy toward the Jews as a moral problem for Catholics. She saw this while Hitler was still only the chancellor in a multiparty cabinet—two years before he combined the office of chancellor and president to become Führer and almost four years before Germany adopted the Nuremburg Laws that stripped German Jews of their citizenship and human rights. Day’s views are expressed in this previously unknown essay, which lay undetected in a correspondence file in the Dorothy Day-Catholic Worker Collection at Marquette University.”

Delattre, Lucas. A Spy at the Heart of the Third Reich: The Extraordinary Story of Fritz Kolbe, America’s Most Important Spy in World War II. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2005. Print. “This must be one of the most remarkable stories to come out of World War II, and Fritz Kolbe must be one of that war’s most unique personalities.”

Edwards, John Carver. Berlin Calling: American Broadcasters in Service to the Third Reich. New York: Praeger, 1991. Print. “Expatriates posing as detached yet patriotic American commentators, and using the news-of-the-day voice of the stereotypical radio announcer, sought to turn U.S. opinion against the British and achieve the political objectives of their media-savvy employer–master propagandist Paul Josef Goebbels.”

Epstein, Helen, and Louis G. Cowan. A Study in American Pluralism through Oral Histories of Holocaust Survivors. [New York]: Library, 1977. Print. “Explores, ‘through personal interviews, a particular group of Americans who survived one of the most devastating experiences in history.’ The 250 interviewees included men and women Holocaust survivors, 5 adults who were married to survivors, and 40 children of survivors.”

“Exhibit Opens on US Jews Who Helped Refugees from Nazis.” The Times of Israel. 22 May 2013. Web. 23 May 2013. <http://www.timesofisrael.com/exhibit-opens-on-us-jews-who-helped-refugees-from-nazis/>. “An exhibition opens Tuesday at a museum in Lower Manhattan about efforts by American Jews to bring refugees to the US from Europe during the Nazi era. The exhibition, ‘Against All Odds: American Jews and the Rescue of Europe’s Refugees, 1933-41′ will be on view for a year at the Museum of Jewish Heritage — A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, located on Battery Place.”

Fischer, Klaus P. Hitler & America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2011. Print. “In February 1942, barely two months after he had declared war on the United States, Adolf Hitler praised America’s great industrial achievements and admitted that Germany would need some time to catch up. The Americans, he said, had shown the way in developing the most efficient methods of production-especially in iron and coal, which formed the basis of modern industrial civilization. He also touted America’s superiority in the field of transportation, particularly the automobile. He loved automobiles and saw in Henry Ford a great hero of the industrial age. Hitler’s personal train was even code-named “Amerika.” In Hitler and America, historian Klaus P. Fischer seeks to understand more deeply how Hitler viewed America, the nation that was central to Germany’s defeat.”

Fisher, Marc. Book Review | FDR and the Jews. Belknap of Harvard UP, 2012. Moment. Web. 7 May 2013. “The State Department at first didn’t want to unduly rattle the Germans, and later didn’t want to risk a rift with our British friends. The Republicans allowed their isolationist supporters to run roughshod over their moral sensiblities. Christian leaders, joined by at least some major Jewish organizations, said the extermination of Europe’s Jews was indeed a terrible thing, but the more important goal was to defeat the Nazis, for only the destruction of Hitler’s war machine could really make the world safe for all, including, by the way, whatever Jews might survive the Germans’ genocide.”

“Ford Discussed Alleged Jewish Banking Ring€ with Him, ‘€œIndependent’€ Editor Admits.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Mar. 1927. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1927/03/27/2765837/ford-discussed-alleged-jewish-banking-ring-with-him-independent-editor-admits>. “Important admissions to the effect that Ford discussed the alleged ‘Jewish banking ring’ with him and that the automobile manufacturer saw Sapiro’s demand for retraction of the former’s charges against him, were drawn from William J. Cameron, editor of the ‘Dearborn Independent’ during today’s questioning of him by Gallagher, Sapiro’s counsel. The admissions were made by Cameron under a barrage of objections from the Ford counsel.”

Glass, Charles. Americans in Paris: Life and Death under Nazi Occupation. New York: Penguin, 2010. Print. This book contains “tales of adventure, intrigue, passion, deceit and survival under the brutal Nazi occupation” from 1940 to 1944.

Greenhouse, Emily. “The First American Anti-Nazi Film, Rediscovered.” The New Yorker. 21 May 2013. Web. 23 May 2013. <http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/culture/2013/05/the-first-american-anti-nazi-film-rediscovered.html?printable=true>. “On March 5, 1933, the day elections gave the Nazis a parliamentary plurality, a triumphant Adolf Hitler addressed a hysterical crowd at the Sports Palace in Berlin. From the wings of the stage, [Cornelius] Vanderbilt managed a brief audience with the new Reich Chancellor. According to Vanderbilt’s account, he introduced himself, in German, and then Hitler, with a motion to the throngs that awaited, began speaking: ‘Tell the Americans that life moves forward, always forward, irrevocably forward. Tell them that Adolf Hitler is the man of the hour, … Tell them that he was sent by the Almighty to a nation that had been threatened with disintegration and loss of honor for fifteen long years.’ … The film by Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jr. (as his name read in the credits), ‘Hitler’s Reign of Terror,’ … was a quirky admixture of stock newsreel footage, and genuine documentary material shot by Vanderbilt: sixty-five minutes of frenzied crowds burning books and parading by torchlight in Germany, speeches at a 1933 anti-Nazi rally in Madison Square Garden, street scenes of Vienna and Berlin amid Nazi brownshirts, interviews reënacted in English, and an actual interview with Helen Keller, whose books were burned by Hitler’s decree.” The film was censored and banned in the U.S due to objections by the German authorities. Then the film disappeared and the only copy was recently rediscovered. The film trailer is included.

Heideking, Jürgen, Christof Mauch, and Marc Frey. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996. Print. “Even paranoids have enemies. Hitler’s most powerful foes were the Allied powers, but he also feared internal conspiracies bent on overthrowing his malevolent regime. In fact, there was a small but significant internal resistance to the Nazi regime, and it did receive help from the outside world. Through recently declassified intelligence documents, this book reveals for the first time the complete story of America’s wartime knowledge about, encouragement of, and secret collaboration with the German resistance to Hitler—including the famous July 20th plot to assassinate the Fuehrer. The U.S. government’s secret contacts with the anti-Nazi resistance were conducted by the OSS, the World War II predecessor to the CIA. Highly sensitive intelligence reports recently released by the CIA make it evident that the U.S. government had vast knowledge of what was going on inside the Third Reich.”

Jull, Sandra. “Use Online Resources for Your Research Paper on Nazi Saboteurs in America.” Ezine Articles. 17 May 2010. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://ezinearticles.com/?Use-Online-Resources-For-Your-Research-Paper-on-Nazi-Saboteurs-in-America&id=4261054>. A review of quality resources found online.

Katznelson, IRA. “Failure to Rescue: How FDR Hurt Jewish Immigrants.” New Republic 6 July 2013. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://www.newrepublic.com/article/113388/breitman-and-lichtmans-fdr-and-jews-reviewed-ira-katznelson>. “Level-headed yet deeply troubling, ‘FDR and the Jews’ [by Richard Breitman and Allan Lichtman] offers a history of American policy toward overseas Jews before and during World War II. With questions tangled and evidence mixed, Breitman and Lichtman … enter a deeply charged conversation about the degree of culpability of Franklin Roosevelt and, more broadly, the United States, as Hitler’s regime moved from extirpation to mass murder. Substituting cool reason and careful adjudication for polemic and accusation, their assessment of how the Roosevelt administration considered whether to remonstrate, to relax immigration policy, or to interdict the machinery for killing during the course of the Third Reich displays little patience for indictment. Assertively fair-minded, sometimes excessively so, FDR and the Jews pushes back against simplistic denunciations, and refuses to treat the era’s combination of constraints and decisions as a one-dimensional history of American abandonment. Situating Roosevelt within political and global circumstances, it weighs his actions with understanding and sympathy, though not always with approval.”

Kehr, Dave. “Film No Evil.” The New York Times. 23 May 2013. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://wap.nytimes.com/2013/05/26/books/review/hollywood-and-hitler-by-thomas-doherty.html>. Book review: HOLLYWOOD AND HITLER, 1933-1939 by Thomas Doherty Illustrated. Columbia University Press. Sixty-eight years after the collapse of the Thousand Year Reich, Nazis remain a persistent presence on American screens. With their eye-­grabbing iconography, they provide easy cartoon villains for action films (‘Inglourious Basterds’), add moral import to dubious melodramas (‘The Reader’), fuel entire cable channels with documentary reconstructions of their crimes and on rare occasions motivate actual works of art. But as Thomas Doherty forcefully establishes in his wide-ranging and brightly written new book, “Hollywood and Hitler, 1933-1939,” Nazis were all but invisible in American movies at the time when depicting their savagery might have done the most good.”

Kluckhohn, Frank. “U.S. Now at War with Germany and Italy.” On This Day. New York Times. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1211.html>.

Kuttler, Hillel. “Seeking Kin: Honoring Those Who Assured Nazi Loot’s Return.” Jewish Telegraph Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 24 Oct. 2012. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/10/24/3110241/seeking-kin-honoring-those-who-assured-nazi-loots-return>. “Like many immigrants from Germany who fought in the U.S. military during World War II, Harry Ettlinger served his adopted country by translating captured materials and interpreting during interrogations of enemy prisoners. … But within that population of soldiers, Ettlinger played a unique role. He was assigned to a little-known department of the Allied forces that located and returned important documents and works of art that the Nazis had taken from public and private collections. The 350-member department operated in small groups attached to military units in Western Europe at the end of World War II and in its aftermath.”

Lichtblau, Eric. “Secret Papers Detail U.S. Aid for Ex-Nazis.” New York Times 13 Nov. 10. WWW.nytimes.com/2010/11/14. 13 Nov. 2010. Web. 15 Aug. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/27/opinion/lweb27nazi.html?gwh=3AA19D394B86C820757FC55D380C0E63>. ”A secret history of the United States government’s Nazi-hunting operation concludes that American intelligence officials created a ‘safe haven’ in the United States for Nazis and their collaborators after World War II …”

Lineberry, Cate. The Secret Rescue: An Untold Story of American Nurses and Medics behind Nazi Lines. Little, Brown and (Canada), 2013. Print. “When 26 Army nurses and medics-part of the 807th Medical Air Evacuation Transport Squadron-boarded a cargo plane for transport in November 1943, they never anticipated the crash landing in Nazi-occupied Albania that would lead to their months-long struggle for survival. A drama that captured the attention of the American public, the group and its flight crew dodged bullets and battled blinding winter storms as they climbed mountains and fought to survive, aided by courageous villagers who risked death at Nazi hands to help them. A mesmerizing tale of the courage and heroism of ordinary people, THE SECRET RESCUE tells not only a new story of struggle and endurance, but also one of the daring rescue attempts by clandestine American and British organizations amid the tumultuous landscape of the war.”

Lipstadt, Deborah E. Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust, 1933-1945. New York: Free, 1986. Print. “This most complete study to date of American press reactions to the Holocaust sets forth in abundant detail how the press nationwide played down or even ignored reports of Jewish persecutions over a 12-year period. The conclusions amplify but do not seriously challenge previous studies; what is more significant here is the effort far from complete to explain press actions. While revealing more about major newspapers and correspondents than about the mass of smaller ones, and saying far too little about newsreels and American Jewish newspapers, this raises larger questions concerning the relationship between press coverage, public knowledge, and government policy that deserve serious consideration.”

Luick-Thrams, Michael. “Nazi Facism: Hitler and “Amerika”" Traces: We Bring HISTORY to LIFE. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.traces.org/articles.html>. “Life in the Third Reich and Adolf Hitler: each evokes myriad images of their own, yet neither can be fully understood without the other. So pervasive and absolute was the influence of Adolf Hitler that his overbearing presence and the Nazi Party he helped create permeated virtually every aspect of German society from 1933 to 1945. Perhaps more than any other individual, he changed the course of the twentieth century and of Western civilization by initiating such a cataclysmic world war. Because history has recorded such a horrific, other-than-human picture of him, however, it is difficult to truly understand Adolf Hitler: the maniac, the menace—the man.” Also includes: “Third Reich = The Big Lie,” “Address by Adolf Hitler to the Reichstag, Sept. 1, 1939,” “Chronology of the Third Reich,” “Nature of Fascism,” “War: Bill Moyers Talks with Chris Hedges.”

Mayers, David. “Neither War Nor Peace: FDR’s Ambassadors in Embassy Berlin and Policy Toward Germany, 1933-1941.” Diplomacy & Statecraft 20.1 (2009): 50-68. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. “American policy toward Germany in the years before Pearl Harbor can be approached from any number angles. A rich literature already exists that emphasizes the geopolitical dimension of the German-U.S. relationship, as well as its economic and ideological complexities. I shall here explore an interpretative line that has been less fully developed in the historiography, namely, the viewpoint of U.S. diplomats posted in Berlin. Their experience in the Third Reich to FDR’s America and its equivocal response.”

Medoff, Rafael. “FDR Used the IRS against Jewish Activists.” Jdaily.com. Jns.org/news Service, 20 May 2013. Web. 22 May 2013. <http://www.jidaily.com/09209?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=c2bd525051-Insider&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_0b0517b2ab-c2bd525051-41142621>. “During the Holocaust era, the object of U.S. government wrath was the Bergson Group, a political action committee led by Peter Bergson (Hillel Kook), a Zionist emissary from Palestine. The group used newspaper ads, rallies, and lobbying to press the Franklin Delano Roosevelt administration for the rescue of Jews from the Nazis.”

Medoff, Rafael. “How America First Learned of The Holocaust.” JNS.org. 11 June 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/6/11/how-america-first-learned-of-the-holocaust.html>. “Seventy years ago this month America learned, for the first time, about the systematic mass murder of Europe’s Jews—but Allied officials and some leading newspapers downplayed the news.”

Medoff, Rafael. “Tarzan and The Holocaust.” JNS.org. 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/9/10/tarzan-and-the-holocaust.html>. “In one of the Hebrew novellas, Tarzan helps smuggle Jewish refugees out of Europe and past the British naval blockade of Palestine. At one point in the story, Tarzan is captured by the British and imprisoned, although he later escapes. In real life, the Irgun Zvai Leumi underground militia in Palestine initiated the Aliyah Bet (unauthorized immigration) campaign in 1937. It brought an estimated 20,000 Jews to the Holy Land during the next four years. About 7,500 miles away, a handful of Jewish activists were looking for donors in Hollywood to help bankroll the Aliyah Bet operations. Hillel Kook (using the name Peter Bergson), Yitshaq Ben-Ami, Samuel Merlin, and Alex Rafaeli, followers of the Revisionist Zionist leader Ze’ev Jabotinsky and members of the Irgun, had been sent by Jabotinsky to the U.S. between 1938 and 1940 to seek financial and political support for Aliyah Bet and the creation of a Jewish state.”

Mikies, David. “Hollywood’s Creepy Love Affair With Adolf Hitler, in Explosive New Detail.” Tablet Magazine. 10 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/134503/hollywood-nazi-urwand>. Book – The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact with Hitler, Harvard University Press, 2013. “As it turns out, Hitler’s love for American movies was reciprocated by Hollywood. A forthcoming book by the young historian Ben Urwand … presents explosive new evidence about the shocking extent of the partnership between the Nazis and major Hollywood producers. Urwand … Digging through archives in Berlin and Washington, D.C., he has unearthed proof that Hollywood worked together with the Nazis much more closely than we ever imagined. Urwand has titled his riveting book The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact With Hitler, and as you turn its pages you realize with dismay that collaboration is the only fitting word for the relationship between Hitler and Hollywood in the 1930s. Using new archival discoveries, Urwand alleges that some of the Hollywood studio heads, nearly all of whom were Jewish, cast their lot with Hitler almost from the moment he took power, and that they did so eagerly—not reluctantly. What they wanted was access to German audiences. What Hitler wanted was the ability to shape the content of Hollywood movies—and he got it. During the ’30s, Georg Gyssling, Hitler’s consul in Los Angeles, was invited to preview films before they were released. If Gyssling objected to any part of a movie—and he frequently did—the offending scenes were cut. As a result, the Nazis had total veto power over the content of Hollywood movies.”

“News Brief.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 15 Oct. 1933. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1933/10/15/2799230/archive_4c28c1b928e52>. “The American Federation of Labor, composed of almost five million members of trades unions throughout the country, today adopted a resolution throwing the strength of the American labor movement solidly behind the boycott of German products until such time as the Nazi rulers of the Reich end their suppression of the German labor movement and their persecution of the Jews in Germany.”

Noah, Timothy. “Did the U.S. Wage Biowarfare Against Nazi Germany?” Slate Magazine. 1 Nov. 2001. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/chatterbox/2001/11/did_the_us_wage_biowarfare_against_nazi_germany.html>. “One of the very few moments of comic relief to be found in ‘Germs: Biological Weapons and America’s Secret War,’ by New York Times correspondents Judith Miller, Stephen Engelberg, and William Broad, concerns what the authors describe as ‘America’s only known biological attack.’ It occurred in the early 1940s, long before President Richard Nixon formally renounced the use of biological weapons. The target was the Third Reich’s answer to Alan Greenspan, a man with the improbable name of Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht.”

Norwood, Stephen H. “In Denial: American Universities’ Response to the Third Reich, Past and Present.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 46.4 (2011): 501-09. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. “This article discusses the relationship between American universities and the Nazi regime in Germany. Particular focus is given to the tole of Harvard University and Columbia University in participating in academic dialogues and exchanges with German universities and hosting Nazi officials on visits to the U.S.”

Norwood, Stephen H. The Third Reich in the Ivory Tower: Complicity and Conflict on American Campuses. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. Print. “This is the first systematic exploration of the nature and extent of sympathy for Nazi Germany at American universities during the 1930s. Universities were highly influential in shaping public opinion and many of the nation’s most prominent university administrators refused to take a principled stand against the Hitler regime. Universities welcomed Nazi officials to campus and participated enthusiastically in student exchange programs with Nazified universities in Germany. American educators helped Nazi Germany improve its image in the West as it intensified its persecution of the Jews and strengthened its armed forces.”

Olson, Lynne. Those Angry Days: Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and America’s Fight over World War II, 1939-1941. New York: Random House, 2013. Print. “A fully fleshed-out portrait of the battle between the interventionists and isolationists in the eighteen months leading up to Pearl Harbor … a vivid, colorful evocation of a charged era.”

Oshinsky, David. “… Congress Disposes.” Rev. of FDR and the Jews. The New York Times 5 Apr. 2013. Web.  FDR and the Jews by Richard Breitman and Allan J. Lichtman. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/07/books/review/fdr-and-the-jews-by-richard-breitman-and-allan-j-lichtman.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0>. “To fight World War II, Roosevelt needed support from legislators who wanted to keep out Europe’s Jews.”

Padover, S. K. “How the Nazis Picture America.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 3.4 (1939): 663-69. JSTOR. Web. 2 Feb. 2012. In 1939 the Nazis drew a picture of the United States for German consumption that was “a caricature not devoid of humor. …The Nazis see America as a rich, vulgar, corrupt, and basically uncultured land, owned by Jews, full of criminals, and clinging to a degenerate form of democracy.”

Plaut, Jams S. “Hitler’s Capital.” The Atlantic Online. The Atlantic, Oct. 1946. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/unbound/flashbks/nazigold/hitler.htm>. “After four years’ service In the Navy, James S. Plaut has resumed his duties as Director of the Institute of Modern Art, Boston. In 1943 he served as the Senior U.S. Naval Interrogation Officer in Northwest African waters, charged with the special interrogation of German U-boat crews. From November, 1944, to April, 1946, he was Director of the Art Looting Investigation Unit, OSS, and in this capacity he was directly responsible for recovering the works of art which had been looted by Rosenberg, Goring, and Hitler and hidden in Germany.”

Preparata, Guido Giacomo. Conjuring Hitler: How Britain and America Made the Third Reich. London: Pluto, 2005. Print. “A fascinating and controversial new perspective on Hitler’s rise to power; Provides startling evidence of Britain and America’s financial support for the Third Reich; Suggests that the western elite deliberately supported Nazism in the pre-war period to destabilise any alliance between Germany and Russia. Nazism is usually depicted as an eerie German phenomenon, the outcome of political blunders and unique economic factors: we are told that it could not be prevented, and that it will never be repeated. Guido Giacomo Preparata shows that the truth is very different: using meticulous economic analysis, he reveals that Hitler’s extraordinary rise to power was actually facilitated over the course of a decade following WWI – and eventually financed – by the British and American political classes.”

Reich, Simon. “The Ford Motor Company and the Third Reich.” Jewish Virtual Library – Homepage. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/ford.html>. “[T]he different degrees of success enjoyed by the Ford Motor Company’s subsidiaries in Britain and Gernany in the 1930s and 1940s were heavily influenced by the policies of each country’s government.”

Rollins, Peter C., and John E. O’Connor. Why We Fought: America’s Wars in Film and History. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 2008. Print. “Film moves audiences like no other medium; both documentaries and feature films are especially remarkable for their ability to influence viewers. Best-selling author James Brady remarked that he joined the Marines to fight in Korea after seeing a John Wayne film, demonstrating how a motion picture can change the course of a human life — in this case, launching the career of a major historian and novelist. In Why We Fought: America’s Wars in Film and History, editors Peter C. Rollins and John E. O’Connor explore the complexities of war films, describing the ways in which such productions interpret history and illuminate American values, politics, and culture.”

Schuessler, Jennifer. “Scholar Asserts That Hollywood Avidly Aided Nazis.” The New York Review of Books. The New York Times, 25 June 2013. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/26/books/scholar-asserts-that-hollywood-avidly-aided-nazis.html?pagewanted=all>. “The list of institutions and industries that have been accused of whitewashing their links to the Third Reich is long, including various governments, the Vatican, Swiss banks and American corporations like I.B.M., General Motors and DuPont. Now a young historian wants to add a more glamorous name to that roll call: Hollywood. In ‘The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact With Hitler,’ Ben Urwand draws on a wealth of previously uncited documents to argue that Hollywood studios, in an effort to protect the German market for their movies, not only acquiesced to Nazi censorship but also actively and enthusiastically cooperated with that regime’s global propaganda effort.”

Shaffer, Ryan. “Long Island Nazis: A Local Synthesis of Transnational Politics.” Long Island History Journal 21.2 (2010). Stonybrook.edu. Long Island History Journal (LIHJ), Spring 2010. Web. 03 June 2013. <http://www.stonybrook.edu/lihj/IssueFiles/V21_2/Articles/Shaffer/shaffer.html>. “This article offers an overview of the German-American Bund, and explores the national and local dimension of fascism in a democratic society. It focuses on the Bund’s local programs on Long Island and the ideology of the group, arguing that the group is not only pro-Nazi, but also ‘pro-American.’ By demonstrating the ideology is not constrained by borders, the Bund reconciled fascist and democratic principles. The organization claimed that fascism was a form of democracy, and that the two systems of government needed the other to exist. To further these aims, the Bund sought supporters in local settings and maintained a following until the outbreak of the Second World War.”

Shull, Michael S., and David Edward Wilt. Hollywood War Films: 1937 – 1945 ; an Exhaustive Filmography of American Feature-length Motion Pictures Relating to World War II.  McFarland, 1996. Print. “From 1937 through 1945, Hollywood produced over 1,000 films relating to the war. This enormous and exhaustive reference work first analyzes the war films as sociopolitical documents. Part one, entitled ‘The Crisis Abroad, 1937-1941,’ focuses on movies that reflected America’s increasing uneasiness. Part two, ‘Waging War, 1942-1945,’ reveals that many movies made from 1942 through 1945 included at least some allusion to World War II.”

Spivak, John L. Secret Armies: Exposing Hitler’s Undeclared War on the Americas. New York: Starling, 1939. Print.Secret Armies if the author’s “inside story of Hitler’s far-flung, under-cover poison campaign in the Americas [that would] seem scarcely credible, were it not so thoroughly document with original letters and records, citing chapter and verse, naming names, dates and places. His unanswerable, uncontradicted facts should go far toward jolting many of us out of our false sense of security [in 1939].”

Sutton, Antony C. Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler. Cutchogue, NY: Buccaneer, 2000. Print. “Business manipulation of Hitler’s accession to power in March 1933.”

“To Kill Hitler in 1944, Colby Says.” Schenectady Gazette 4 Aug. 1975: 40. Google News. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. CIA director William E. Colby testified that “he could accept a federal law barring the CIA from hatching assassination plots, but said he might have supported a plot to kill Adolf Hitler in 1944.”

United States. Cong. Committee Requested by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower through the Chief of Staff, Gen. George C. Marshall to the Congress of the United States in Concentration Camps in Germany. Atrocities and Other Conditions in Condentration Camps in Germany. By Alben W. Barkley and Committee. 79th Cong., 1st sess. Cong. Doc. 47. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1945. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. General Eisenhower requested that a joint Congressional committee hurriedly fly to Germany to view the atrocities and deplorable conditions of Nazi concentration camps. They wrote this report and submitted it to Congress.

Von Hassell, Agostino., Sigrid MacRae, and Simone Ameskamp. Alliance of Enemies: The Untold Story of the Secret American and German Collaboration to End World War II. New York: Thomas Dunne, 2006. Print. This book “tells the thrilling history of the secret World War II relationship between Nazi Germany’s espionage service, the Abwehr, and the American OSS, predecessor of the CIA.”

Wallace, Max. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the Rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin’s, 2003. Print. “Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh have long been exalted as two of the greatest American icons of the twentieth century. Now award-winning journalist Max Wallace uncovers groundbreaking and astonishing revelations about the poisonous effect these two so-called American heroes had on Western democracy and how the two of them—acting in league with the Nazis—almost brought democratic Europe to the verge of extinction.”

Wiener, Robert. “Detroit Motorized the Third Reich.” Spero News. 29 Mar. 2013. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <http://www.speroforum.com/a/CRFIHJOJKU58/73857-Detroit-motorized-the-Third-Reich>. “The hidden history of the Shoah and its connections to American and Middle East affairs have preoccupied writer Edwin Black since the 1970s, when he wrote the first of 10 books of investigative journalism, including IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation. … There is no other American city that has a special connection to the Third Reich other than Detroit. It had a special place in Hitler’s heart because of two leading Holocaust collaborators: Henry Ford and Albert Sloan, the president of General Motors.”

“World War II Remembered: The Generals and the Admirals.” LIFE. Ed. Ben Cosgove. Web. 01 July 2013. <http://life.time.com/world-war-ii/>. LIFE’s photo galleries include Battle of Britain; Inside a Nazi Christmas Party, 1941; Women of Steel: Life with Female Factory Workers in World War II; World War II: The Photos We Remember; At the Gates of Hell: The Liberation of Bergen-Belsen; After the Fall: Photos of Hitler’s Bunker and more in 3 sections.

Wyman, David S. The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust, 1941-1945. New York: Pantheon, 1984. Print. “Bonhoeffer’s scattered observations about Jews and Jewish experiences, problematic passages, ambiguities, and contradictions.”

Zuckerman, Laurence. “FDR’s Jewish Problem.” The Nation. 17 July 2013. Web. 18 July 2013. <http://www.thenation.com/article/175315/fdrs-jewish-problem?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=3cccb65d2a-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_18_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-3cccb65d2a-26652337#>. “Presidential scholars have consistently ranked Roosevelt as the best chief executive in the nation’s history for his handling of the Great Depression and World War II. But even among liberal Jews who still hold him in high regard for those achievements, his reputation has been tarnished as he has been viewed increasingly through the prism of the Holocaust. What started out in the late 1960s as legitimate historical revisionism—looking critically at what the Roosevelt administration and American Jewry did during the Holocaust—has morphed into caricature, with FDR often depicted as an unfeeling anti-Semite.”