Art, Music, and Literature in the Third Reich

509px-Richard_Wagner,_Paris,_1861

Richard Wagner (1813-1883). “German composer, dramatist, essayist, and influential forerunner of Nazi ideology. … Wagner’s passion for theGerman spirit in music was matched by his contempt for Jewish music. He was repelled by what he called the physical aspect of Jewish speech.” Encyclopedia of the Third Reich

 

In Nazi Germany, a chief role of culture was to disseminate the Nazi world view. One of the first tasks Nazi leaders undertook upon their ascension to power in early 1933 was a synchronization (Gleichschaltung) of all professional and social organizations with Nazi ideology and policy. The arts and cultural organizations were not exempt from this effort. Joseph Goebbels, the Minister for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda, immediately strove to bring the artistic and cultural communities in line with Nazi goals. The government purged cultural organizations of Jews and others alleged to be politically or artistically suspect.

Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

 

 Adam, Peter. Art of the Third Reich. New York: H.N Abrams, 1992. Print. “Nearly 50 years after the collapse of Hitler’s Third Reich, the officially sanctioned art of his National Socialist regime remains largely unknown. Many were destroyed or stored away in inaccessible locations. Now a documentary film producer offers a thoroughly researched, engrossing examination of the art of National Socialist Germany.”

Adeney, Elizabeth. “Authors’ Rights in the Third Reich.” Law’s Enterprise: 21st Annual Conference of the Australia and New Zealand Law and History Society. Katoomba, N.S.W. 2002. 1-21. Deakin University Australia. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://dro.deakin.edu.au/list/?cat=quick_filter&search_keys%5Bcore_36%5D=Australia+and+New+Zealand+Law+and+History+Society.+Conference+%2821st+%3A+2002+%3A+Katoomba%2C+N.S.W.%29>.

Ambrose, Tom. Hitler’s Loss: What Britain and America Gained from Europe’s Cultural Exiles. London: Peter Owen in Association with the European Jewish Publication Society, 2001. Print. “When the Nazis came to power in 1933 they drove many of the world’s great artists, musicians, film-makers, writers and scientists out of Germany … ‘Hitler’s Loss’ tells the story of the escape from danger and oppression of many major figures in the arts and science – mainly but not exclusively, Jews … ”

“Art Approved of by the Third Reich.” A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust. Florida Center for Instructional Technology, Web. 23 May 2013. <http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/arts/ARTREICH.HTM>. “Art was considered to be one of the most important elements to strengthening the Third Reich and purifying the nation. Political aims and artistic expression became one. The task of art in the Third Reich was to shape the population’s attitudes by carrying political messages with stereotyped concepts and art forms.”

“Art in Nazi Germany.” Art in Nazi Germany. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/art_nazi_germany.htm?oo=39576550>. “Art, along with architecture, music and films, was heavily shaped by Nazi ideology once Hitler gained power on January 30th 1933. Hitler considered himself to be very knowledgeable with regards to art and effectively decided that there were two forms of art – un-German degenerate art of the likes of Pablo Picasso and classical realistic art that represented all that was good about Nazi Germany and Germans.”

“Art in Nazi Germany.” Education. Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.scva.org.uk/education/resources/pdfs/17.pdf>. “[H]is activity sheet is meant to show what Martin Bloch and other German artists in exile were escaping from. Read through the sheet and then think about the questions at the end. These are supposed to be part of a discussion in the classroom.”

“Art in the Third Reich.” Holocaust-Era Assets. National Archives. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/bibliographies/art-in-third-reich.html>. Art in the Third Reich nine-page bibliography of material in the National Archives.

Baird, Jay W. Hitler’s War Poets: Literature and Politics in the Third Reich. New York: Cambridge UP, 2008. Print. “Jay W. Baird comes to grips with a theme which has been generally avoided by over two generations of scholars and literary critics. He demonstrates how poets and writers responded enthusiastically to Hitler’s summons to artists to create a cultural revolution commensurate with the political radicalism of the new state, thereby affirming the centrality of renewed German culture.”

Barbian, Jan-Pieter. Politics of Literature in Nazi Germany: The Book and the Media Dictatorship. [S.l.]: Continuum, 2013. Print. “This is the most comprehensive account to date of literary politics in Nazi Germany and of the institutions, organizations and people who controlled German literature during the Third Reich.”

Barken, Jeffrey. “Hitler’s Jewish magician.” JNS.Org. 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/8/13/hitlers-jewish-magician.html>. “The curtain opens on a frightening scene: Post-World War I Germany. Punishing reparations, a war-scarred public and a fractured society have doomed Germany’s Weimar Republic, paving the way for Nazism. Amidst the chaos, a clairvoyant Jew named Erik Jan Hanussen cleverly exploits a desperate public’s fascination with the occult, rising to Berlin society’s top rank, and even entering into the inner circle of Hitler’s demonic advisors.”

Berkowitz, M. “Weekend in Munich: Art, Propaganda and Terror in the Third Reich.” Journal of Modern History 70.1 (1998): 119-36. UCL. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/65117/>.

“ The Berlin Jüdischer Kulturbund.” Music and the Holocaust. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://holocaustmusic.ort.org/politics-and-propaganda/third-reich/the-berlin-jdischer/>. “On 7 April 1933, Hitler’s regime began an official assault on Germany’s cultural life with the Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums (Law for the Reconstitution of the Civil Service). By means of the Law’s Aryan paragraph, ‘civil servants who are not of Aryan ancestry’ were to be dismissed. This measure prevented non-Aryans – defined at that time as any person descended from a Jewish parent or grandparent—from holding positions in the public sphere, especially at cultural institutions such as state-run music conservatories, opera houses, concert halls, and theatres. However, after a series of debates, Jews were allowed to continue as artists within their own separate organization: the Jüdischer Kulturbund (Jewish Culture League), originally called the Kulturbund Deutscher Juden (Culture League of German Jews).”

“Biographical Dictionary of Persecuted Musicians 1933-1945.” LexM. Uiversitat Hamburg, June 2006. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <http://www.lexm.uni-hamburg.de/content/main/projekt/vorwort_en.xml?wcmsID=0112>. “The “Biographical Dictionary of Persecuted Musicians 1933-1945“ (LexM) is a subject oriented, biographical music-dictionary. We list in this encyclopaedia, people who were at the time professional musicians and affected by the Nazi Terror. Their lives spent in exile or subject to other forms of repression must be kept from oblivion and re-anchored in the consciousness of public musical life.”

Bloom, Harold. Literature of the Holocaust. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2004. Print. “From the greatest tragedy of the 20th century rose a generation of writers determined to tell their stories and carry on the legacy of those who perished. This title provides a critical perspective on the works that captured this somber period in Western history.”

Caplan, Bryan. “Michael H. Kater, The Twisted Muse: Musicians and Their Music in the Third Reich.” Journal of Cultural Economics 22.4 (1998): 287-89. Springer Link. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1007473419494#page-1>. Review of book: Michael H. Kater, The Twisted Muse: Musicians and Their Music in the Third Reich by Bryan Caplan.

Carr, Steven A. “Review of ‘Art, Culture, and Media Under the Third Reich’ Edited by Richard A. Etlin.” Clio: A Journal of Literature, History, and the Philosophy of History 33.4 (2004): 487-93. Opus.ipfw.edu. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://works.bepress.com/stevenalancarr/15/>. Review of the book Art, Culture, and Media under the Third Reich edited by Richard A. Etlin.

Charles, Antony. “Wilhelm Furtwängler and Music in the Third Reich.” Journal of Historical Review 17.3 (1998): 2ff. Institute for Historical Review. Journal of Historical Review, 2013. Web. 23 May 2013. <http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v17/v17n3p-2_Charles.html>. “Not only during his lifetime, but also in the decades since his death in 1954, Wilhelm Furtwängler has been globally recognized as one of the greatest musicians of this century, above all as the brilliant primary conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra, which he lead from 1922 to 1945, and again after 1950. … Following the National Socialist seizure of power in 1933, some prominent musicians — most notably such Jewish artists as Bruno Walter, Otto Klemperer and Arnold Schoenberg — left Germany. Most of the nation’s musicians, however, including the great majority of its most gifted musical talents, remained — and even flourished. With the possible exception of the composer Richard Strauss, Furtwängler was the most prominent musician to stay and ‘collaborate.’”

Cohen, Patricia. “Museums Faulted on Restitution of Nazi-Looted Art.” New York Times. 30 May 2013. Web. 1 July 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/arts/design/museums-faulted-on-efforts-to-return-art-looted-by-nazis.html?_r=0>. “Not until 1998, when 44 nations including the United States signed the groundbreaking Washington Principles on Nazi-Confiscated Art, did governments and museums formally embrace the idea that they have a special responsibility to repair the damage caused by the wholesale looting of art owned by Jews during the Third Reich’s reign. Now, 15 years later, historians, legal experts and Jewish groups say that some American museums have backtracked on their pledge to settle Holocaust recovery claims on the merits, and have resorted instead to legal and other tactics to block survivors or their heirs from pursuing claims.”

Conlon, James. “Recovering a Musical Heritage: The Music Suppressed by the Third Reich.”  The Orel Foundation, 2007. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <http://orelfoundation.org/>. “[T]he Third Reich silenced two generations of composers and, with them, an entire musical heritage. Many, who perished in concentration camps, and others, whose freedom and productivity were curtailed, were fated to be forgotten after the war. Their music seemed to have passed with them, lost in endless silence. … By keeping alive their music and that of other victims of totalitarianism, we deny those past regimes a posthumous victory. The revival of this music can serve as a reminder for us to resist any contemporary or future impulse to define artistic standards on the basis of racist, political, sectarian or exclusionary ideologies.”

“CULTURE IN THE THIRD REICH: DISSEMINATING THE NAZI WORLDVIEW.” USHMM.org. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 12 May 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007519>. “Beginning in September 1933, a new Reich Culture Chamber (Reichskulturkammer) — an umbrella organization composed of the Reich Film, Music, Theater, Press, Literary, Fine Arts, and Radio Chambers — moved to supervise and regulate all facets of German culture.”

Dennis, David B. Inhumanities: Nazi Interpretations of Western Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2012. Print. “Inhumanities is an unprecedented account of the ways Nazi Germany manipulated and mobilized European literature, philosophy, painting, sculpture, and music in support of its ideological ends. David B. Dennis shows how, based on belief that the Third Reich represented the culmination of Western Civilization, culture became a key propaganda tool in the regime’s program of national renewal and its campaign against political, national, and racial enemies.”

Elliott, David. “The Battle for Art in the 1930s.” History Today. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/david-elliott/battle-art-1930s>. “The rhetoric of war and struggle echoed across 1950s Europe like a trumpet blast. In Germany, the USSR and Italy, increasingly intense battles for the control of art and culture were an integral part of the establishment of power and prefigured the real war which started in Spain in 1936 and then spread throughout Europe. These battles for art – or cultural revolutions – were part of the process of purging or cleansing, through which each ‘threatened’ nation could be healed and made whole. Enemies could be found everywhere; but first they had to be eliminated at home – where they seemed to threaten the states’ very existence. Art was a weapon which could be used for this end. Only when a firm hand had taken control could attention be directed further afield – to those unknown enemies who lurked beyond the frontiers.”

Fetthauer, Sophie. “Biographical Dictionary of Persecuted Musicians 1933-1945.” The OREL Foundation. Orel Foundation, July 2009. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <http://orelfoundation.org/index.php/journal/journalArticle/biographical_dictionary_of_persecuted_musicians_19330451945/>. “The Biographical Dictionary of Persecuted Musicians 1933-1945 is an online resource (http://www.lexm.uni-hamburg.de). It comprises a biographical dictionary and a bibliography, both of which are accessible either through alphabetical registers or through extensive search tools. The search tools not only guarantee the possibility of finding individual musicians easily but are also aimed at supporting research on specific subjects. There are, for example, several keyword-based search functions (‘gender,’ ‘professions,’ ‘reasons for persecution’ and ‘persecution/exile’).”

“Films in Nazi Germany.” History Learning Site. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/films_nazi_germany.htm>. “Films played a major part in propaganda in Nazi Germany. The film industry was controlled by the Nazis and ranged from anti-Semitic films such as “The Eternal Jew”, to propaganda films to ‘enlighten’ youths about the Hitler Youth movement (“Hitlerjunge Quex”) to coverage of the 1936 Berlin Olympics by Leni Riefenstahl. Whatever topic it was, all of this was controlled by Joseph Goebbels’ Ministry of Propaganda. It was Goebbels who said: ‘We are convinced that films constitute one of the most modern and scientific means of influencing the mass. Therefore the government must not neglect them.’”

“France to Return Paintings Stolen by Nazis to Jewish Owners.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/15/france-art-theft>. “France has promised to return seven paintings taken from their Jewish owners during the second world war, part of efforts to give back hundreds of looted art that hangs in the Louvre and other museums. The works were stolen or sold under duress up to seven decades ago as their owners fled Nazi-occupied Europe. All seven were destined for display in the art gallery Adolf Hitler planned to build in his birthplace of Linz, Austria, according to a catalogue for the proposed museum. … The move to return the paintings ends years of struggle for the owners’ families, whose claims were validated by the French government last year.”

“From Nazi Persecution to Renowned Opera Singer, Hilde Zadek Going Strong at 95.” Washington Post. The Washington Post, 20 Dec. 2012. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/from-nazi-persecution-to-renowned-opera-singer-hilde-zadek-going-strong-at-95/2012/12/20/a77228bc-4a78-11e2-8af9-9b50cb4605a7_story_1.html>. ” It was 1947 in post-war Vienna, and Hilde Zadek remembers taking a deep breath behind the curtain. A rookie on her first opera gig, she was about to sing the prestigious role of Aida for an audience full of particularly harsh critics — whistle-packing Nazis she says were determined to show ‘that Jew from Palestine’ she was not welcome at one of the world’s greatest opera houses.”

Gera, Vanessa. “Jewish Museum in Poland Unveils Synagogue Roof – WTOP.com.” WTOP. 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.wtop.com/1226/3248061/Jewish-museum-in-Poland-unveils-synagogue-roof>. “A Jewish history museum in Warsaw has unveiled a reconstructed synagogue roof with an elaborately painted ceiling modeled on a 17th-century structure, presenting the first object that will go on permanent display in the highly awaited museum.”

Glendinning, Lee. “Hitler’s Secret Musical Collection – of Russian and Jewish Artists.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 06 Aug. 2007. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/aug/07/secondworldwar.germany>. “He expelled Jewish and Russian musicians from concert halls during the Third Reich, claimed in Mein Kampf that there was no independent Jewish culture, and referred to Russians as sub-humans, yet at the same time Adolf Hitler listened to their music in secret. Around 100 gramophone records which apparently belonged to the Nazi leader have been discovered in the attic of a house outside Moscow owned by a former Soviet intelligence officer.”

Goldman, David P. “Muted.” Tabletmag. Tablet Magazine, 17 Aug. 2011. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/music/75247/muted%20>. “Performances of Wagner’s music are effectively banned in Israel. Should they be? Richard Wagner, the most repugnant of musical nationalists, has become an unlikely poster child for culturally progressive Israelis. The recurring controversy over the public performance of work by the Nazi Party’s favorite composer erupted again in late July when the Israeli Chamber Orchestra, led by the Austrian conductor Roberto Paternostro, performed a much-publicized Wagner program at the Bayreuth Festival in Germany, Wagner’s self-erected shrine and a pillar of the Nazi movement well before Hitler took power.

Hake, Sabine. Popular Cinema of the Third Reich. Austin, TX: University of Texas, 2001. Print. “Too often dismissed as escapist entertainment or vilified as mass manipulation, popular cinema in the Third Reich was in fact sustained by well-established generic conventions, cultural traditions, aesthetic sensibilities, social practices, and a highly developed star system—not unlike its Hollywood counterpart in the 1930s. This pathfinding study contributes to the ongoing reassessment of Third Reich cinema by examining it as a social, cultural, economic, and political practice that often conflicted with, contradicted, and compromised the intentions of the Propaganda Ministry.”

Hirsch, Lily E. “The Jüdische Kulturbünde in the Early Nazi Years.” The OREL Foundation. Orel Foundation, 2010. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <http://orelfoundation.org/index.php/journal/journalArticle/the_j252dische_kulturbunde_in_the_early_nazi_years/>. “The Jüdischer Kulturbund (Jewish Culture League), originally called the Kulturbund Deutscher Juden (Culture League of German Jews), was a performing arts ensemble by and for Jews, created in Berlin in collaboration with the National Socialist regime.”

Hirsch, Lily E. A Jewish Orchestra in Nazi Germany: Musical Politics and the Berlin Jewish Culture League. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2010. Print. “The book presents a lucid and carefully researched picture of [the Jewish Culture League], revealing the many challenges—practical, intellectual, and moral—faced by its leaders and members amidst the increasing tensions of life in Nazi Germany.”

“Hitler’s Inferno – In Words, In Music 1932-1945 – Marching Songs Of Nazi Germany.” Discogs. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.discogs.com/Various-Hitlers-Inferno-In-Words-In-Music-1932-1945-Marching-Songs-Of-Nazi-Germany/release/1485607>. “Never before has this shocking material been heard in the United States. Most of these songs and speeches were taken from German radio stations after the war. Their joyous quality is frightening, when one thinks of the murder and destruction that followed. It must never happen again in the civilized world.”

“Hitler’s War Poets: Literature and Politics in the Third Reich.” German History 27.4 (2009): 620-21. Gh.oxfordjournals.org. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://gh.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/4/620.extract>. Review of Hitler’s War Poets: Literature and Politics in the Third Reich by Jay W. Baird. Cambridge University Press, 2008.

“Holocaust Poetry.” Holocaust Poetry. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.auschwitz.dk/id6.htm>. Holocaust poems by Sudeep Pagedar, Barbara Sonek, and Avrom Sutzkever.

Huebel, Sebastian. “The Reichsorchester a Comparison of the Berlin and Vienna Philharmonics during the Third Reich.” Thesis. University of Victoria, 2010. OAister.Worldcat. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://oaister.worldcat.org/title/reichsorchester-a-comparison-of-the-berlin-and-vienna-philharmonics-during-the-third-reich/oclc/654227059&referer=brief_results>. “During the time of Nazism, arts and music were severely curtailed by the Nazi machinery. Two of the Reich’s foremost orchestras, the Berlin and the Vienna Philharmonics, were both part of the cultural Gleichschaltung that occurred within the German Reich. Dealing differently with their new patrons, the orchestras developed a mixture of political cooperation, opportunism and opposition.”

Huttenlauch, Anna B. “Street Scenes and Other Scenes from Berlin – Legal Issues in the Restitution of Art after the Third Reich.” German Law Journal 7.10 (2006): 819-32. Dialnet. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://www.germanlawjournal.com/index.php?pageID=11&artID=761>. “The news that Ernst Ludwig Kirchner´s painting “Berliner Strassenszene” (Berlin Street Scene) will be up for sale in New York on November 8, 2006 has stirred up the international art scene for the past two months. The sale was announced shortly after the Berlin state senate had returned the painting to the heirs of its original owners, Jewish art collectors Alfred and Tekla Hess. For the past 26 years the piece had been hanging in the Brücke Museum in Berlin and formed a cornerstone of the museum’s expressionist collection. Bought, from public funds, in 1980, for a little over $ 1 Million US, the painting is expected to sell this fall for $ 18 Million to $ 25 Million US.”

Karina, Lilian, and Marion Kant. Hitler’s Dancers: German Modern Dance and the Third Reich. New York: Berghahn, 2003. Print. “An important contribution to the discussion [on Nazism and dance] – obligatory reading on the history of dance – that makes parts of this book as gripping as a thriller.”

Kater, Michael H. The Twisted Muse: Musicians and Their Music in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford UP, 1997. Print. “This exhaustively researched book fills a conspicuous lacuna in 20th-century musicology. Kater … presents a detailed, disturbing, but always compelling account of the musical scene in Germany during the Nazi era. Clearly and logically organized, the five chapters deal with the Nazi music bureaucracy, political compromise among music professionals, the persecuted Jewish and anti-Nazi musicians, music in educational and religious institutions, and the Nazis’ concept of modernity in music and its impact on the leading composers and conductors of the time.”

“Kleines Liebeslied (Kurt Hohenberger – Berlin 1941) Music from the Nazi Third Reich Era.” YouTube. 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMdzs4CUTvY>. “Wartime Music on the Radio in Nazi Germany During the years 1933-1945 * Kleines Liebeslied (Kurt Hohenberger – Berlin, 1941) [Original Recording]

Kory, Agnes. “Remembering Seven Murdered Hungarian Jewish Composers.” The OREL Foundation. Orel Foundation, 2009. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <http://orelfoundation.org/index.php/journal/journalArticle/remembering_seven_murdered_hungarian_jewish_composers/>. “Unlike the so–called Terezín composers — Viktor Ullman, Gideon Klein, Pavel Haas and Hans Krása — whose names and works have become relatively well known in recent years, the Hungarian Jewish composers who were murdered during the Holocaust remain nearly unknown. All seven of those who have been rediscovered so far died young, before they had fulfilled their potential. Yet, in spite of adverse circumstances, all had produced work of value. The amount of work that appears to have survived varies; what they shared was an untimely, tragic end, followed by artistic oblivion.”

Lee, Jennifer L. Selling the Nazi Dream : The Promotion of Films in the Third Reich Lee, Jennifer Lisa. Thesis. University of Alberta, 2001. Despave.library.uvic.ca. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://dspace.library.uvic.ca:8080/handle/1828/504>. “Historians and film scholars have both taken an interest in film of the Third Reich. They find the films important to the study of National Socialism since they are expressions of both the party’s ideology and practices — ‘they offer exemplary documentation of Nazism at work – and of popular culture and, perhaps, even opinion.’ In the last decade especially there have been numerous studies, ranging from detailed examinations of the film industry to more thematic discussions of the films. Prior to this, scholarship on the films was actually rather slow to develop as political and military histories of the Third Reich reigned supreme.”

Levi, Erik. Music in the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin’s, 1994. Print. “In this authoritative study, one of the first to appear in English, Erik Levi explores the ambiguous relationship between music and politics during one of the darkest periods of recent cultural history. Utilising material drawn from contemporary documents, journals and newspapers, he traces the evolution of reactionary musical attitudes which were exploited by the Nazis in the final years of the Weimar Republic, chronicles the mechanisms that were established after 1933 to regiment musical life throughout Germany and the occupied territories, and examines the degree to which the climate of xenophobia, racism and anti-modernism affected the dissemination of music either in the opera house and concert hall, or on the radio and in the media.”

Levi, Erik. “Nazi Interpretations of Western Culture.” History Today. 29 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2013/04/nazi-interpretations-western-culture>. “Inhumanities: Nazi Interpretations of Western Culture David B. Dennis Cambridge University Press. “This revelatory book illustrates the extent to which some of the greatest historical figures in European culture were appropriated by the Nazi propaganda machine with the objective of bringing a veneer of intellectual credibility and respectability to the ideology that underpinned the Third Reich.”

Lied, Horst Wessel. “Encyclopedia: Songs of the Third Reich.” NationMaster.com. NationMaster. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. Includes “Horst Wessel’s Song.”

“Literature in Nazi Germany.” History Learning Site. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/literature_nazi_germany.htm?oo=39576550>. “Literature, along with art and music, suffered greatly in Nazi Germany. As with other aspects of culture, a very simple rule existed for literature: it was either acceptable to the Nazi state or it was not. As a result a number of internationally recognised authors left Nazi Germany for their own safety while the state gave prominence to authors who wrote about what the government expected them to: the glorification of war, the glorification of the Aryan ideal, the glorification of Adolf Hitler, the glorification of Nazi Germany etc.”

Loeffler, James. “Why the New ‘Holocaust Music’ Is an Insult to Music-and to Victims of the Shoah.” Tabmag. Tablet Magazine, 11 July 2013. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/music/137486/holocaust-music-victims>. “A recent wave of performances turns Jewish composers into shadow images defined only by their status as Hitler’s victims. … Two months ago, New York’s Lincoln Center played host to the Defiant Requiem, a traveling revue that presents a dramatic reenactment of a performance of Verdi’s Requiem that took place in the Terezin concentration camp during World War II.”

Martin, Elaine. Gender, Patriarchy, and Fascism in the Third Reich: The Response of Women Writers. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1993. Print.

“Mendelssohon Heirs Sue Over Picasso Sold Under Nazi Duress.” TheImproper.com. 29 Mar. 2013. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <http://www.theimproper.com/art/1256/mendelssohon-heirs-sue-picasso-painting-sold-nazi-duress/>. “Paul von Mendelssohn-Bartholdy’s extensive art collection, sold under Nazis persecution during the Third Reich, is the subject of another lawsuit filed by his heirs. At issue is an iconic Picasso painting known as “Madame Soler.” The artwork was sold under duress in Nazi Germany due to the Nazis persecution of Jews, known as preditation.”

Meyer, Michael. The Politics of Music in the Third Reich. New York: Lang, 1993. Print. “This book is an examination of Nazi policy toward music and its implementation in the politics and administration of the Third Reich. It demonstrates that totalitarian politics and functional are were [sic] complementary, that music became a manipulated instrument of propaganda and that it contributed significantly to the to the [sic] cultural facade of the terror state as embellishment and as an important component of the Nazi ritual. Musicians were not only victims of the totalitarian state but also accomplices to it.”

Mills, Andrew J. “When Opportunism Knocks: Evaluating the Career of German Popular Entertainment Musician Peter Kreuder in the Third Reich.” Music Research Forum 23 (2008). Deep Blue. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/64868>.

Mosse, G. L. Nazi Culture. Schocken, 1981. Print. “Selections from newspapers, novellas, plays, and diaries as well as the public pronouncements of Nazi leaders, churchmen and professors describe National Socialism in practice and explore what it meant for the average German.”

“Music Approved of by the Third Reich.” Florida Center for Instructional Technology. Web. 21 Apr. 2013. <http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/arts/musreich.htm>. “Under the Nazi regime, all music produced had to fit within certain standards defined as ‘good’ German music. Suppression of specific artists and their works was common, yet musicians were permitted limited artistic freedom. The Nazis attempted to create a balance between censorship and creativity in music to appease the German people.”

“Music in Nazi Germany.” History Learning Site. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/music_nazi_germany.htm?oo=39576550>. “Music, along with all other forms of culture, was subject to Nazification from January 1933 on. The policy of ‘Gleichschaltung’ (coordination) meant that music had to conform to the Nazi ideal. Hence some composers were tolerated and even elevated to a status of pure Nazism, while other composers, frequently Jewish, were shunned and effectively censored. Hitler, along with art, films and architecture, played a major part in what was musically tolerated and what was not.”

“Nazi-Looted Art to Return to Heirs of N.Y. Collector.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/04/04/news-opinion/united-states/nazi-looted-art-going-back-to-heirs-of-n-y-collector>. “Two artworks sold under duress during the Nazi occupation of Germany will be returned to the heirs of a New York art collector. The drawings are being returned to the estate of Michael Berolzheimer, who died in 1942 after escaping from Germany and settling in suburban Westchester County, according to a statement from the office of Benjamin Lawsky, superintendent of financial services for the State of New York.”

O’Brien, Mary-Elizabeth. Nazi Cinema as Enchantment: The Politics of Entertainment in the Third Reich. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2004. Print. “Hitler’s regime not only terrorized its citizens; it also seduced them, offering stability, a traditional value system, a sense of belonging, and hope of a better standard of living. Nazi cinema was part of this seduction, expressing positive social fantasies and promoting the enchantment of reality, so that one would want to share in the dream at any price.”

Paret, Peter. An Artist against the Third Reich : Ernst Barlach, 1933-1938. Cambridge UP, 2003. Print. “The conflict between National Socialism and Ernst Barlach, one of the important sculptors of the twentieth century, is an unusual episode in the history of Hitler’s efforts to rid Germany of ‘international modernism.’ Barlach did not passively accept the destruction of his sculptures, but protested the injustice, and continued his work. Peter Paret’s discussion of Barlach’s art and struggle over creative freedom, is joined to an analysis of Barlach’s opponents.”

Petropoulos, Jonathan. Art as Politics in the Third Reich. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1996. Print. “The political elite of Nazi Germany perceived itself as a cultural elite as well. In Art as Politics in the Third Reich, Jonathan Petropoulos explores the elite’s cultural aspirations by examining both the formulation of a national aesthetic policy and the content of the private art collections held by high-ranking Nazis. He demonstrates that these leaders manipulated public policy and their own collecting patterns to articulate fundamental tenets of Nazi ideology.”

Potter, Pamela. “Defining “Degenerate Music” in Nazi Germany.” The OREL Foundation. Orel Foundation, 2013. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <http://orelfoundation.org/index.php/journal/journalArticle/defining_8220degenerate_music8221_in_nazi_germany/>. “One year later it was music’s turn with the creation of the Reich Music Days, which assembled music organizations from around the country and which Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels opened with a speech on the ‘ten commandments’ for German music. A parallel exhibit on ‘degenerate music’ vilified jazz, modernism and the alleged Bolshevik and Jewish domination of German musical taste under the Weimar Republic.”

Potter, Pamela M. “The Arts in Nazi Germany: A Silent Debate.” Contemporary European History 15.4 (2006): 585-99. University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Music. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.music.wisc.edu/media/S0960777306003560a.pdf>. “In the twelve years of the Third Reich, there was no shortage of pomp, terror, hyperbole, vitriol and extremism in the representation of art’s role and artists’ obligations in the new state. Anyone approaching the subject for the first time might initially stumble upon the sleek and imposing neoclassicism of the Olympic stadium and Reich Chancellery with their muscle-bound statuary, and of Paul Ludwig Troost’s House of German Art. … One year later it was music’s turn: the first Reich Music Days assembled music organisations from around the country, was opened with a speech by the Propaganda Minister on the ‘ten commandments’ for German music and was accompanied by a parallel exhibition on ‘degenerate music’ that vilified jazz, modernism and the alleged Bolshevik and Jewish domination of German musical taste during the Weimar Republic.”

Roskies, David G., and Naomi Diamant. Holocaust Literature: A History and Guide. Waltham, MA: Brandeis UP, 2012. Print. “This is a brilliant and original study of Holocaust literature and memory. Roskies and Diamant’s insights and their wide-ranging approach make this an indispensable book for anyone with a serious interest in Jewish culture and the Holocaust.”

Roskies, David G. The Literature of Destruction: Jewish Responses to Catastrophe. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1988. Print. “Compilation of no less than 100 powerful selections from a 2000 year tradition of Jewish literary responses to catastrophe. forming the Centerpiece of the volume are four chapters containing contemporaneous writings about the Holocaust.”

Schrenk, Ashley. PROPAGANDA FILMS DURING THE THIRD REICH. Thesis. University of Georgia, 2006. Athenaeum. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://athenaeum.libs.uga.edu/bitstream/handle/10724/8834/schrenk_ashley_m_200605_ma.pdf?sequence=1>. “Films produced during the Third Reich generally fall into two categories: blatant propaganda films, which this paper terms hard-core propaganda films, or subtler, soft- core propaganda films. … This thesis proposes an inverse relationship between the level of inherent inconsistencies and contradictions within Third Reich films and the categorization of a film as hard-core propaganda. The greater the inconsistencies in relation to Nazi ideology, the more a film becomes soft-core propaganda and vice versa. A variety of hard and soft-core propaganda films are analyzed, and the overall effectiveness of such propaganda is examined.”

Schulte-Sasse, Linda. Entertaining the Third Reich. Duke UP, 1996. Print. “Entertaining the Third Reich offers a trenchant approach to Nazi cinema and, in reading the complexities of this specific cinema, it puts a number of important theoretical concepts to the test. Providing new and exciting insights, Schulte-Sasse goes beyond the known clichés about many of these films and offers new takes on the theory.”

Shaughnessy, Robert. “The Nazi Appropriation of Shakespeare: Cultural Politics in the Third Reich.” By Rodney Symington. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2005. Theatre Research International 32.02 (2007): 216. Kent Academic Repository. University of Kent, 2007. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://kar.kent.ac.uk/2350/>.

Shockley, Steven W. “A Match Made In Heaven Or Hell: Historians Debate The Influence Of Richard Wagner On Adolf Hitler And The Third Reich.” Thesis. East Tennessee State University, 2001. Oaister.Worldcat. Web. 01 July 2013. <http://oaister.worldcat.org/title/match-made-in-heaven-or-hell-historians-debate-the-influence-of-richard-wagner-on-adolf-hitler-and-the-third-reich/oclc/610594359>. “This is an analysis of the contributions of Richard Wagners ideas to the development of Adolf Hitler as seen by various historians. This author has consulted the works of many different authors to attempt to find the ideological roots of Adolf Hitler. The ideology of Richard Wagner, as seen by some of the most pre-eminent historians of this period, has been applied to the ideas of Hitler to find any continuity between these two men. … This thesis explores an area into which no one has really delved in depth. Hopefully, this thesis can be a springboard for further research into this area.”

Stephens, Timothy W. Nazi Ideology and the Feature Films of the Third Reich. Thesis. University of Manitoba, 1992. Print. Masters Thesis, University of Manitoba.

Strobl, Gerwin. Theatre in the Third Reich: A Bibliographical Survey. Rep. no. 1754-2472. Print. Ser. 2008. Cardiff Historical Paper, vol. 2008/2, Cardiff University. “More than six decades after the end of the Third Reich, an extraordinary dearth of literature on the subject of theatre under the Nazis remains. The lacuna is so pronounced that those stumbling across it are sometimes moved to express their surprise in print. … Whilst the situation has begun to improve a little over the past decade, it remains appropriate to talk of comparative scholarly neglect. This is particularly true amongst historians: full‐length historical studies on theatre in the Third Reich in English or German can be counted on the fingers of one hand.”

Sturge, Kate. “Censorship of Translated Fiction in Nazi Germany.” Censorship and Translation in the Western World 15.2 (2002): 153-69. Erudit. Web. 1 July 2013. <http://www.erudit.org/revue/ttr/2002/v15/n2/007482ar.html?vue=resume>. “This paper outlines the processes of censorship affecting translation under Nazi rule. Despite a markedly suspicious attitude towards translated fiction, the Nazi regime did not simply eliminate it. In fact, far from collapsing in 1933, the publication of translated fiction actually increased, both in absolute terms and as a proportion of all fiction, until the outbreak of war. However, if in purely quantitative terms translation flourished, the figures mask deep qualitative shifts: Jewish or anti-Nazi authors, translators and publishers disappeared; safe-selling genres came to dominate the market; and source-language preferences changed. These shifts were clearly the outcome of aggressive state measures, both classic ‘negative’ censorship—the banning of literary producers and products or the imposition of ‘voluntary’ self-regulation—and the energetic promotion of approved forms of translation. At the same time, more detailed study suggests that even for non-approved forms, the influence of state control was not always so clear-cut.”

Swedish Gallery Pulls Painting Made of Holocaust Victims’€™ Ashes.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/12/12/3114306/swedish-gallery-pulls-painting-made-of-holocaust-victims-ashes>. ” A Swedish art gallery in Lund reportedly has cancelled the exhibition of a painting made of Holocaust victims’ ashes. … The Simon Wiesenthal Center called the painting a ‘desecration’ and ‘abomination.’”

“ Swing Kids Behind Barbed Wire: Swing as an Attitude Towards Life.” Music and the Holocaust. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://holocaustmusic.ort.org/politics-and-propaganda/third-reich/swing-kids-behind-barbed-wire/>. “Arising in the mid-1930s and originating in the United States, the newest style of jazz, swing, brought forth a renewed interest in jazz across the world, even in Nazi Germany. As the world began to recover from economic depression, swing and swing-influenced music came to represent the latest trend in popular music. Despite discrimination against jazz music and jazz culture in the Third Reich, swing found an enthusiastic and dance-hungry audience. For a group of mostly young fans, however, swing music and dancing represented more than a passing fad. For them it became an overall attitude towards life. These enthusiastic swing fans created their own discrete youth culture.”

Teachout, Terry. “How Hitler Destroyed German Music.” Commentary Magazine. June 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.commentarymagazine.com/article/how-hitler-destroyed-german-music/>. “The extent to which Hitler and his cultural commissars sought to control and shape European musical life has been chronicled in detail. But most of these books have dealt primarily or exclusively with German-speaking performers and those performing artists from other countries, France in particular, who collaborated with the Nazis. Yet the unswerving determination of the Nazis to rid Europe of what they called entartete musik (degenerate music) may well have had an even more far-reaching effect on postwar European musical culture.”

“Vienna Orchestra Details Nazi-era past.” JTA Jewish News. 11 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/03/11/3121701/vienna-orchestra-details-nazi-era-past>. “Five of the 13 musicians driven out of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra in the Nazi era for being Jewish or married to Jews were sent to their deaths in concentration camps, historians found. The information was published Sunday on the website of the orchestra, which yielded to years of criticism by revealing details about its history during that era.”

“Vienna Philharmonic Asks Historians to Look into Alleged Nazi past.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 23 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/23/3117586/vienna-philharmonic-asks-historians-to-look-into-alleged-nazi-past>. “The Vienna Philharmonic has asked three historians to research the orchestra’s alleged Nazi past. The announcement on Jan. 22 comes after Harald Walser, a historian and Parliament member for the Austrian Greens, said in an interview that the orchestra demonstrated sympathy for the country’s Nazi leadership during World War II.”

Wennekes, Emile. “‘Some Jewish Colleagues Are Back at Their Desks…’” The OREL Foundation. Orel Foundation, 12 May 2012. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <http://orelfoundation.org/index.php/journal/journalArticle/out_of_the_musicians_ghetto/>. “The subject of musicians’ post-Second World War re-migration has barely been studied, in part because it was not a mass phenomenon. … Thus far, in individual biographies or in research relevant to certain institutions (conservatories, orchestras and so on), re-migration has functioned only as a coda to the issue of exile. But this does not do justice to the specificity of the subject. In the case of exile, the persecutor drove the events, whereas re-migration was a secondary, subsequent consequence for the persecuted. Survivors had to ask themselves crucial questions: ‘Can I return home?’ ‘Do I want to return home—and if so, under what conditions?’”

Werb, Bret. “We Will Never Die: A Pageant to Save the Jews of Europe.” The OREL Foundation. Orel Foundation, 10 Aug. 2010. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <http://orelfoundation.org/index.php/journal/journalArticle/we_will_never_die_a_pageant_to_save_the_jews_of_europe/>. “In the spring and summer of 1943, a theater piece with a stellar cast and an urgent message scooped the daily press to bring news of the genocide of European Jews to a scarcely believing American public. Subtitled ‘A memorial dedicated to the 2,000,000 Jewish dead of Europe,’ We Will Never Die was the brainchild of the popular screenwriter Ben Hecht (1894–1964).”

Whittle, Helen. “Full Circle: German-Jewish Literary Culture Returns from Exile.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 15 July 2011. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/full-circle-german-jewish-literary-culture-returns-from-exile-a-774728.html>. “German Jews who fled Nazi persecution to what is now Israel took as many books as they could carry. But their descendants, many of whom don’t speak German, are left with cratefuls of heirlooms they can’t read. Now the Goethe Institute has started a project that sends the well-traveled books back to Germany as teaching materials for students.”

Wistrich, Robert S., and Luke Holland. Weekend in Munich: Art, Propaganda, and Terror in the Third Reich. London: Pavilion, 1995. Print. “What was the source of the Nazi appeal to the German masses? How did a regime that was responsible for war and devastation on an unprecedented scale seduce a nation and lead it to disaster? The Nazis were masters of the orchestration of power, with a sense of their audience. This book analyzes the ways in which they used art, mass culture and mythology to mobilize the German people and legitimize their own rule.”