After the Third Reich #2


“177 Nuremberg Jews Survived; Unabie [sic] to Secure Return of Homes Occupied by Nazis.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 13 July 1945. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <>. “Of the 10,000 Jews who lived in this citadel of Nazism, from which the infamous anti-Jewish racial laws derived their name, only 177 have survived – 37 in concentration camps and 140 who succeeded in remaining hidden throughout the Hitler regime.”

Aciman, Alexander. “Still Hunting Nazis.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 27 Nov. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <>. “To take what was denied, obfuscated, and forgotten and make it inescapably visible has been a great part of Serge Klarsfeld’s job as a Nazi hunter. The same dedication that drove Klarsfeld to go after Brunner manifested itself when he spent countless months copying, by hand, the names of the more than 10,000 children, like Georgy, who died in Auschwitz.”

Adler, Libby. “Rage and Critique: One Jewish Girl’s Story.” Harvard Journal of the Legal Left 1.No. 1 (2005): 1-14. Social Science Research Network. Web. 2 Feb. 2013. <>. “This essay recounts an experience of researching, writing and teaching about restitution for the corporate use of slaves during the Third Reich. It is a tale of integration of deeply invested moral outrage and detached critical legal analysis.”

“Alleged Anti-Semitism of Rome Team’€™s Soccer Fans to Be Investigated.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 8 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “European soccer authorities have opened disciplinary proceedings against the Rome soccer team Lazio for the alleged anti-Semitism of its fans. The action follows alleged racist chanting and other racist and anti-Semitic behavior on the part of hardcore fans at a match with London’s Tottenham Hotspur team in Rome in November.”

Alperin, Michele. “A Tale of Mutual Empathy: Jewish Refugee Scholars at Historically Black colleges.” Jns.Org.13 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “In Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love, an exhibition aptly opening on Martin Luther King Day will highlight a historical moment of mutual respect and cooperation between the African American and Jewish communities. Although their relationship has often been tense, especially after the rise of the black power movement and its expressions of anti-Semitism, the hiring of Jewish refugee scholars in the 1930s by historically black colleges stands as a beacon to the potential for common ground between the two groups.”

“American Nazi Party Registers First Washington Lobbyist.” BBC News. BBC, 14 Apr. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “The American Nazi Party has registered its first lobbyist in Washington DC. John Bowles, 55, told US media he wanted to address political rights and ballot access and he expected congressmen would accept meetings. Lobbying was something the party would ‘try out for the first time and see if it flies,’ Mr Bowles told ABC News. He registered as a lobbyist this week [April 13, 2012].”

Anderson, Clive. “The Bizarre Nazi Book Craze.” BBC News. BBC, 17 Mar. 2011. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. “Books about the Third Reich throng the British bestseller lists, but is it a matter of genuine historical interest or odd fetish, asks Clive Anderson.”

“Anti-Semitic Videos to Keep Halimi Killer in Jail for 7 More Years.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 19 Feb. 2013. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <>. The leader of the gang that tortured and killed Ilan Halimi was sentenced to an additional seven years in prison for making anti-Semitic videos in jail. A correctional court in Moulins found Youssouf Fofana, head of the Gang of Barbarians, guilty of propagating terrorism and inciting racial hatred, the Le Monde newspaper reported.”

“Austrian Jewish Leader Warns of Rising Anti-Semitism.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 7 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “The number of anti-Semitic incidents documented in 2012 by Austria’s Jewish community doubled from the previous year, the leader of Vienna’s Jewish community said. Oskar Deutsch told the Kurier newspaper that the Jewish community registered 135 such incidents last year, compared to 71 in 2011. Still, Jews increasingly are immigrating to Austria from neighboring Hungary because of anti-Semitism in that country, he said.

Axelrod, Toby. “Last Effort to Hunt Down Nazis Seeks Help from Local Witnesses.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 26 May 2004. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “It could be a tip leading to an old Nazi who has escaped justice. More likely, it’s another crank caller making anti-Semitic comments. ‘Why don’t you leave our grandparents alone? The Jews are guilty of everything,’ Schindler has heard. ‘There is one Nazi murderer: Ariel Sharon,’ is another line, or, ‘Austrians have paid enough for the Jews.’ ‘Although I expected such calls, I did not know how stressful it would be,’ said Schindler, a volunteer for the Simon Wiesenthal Center’s Operation Last Chance. The program constitutes the center’s last-ditch effort to find and prosecute Nazi war criminals before they die. Schindler works at the Vienna-based Documentation Center for Austrian Resistance, and she has been answering the hot line for several months. The Wiesenthal Center rewards successful tips — those that lead to a conviction — with $10,000.

Axelrod, Toby. “Sixty Years After Nuremberg, Germans Grapple with Lessons.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 29 Nov. 2005. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Their faces stare out in black and white: the defendants of Nuremberg. Today, the rain-spattered images hang outdoors at the Topography of Terror Exhibition and Documentation Center in Berlin. Sixty years ago, the men behind these pallid masks were tried for crimes against humanity. Many were executed. Some committed suicide in their cells. The Nuremberg Trials, which opened with the reading of charges against 24 defendents in Berlin on Oct. 18, 1945 and reconvened in Nuremberg on Nov. 20, confronted Germans with the reality of what had been done in their name. It was the beginning of a process of reckoning and repentance that continues to this day. How do the stories of those men, and the judges who tried them, resonate for Germans now?”

Beck, Ludwig, and Carl F. Goerdeler. Plans for a Government: Governmental Declaration by Beck/Goerdeler Draft, Summer 1944. Rep. German Resistance Center. Print. “The original is missing: the present version was reconstructed from the documents of the Special Commission for Investigating the Assassination Attempt against Hitler of July 20, 1944.”

Beke, Matthew. “First Things: The Big Lie Continured.” First Things. Feb. 1994. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Ever since the end of World War II there have been people who deny, or at least minimize, the enormous crimes of Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich. The most outrageous claim by these deniers—or ‘revisionists,’ as they style themselves—is that there never was a Holocaust (or Shoah) in which six million Jews were systematically murdered by the Nazis. … Until recently, scholars and Jewish organizations practiced a discreet silence toward the deniers, on the theory that responding in effect concedes a certain stature and seriousness to their claims. … Such an approach is no longer possible, however, because over the last decade or so Holocaust deniers have managed to be heard beyond the lunatic fringe.”

Bohr, Felix. “New Book Explores How So Many Nazis Escaped Justice in South America.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. Trans. Christopher Sultan. 24 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “After World War II, dozens of Nazi criminals went into hiding in South America. A new study reveals how a ‘coalition of the unwilling’ on both sides of the Atlantic successfully stymied efforts to hunt and prosecute these criminals for decades. … Historian Daniel Stahl has conducted research in European and South American archives in the process of writing a new book entitled “Nazi Hunt: South America’s Dictatorships and the Avenging of Nazi Crimes.” The work supplies a certain and disgraceful answer to what has long been suspected: that there was a broad coalition of people — across continents and within the courts, police, governments and administrations — that was unwilling to act or even thwarted the prosecution of Nazi criminals for decades.”

Boulouque, Clemence. “A Growing Fear in France.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc., 23 May 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <>. “In March [2013], an alleged anti-Semitic attack by a group of young Arabs against an Israeli movie director at a film festival in the south of France led to a welter of conflicting accounts. The version that circulated first, mostly on Israeli and American media, sounded only too plausible in light of recent events involving hate crimes in France: Yariv Horowitz had been beaten up by a gang of young Arabs for being Israeli. As Tablet magazine reported last month, eyewitnesses, however, hastened to debunk the story, and the director himself soon offered a more careful reappraisal of the facts: Some isolated intoxicated individual punched him after asking him for a cigarette. Immediately following these denials, anti-Zionist websites sought to further discredit the director and, at the same time, emphasize the Jews’ promptness to spread lies and fictions of victimhood.”

Bowlby, Chris. “Austria Still Haunted by Nazi Past.” BBC – News. BBC. Web. 30 May 2011. <>. The guilty past in Austria “was either ignored, or proved too painful to face.”

Carin, Michael. The Future Jew. Montreal: MRW, 2001. Print. “The future Jews are those who have read the writing on the wall of reality. And they are the Jews who hold resolutely to zachor, remembrance. They refuse to forget the European genocide of the 1940s and they take instruction from it.”

Chandler, Adam. “A World War II Bomb Delays Berlin Trains.” The Scroll. Tablet Magazine, 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <>. “The bomb was found by munitions experts conducting a routine search of a site in preparation of construction work. Unexploded bombs from the Allied bombardment of Germany during World War II are still frequently found. The munitions are getting more difficult and dangerous to defuse because their fuse mechanisms have corroded and become less stable over time.”

“Claims Conference Offers Last Chance for East Germany Property Heirs.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 19 Feb. 2013. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <>. “Jews who owned property seized by the Nazis in what became East Germany have a last chance to receive compensation for it. For the first time in a decade, the Claims Conference has agreed to review new claims by potential heirs to Jewish-owned properties in the former East Germany.”

Clark, Alexis. “A Black Nurse, a German Soldier and an Unlikely WWII Romance.” City Room. The New York Times, 15 May 2013. Web. 17 May 2013. <>. “The nurse and the soldier may never have met – and eventually married – had it not been for the American government’s mistreatment of black women during World War II.”

Cohen, Patricia, and Tom Mashberg. “Rosenberg Family’s Quest to Regain Art Stolen by Nazis.” The New York Times. N.p., 27 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <>. “Inside, the French found the cargo the Germans had been guarding, crates jammed with artwork: sculptures, drawings and framed paintings, some stacked against one another like bread slices, their signatures visible. … Since that day, three generations of Rosenbergs have been engaged in a painstaking search for hundreds of artworks that were looted from their family by the Nazis. This month their hunt led to Norway, where the family is negotiating for the return of a Matisse that has hung for 45 years in the Henie Onstad Arts Center, a museum founded by the skater Sonja Henie and her husband.”

Connelly, John. “The Noble and the Base: Poland and the Holocaust | The Nation.” The Nation. 4 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <>. “Earlier this year, while conferring a posthumous Presidential Medal of Freedom on the Polish hero Jan Karski, Barack Obama inadvertently touched off the greatest crisis in US-Polish relations in recent memory. The man he honored had served as a courier for the Polish resistance against Hitler, and in 1942 Karski traveled across occupied Europe to tell Western leaders about the Nazi war crimes being committed in Poland, including the Holocaust. Karski had been sent on this secret mission, Obama explained, after fellow underground fighters had told him that ‘Jews were being murdered on a massive scale and smuggled him into the Warsaw Ghetto and a Polish death camp to see for himself.’ It was late evening in Warsaw when Obama spoke, but within minutes Polish officials were demanding an apology for his use of the phrase ‘Polish death camp,’ which they thought scandalous.”

Dalin, David G. “First Things: Hitler’s Mufti.” First Things. Sept. 2005. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “In his 2004 book The Return of Anti-Semitism, Gabriel Schoenfeld declared that ‘the ancient and modern strands of anti-Semitism’ have been ‘successfully fused today’ in the Muslim world, ‘and from there the hatred of Jews receives its main propulsion outward.’ In the 2003 Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism, Abraham Foxman added, ‘Virulent anti-Semitism is widespread throughout the Arab Middle East. . . . Anti-Semitism is tolerated or openly endorsed by Arab governments, disseminated by the Arab media, taught in [Muslim] schools and universities, and preached in mosques. No segment of [Islamic] society is free of its taint.’ And in the 1999 Semites and Anti-Semites, Bernard Lewis concluded, ‘Classical anti-Semitism is an essential part of Arab intellectual life at the present time.’”

DeJong, David. “Nazi Goebbels’ Step-Grandchildren Are Hidden Billionaires.” Bloomberg. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “In the spring of 1945, Harald Quandt, a 23-year-old officer in the German Luftwaffe, was being held as a prisoner of war by Allied forces in the Libyan port city of Benghazi when he received a farewell letter from his mother, Magda Goebbels — the wife of Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels. … Quandt was released from captivity in 1947. Seven years later, he and his half-brother Herbert — would inherit the industrial empire built by their father, Guenther Quandt, which had produced Mauser firearms and anti-aircraft missiles for the Third Reich’s war machine. Among their most valuable assets at the time was a stake in car manufacturer Daimler AG. (DAI).”

Derkacz, Evan. “The Pope’s Dubious Holocaust Remembrance.” Rd Magazine. Religion Dispatches, 02 Feb. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Sunday sundown signals the start of this year’s Yom HaShoah, or ‘Holocaust Remembrance Day,’ marking the 68th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz. First, in the name of optimism, let’s point out that it’s a good sign that we live in an age when the pope is expected to make a statement like the one B16 [Pope Benedict] made today: The memory of this immense tragedy, which above all struck so harshly the Jewish people, must represent for everyone a constant warning so that the horrors of the past are not repeated, so that every form of hatred and racism is overcome, and that respect for, and dignity of, every human person is encouraged.”

“Dershowitz Says Contender for Papacy an Anti-Semite.” The Jewish Press. 17 Feb. 2013. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “In a letter to the editor of the Miami Herald, Harvard law professor Alan Dershowitz said that one of the leading candidates to replace Pope Benedict XVI is an anti-Semite. Responding to a list published last week after the resignation of Benedict, which identified Cardinal Oscar Andres Rodriguez Maradiaga of Honduras as a possible successor to the current pope, Dershowitz wrote, ‘He has blamed the Jews for the scandal surrounding the sexual misconduct of priests toward young parishioners!’”

Dewsbury, Rick. “Half of GERMAN Schoolchildren Do Not Know Third Reich Was a Dictatorship – or That East Germany Was Communist.” Dailymail. Mail Online, 29 June 2012. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <–East-Germany-Communist.html>. “Half of German schoolchildren do not know that the Third Reich was a dictatorship, a survey has found. … Despite being obliged to visit a concentration camp at least once in their schooldays and learning about Hitler’s seizure of power, German students showed a lack of knowledge about their roots.”

Diner, Hasia R. We Remember with Reverence and Love: American Jews and the Myth of Silence after the Holocaust, 1945-1962. New York: New York UP, 2009. Print. “A startling and passionate work of history. No one has written about the early American Jewish response to the Holocaust with more insight, sophistication, and sensitivity. Hasia Diner has not only recovered a Jewish world we have lost but etched one of the most probing portraits yet drawn of ethnic identity and community in post-World War II America.”

Dovere, Maxine. “50 Years Later, Impact of Eichmann Trial endures.” 20 Feb. 2012. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <>. “The 1961 trial of Nazi arch criminal Adolf Eichmann changed the philosophy and future thinking of the state of Israel. Opening a window of understanding about the unimaginable horrors of the Nazi killing machine, the testimony given by those Eichmann sought to murder proved to be a turning point in Israel’s attitude toward those who survived—and those who were murdered—of the Shoah.”

“Dutch Nazi, 91, Charged with Murder of Resistance Fighter.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 27 Nov. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <>. ” Siert Bruins, a former member of the Nazi Waffen SS, was charged with the 1944 murder of a Dutch Resistance fighter.”

Flres, Alexander. “The Arabs as Nazis? Some Reflections on ‘Islamofascism’ and Arab Anti-Semitism.” Welt Des Islams 52.3/4 (2012): 450-70. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. “One of the main constituents of the so-called Islamofascism is, in the eyes of those who subscribe to this conception, the close affinity of Arabs (and sometimes, Muslims) to Nazi ideology and possibly practice.”

“Former Jewish Neighbor of Hitler Writes Memoir.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 3 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “A former Jewish neighbor of Adolf Hitler in Munich has co-authored a book describing his childhood brushes with the dictator. Edgar Feuchtwanger, 88, wrote ‘My Neighbor Hitler: memories of a Jewish child’ with the French journalist Bertil Scali. The 320-page book is due out in French bookstores on Jan. 10 from Michel Lafon Publishing in Neuilly-sur-Seine.”

“France to Return Paintings Stolen by Nazis to Jewish Owners.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “France has promised to return seven paintings taken from their Jewish owners during the second world war, part of efforts to give back hundreds of looted art that hangs in the Louvre and other museums. The works were stolen or sold under duress up to seven decades ago as their owners fled Nazi-occupied Europe. All seven were destined for display in the art gallery Adolf Hitler planned to build in his birthplace of Linz, Austria, according to a catalogue for the proposed museum. … The move to return the paintings ends years of struggle for the owners’ families, whose claims were validated by the French government last year.”

“Frankfurt Jews Faring Worse Under American Military Occupation Than Former Nazis.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 9 July 1945. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “The ragged remnants of Frankfurt’s once flourishing, prosperous Jewish community have, up to now, fared worse under the American occupation than many Germans who discarded their Nazi party badges the day the city was taken. Those who have struggled home from concentration camps in the past two months returned ill and penniless, and, sometimes, on the verge of starvation. But they were bolstered by the hope that they would soon regain their homes, their possessions and their positions in the community. Their hopes have not been realized, a survey by a Jewish Telegraphic Agency correspondent discloses. The Jews have discovered that no machinery has been set up for restitution of their property, and many are living in squalor while Germans occupy their former homes.”

Gera, Vanessa. “Jewish Museum in Poland Unveils Synagogue Roof –” WTOP. 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <>. “A Jewish history museum in Warsaw has unveiled a reconstructed synagogue roof with an elaborately painted ceiling modeled on a 17th-century structure, presenting the first object that will go on permanent display in the highly awaited museum.”

“Germany Rehabilitates Third Reich Wartime ‘traitors’” The Local. 8 Sept. 2009. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. “The German parliament voted Tuesday to lift Nazi-era convictions of wartime ‘traitors’ whose names, 70 years after the fighting started, had still not been cleared.”

Gruber, Ruth E. “Ex-Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi Defends Some of Mussolini’s Policies.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <>. “During the inauguration of a Holocaust memorial in Milan, former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said Benito Mussolini’s fascist regime had carried out some positive policies. ‘The fact of the racial laws was the worst fault of a leader, Mussolini, who in many other ways did well,’ Berlusconi said in informal remarks to the media at the ceremony on Sunday, International Holocaust Remembrance Day. The memorial dedicated at Milan’s train station is located at Track 21, from which 700 Milan Jews were deported to Nazi camps.”

Gumbel, Peter. “Germanys Angst: A Countrys Culture Bumps Up Against Its Nazi Past Comments.” Time World. Time, 14 May 2013. Web. 17 May 2013. <>. “In the 68 years since the defeat of Hitler and the end of World War II, countless movie and theater directors, writers, dancers, poets and sculptors around the world have used themes from the Third Reich and the Holocaust as the backdrop for their work, from artist Gerhard Richter’s painting of his uncle Rudi in his German army uniform to Quentin Tarantino’s movie Inglourious Basterds.”

Hall, Alan. “Body Found at Hunting Lodge Owned by Hitler’s Deputy, Hermann Goering, Identified as the Dead Wife He Had Exhumed and Shipped from Sweden.” Mail Online. 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Forensic scientists have identified the remains of a woman found buried at the estate of Hitler’s deputy Hermann Goering 21 years ago as those of his wife Carin. Carin, born Carin Fock in Sweden, died aged 42 in 1931 and was buried in her homeland. But as Goering rose through the Nazi ranks he had her body exhumed and transported to his massive hunting lodge outside of Berlin called Carinhall in her memory.” Pictures included.

“Head of Radical Catholic Sect Calls Jews €˜enemies of the Church.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. ‘Jews are “enemies of the Church,’ the head of a radical Catholic sect said in Canada. Bishop Bernard Fellay, superior of the traditionalist Society of St. Pius X, made the remark during a Dec. 28 address at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Academy in New Hamburg, Ontario, about 90 minutes’ drive west of Toronto. He was reviewing the situation of the society, which opposes Catholic Church reforms decided by the Second Vatican Council and is not recognized by the Church.”

Hirsi, Ayaan. “Raised on Hatred.” The New York Times. 18 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <>. “EGYPT’S newly elected president, Mohamed Morsi, was caught on tape about three years ago urging his followers to ‘nurse our children and our grandchildren on hatred’ for Jews and Zionists. Not long after, the then-leader of the Muslim Brotherhood described Zionists as ‘bloodsuckers who attack the Palestinians,’ ‘warmongers’ and ‘descendants of apes and pigs.’”

“Imams Who Toured Auschwitz Denounce Holocaust Denial 44.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 5 June 2013. Web. 9 June 2013. <>. “A group of imams who toured Auschwitz and Dachau said ‘denying the reality of the Holocaust’ was ‘unacceptable.’”

“In Malmo, Record Number of Hate Crimes Complaints but No Convictions.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 9 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “A record number of complaints about hate crimes in the Swedish city of Malmo has not resulted in any convictions for such offenses in more than two years. The Swedish court system did not convict anyone of hate crimes in 2010 and 2011 despite 480 complaints, the local daily Sydsvenskan reported Monday.”

Ingall, Marjorie. “Welcome Home?” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 8 Mar. 2010. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <>. “My children are becoming German citizens, and I’m nuts. … Another part of my pain has to do not so much with them being German, but with me being an American. This was supposed to be the new Promised Land; American Jews have typically felt about America the way German Jews once felt about Germany. But nowadays, I’m growing increasingly concerned with the state of things. I’m not saying I see barbed wire and stone soap in our own futures; I’m not that kind of hyperbolic drama queen. But I haven’t felt this kind of despair about our country’s direction before. The joy I felt at Barack Obama’s election makes the anxiety I feel now that much more bitter.”

“Israeli Envoy Warns against Wearing Yarmulkes in Copenhagen.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Israel’s ambassador to Denmark reportedly warned Jews to avoid being identified as such in Copenhagen. … Last month anti-Israel protesters vandalized the Israeli embassy in Denmark.”

“Jews Live in Fear in Europe,€™ European Parliament President Says.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Ideas Daily, 23 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <>. ” Martin Schulz, the president of the European Parliament, said the continent’s Jews are living in fear. ‘Yes, Jews are living in fear in Europe. Yes, there are threats,’ Schulz said. ‘But, ladies and gentlemen — why are we not [living in 1929]? Because there is a European Parliament. Because there are common European Institutions. Because a consequence was taken after the Second World War — after its deepest point of civilization represented by Auschwitz.’”

Jones, Gareth. “Germany Wrestles with Third Reich Legacy Again.” News.scotsman. 27 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <>. “Germans’ interest in the darkest chapter of their history seems stronger than it has ever been as the country marks several key anniversaries this year [2013] linked to the Nazi era.”

Kirkpatrick, David D. “Morsi’s Slurs Against Jews Stir Concern.” The New York Times. 15 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Nearly three years ago, a leader of the Muslim Brotherhood delivered a speech urging Egyptians to ‘nurse our children and our grandchildren on hatred’ for Jews and Zionists. In a television interview months later, the same leader described Zionists as ‘these bloodsuckers who attack the Palestinians, these warmongers, the descendants of apes and pigs.’ That leader, Mohamed Morsi, is now president of Egypt — and his comments may be coming back to haunt him. … Any attempt to retract, or even clarify, his slurs would expose him to political attacks by opponents who already accuse him of softness toward the United States and Israel.”

Kohl, Christiane. The Witness House: Nazis and Holocaust Survivors Sharing a Villa during the Nuremberg Trials. New York: Other, 2010. Print. “Kohl offers a glimpse of the Nuremberg trials refreshingly unlike that provided by standard histories.”

Kreder, Jennifer A. “Fighting Corruption of the Historical Record: Nazi-Looted Art Litigation.” SSRN. Social Science Research Network, 18 Apr. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Judicial opinions comprise part of the historical record. Thus, judicial attention to historical context is important, because it will influence how future generations interpret historical events. Generalist judges often have difficulty facing and interpreting difficult historical facts. The recent wave of litigation concerning Holocaust-era art demonstrates the phenomenon particularly well. Modern day judges deciding motions to dismiss under the Twombly and Iqbal standards must determine which claims are ‘plausible.’ They bring their common sense to the decision-making process. The problem is that the Third Reich was a time and place where common sense did not reign. Nor was the international art market during or after World War II. Thus, some claimants’ true narratives seem to be fantastical, rather than entirely plausible. This Article assesses the state of claims to Holocaust-era art, concludes that claims have been dismissed improperly because they did not reconcile with judicial notions of common sense, and recommends that judges actively seek the input of historians while remaining vigilant not to allow the historical record to become politicized and biased in the advocacy process.”

Kurbjeweit, Dirk. “Essay: The Return of the Ugly German.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. SPIEGELnet GmbH, 13 Dec. 2012. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. <>. “The 2006 World Cup in Germany seemed like a fairy tale come true for the country. Suddenly, years of troubling history seemed to lift amidst euphoria over the cosmopolitan twist fate had brought to the country. But this year, amid fresh debates over xenophobia, many are left wondering if the ugly German is back.”

Lieber, Chavie. “67 Years Later Holocaust Survivor Reunites with Rescuer.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <>. “Cardinal Elia Angelo Dalla Costa, the World War II-era Archbishop of Florence, has been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations. In an announcement issued Monday, Yad Vashem in Jerusalem said Dalla Costa was recognized as a righteous gentile earlier this year ‘for spearheading the rescue of hundreds of Jews in Florence during the Holocaust.’ Dalla Costa died in 1961 at the age of 89.”

Marquand, Robert. “Why 13 Percent of Germans Would Welcome a ‘Führer’” The Christian Science Monitor.15 Oct. 2010. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <>. “A new survey in Germany shows that 13 percent of its citizens would welcome a ‘Führer’ – a German word for leader that is explicitly associated with Adolf Hitler – to run the country ‘with a firm hand.’ The findings signal that Europe’s largest nation, freed from cold-war strictures, is not immune from the extreme and often right-wing politics on the rise around the Continent.”

McGrane, Sally. “Diary of the Hitler Diary Hoax.” The New Yorker. 25 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <>. “On April 25, 1983, Stern magazine—the German answer to Life—held a press conference to make a sensational announcement: their star reporter had discovered a trove of Hitler’s personal diaries, lost since a plane crash in 1945. Now Stern would begin publishing what he’d found … Two weeks later, the diaries were exposed as fakes—and not particularly good ones, written at great speed by Konrad Kujau, a small-time crook and prolific forger.”

Moynihan, Michael. “Hiding Judaism in Copenhagen.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <>. “Walking this length of Nørrebrogade, as I did on a freezing day last month, provides a street-level view of multicultural Denmark. It’s a perfectly pleasant experience, provided you are, like me, an unassuming gentile. For Jews exploring Nørrebro, it’s advisable to heed the advice of Israel’s ambassador to Denmark, Arthur Avnon, who last November suggested that Jews traveling in Copenhagen exercise extreme subtlety: Don’t speak Hebrew too loudly, cover up any visible Star of David jewelry, fold your kippot and slip them into your pockets. In other words, in certain areas of Copenhagen, it’s best to keep your Judaism to yourself.”

Murphy, Thomas R. “Hitlers Calculus.” America Magazine. 10 May 2010. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “The Legacy of the Second World War” by John Lukacs is reviewed. “The title does not fit this book. John Lukacs has written a valuable account of the events of the period 1939 to 1945, particularly in Europe. But readers pondering how the world of 2010 actually bears the long-term influence of the war will not find much commentary on that issue beyond fears some issues could recur. The book remains valuable, however, for what it really is: a wise historian’s synthesis of his career work on World War II itself.”

“Muslim Brotherhood Tops Wiesenthal Center Anti-Semitism List.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 28 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood produced the worst anti-Semitic and anti-Israel slurs this year, according to the Simon Wiesenthal Center. The center topped its annual Top Ten Anti-Semitic/Anti-Israel Slurs list with a quote from Mohammed Badie, the Muslim Brotherhood’s supreme guide, who lamented ‘Jewish control’ and ‘spreading of corruption on earth,’ and recommended ‘holy Jihad’ as a remedy.”

“Nazi Slogans Scrawled on Toulouse Wall.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 3 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. ” Anti-Semitic slogans were scrawled on the wall of an association of psychoanalysts in Toulouse, France, for the second time in three months. Unknown vandals wrote ‘SS’ and ‘get out of here,’ and painted a swastika on the outer wall of the Toulouse branch of the Psychoanalytic Society of Paris, the French news agency AFP reported Wednesday.”

“Nazi War Criminals Sentenced at Nuremberg.” A&E Television Networks, 1 Oct. 1946. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. “On October 1, 1946, 12 high-ranking Nazis are sentenced to death by the International War Crimes Tribunal in Nuremberg.”

Nuechterlein, James. “First Things: Pride and Patriotism.” First Things. N.p., May 2001. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “A great many Americans, especially those of a certain age, cannot hear the German language being spoken—by anyone under any conditions—without instantly bringing to mind Hitler, the Nazis, the Holocaust. It’s not willed; it’s simply instinct. … More than a half century after the collapse of the Third Reich, a special moral burden rests on Germany and things Germanic. The question is, When if ever does the statute of limitations run out on that moral burden? For Nazism itself, of course, the answer is Never.”

“Obama: Israel Prevents Another Holocaust.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 22 Mar. 2013. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. <>. “Israel does not owe its existence to the Holocaust, but its existence prevents another one from happening, President Obama said on the third and final day of his visit to Israel.”

Patterson, Tony. “Germans Claim ‘Third Reich’ Polish Property.” The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Limited, 15 Feb. 2004. Web. 2 Feb. 2013. <>. “A German drive to repossess thousands of Third Reich-era properties confiscated by Poland after the Second World War threatens to provoke a blistering row between Berlin and Warsaw, and to overshadow Polish accession to the EU. More than nine million Germans were expelled from the territories of Pomerania, Silesia and Prussia – ceded to Poland in 1945 – and their homes seized by Warsaw’s communist authorities.”

Pinfold, Debbie. The Child’s View of the Third Reich in German Literature: The Eye among the Blind. Oxford: Clarendon, 2001. Print. “This book considers how and why German authors have used the child’s viewpoint to present the Third Reich. Given the popularity of this device, this study asks whether it is an evasive strategy, a means of gaining new insights into the era, or a means of discovering a new language. This raises issues central to the post-war German aesthetic.”

“Police: Neo-Nazis Vandalized German Holocaust Memorials.” JTA Jewish News. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 11 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <>. “Neo-Nazis are behind the destruction of 11 ‘stumbling block’ Holocaust memorials, say police in the German city of Greifswald. The vandalism in the eastern Germany city was discovered Nov. 9, the 74th anniversary of the Kristallnacht pogrom against Jews.”

“Poster Collection Looted by Nazis to Be Auctioned.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 5 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. “The more than 4,300 posters collected by Hans Sachs and looted by the Nazis will be auctioned at Guernsey’s in New York on Jan. 18 [2013], though the auction house is seeking to sell the entire collection to one buyer. The posters are worth about $5.8 million, according to Bloomberg.”

“Public Menorah Vandalized in Sicily.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “For the second year in a row, vandals disrupted the public lighting of a Chanukah menorah in Catania, Sicily.”

Raske, Richard. “Domonique D’Ermo and the Plot to Kill Klaus Barbie.” Regardie’s Magazine 10.2 (1989): 92(22). General OneFile. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. Dominique D’Ermo had been a member of the French resistance during WWII. In the 1980s he joined a group of resisters who wanted to kill Nazi Klaus Barbie, the Butcher of Lyons, during his trial.

Ratner, Megan. “Recent German Films on the Third Reich.” BLFJ Blog. Bright Lights Film Journal, Aug. 2005. Web. 04 May 2013. <>. “A great deal of how the Third Reich presented itself and how we have come to know it is visual. Early on, the Nazis understood the power of one or two well-documented incidents to suggest a sweeping movement, and soon the public followed their fabricated reality. The Nazis were especially helped by the rise of photography, whose ‘truth’ even in its then early stages could be slyly manipulated (it’s sobering to imagine what they’d have done with Photoshop). In fact, Nazism without photography, still and moving, is simply unimaginable.” Several recent Nazi movies are reviewed.

“Record 1.43 Million Visit Auschwitz in 2012.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “The Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp memorial and museum attracted a record number of visitors in 2012.”

Rising, David, and Randy Herschaft. “Documents Raise Doubts in Nazi Probe.” Statesman Journal. Gannett, 27 Dec. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <>. “The case of an 87-year-old Philadelphia man accused by Germany of serving as an SS guard at Auschwitz has largely centered on whether he was stationed at the part of the death camp used as a killing machine for Jews. Johann ‘Hans’ Breyer — while admitting he was an Auschwitz guard — insists he was never there. World-War II-era documents obtained by The Associated Press indicate otherwise. The files provided by the U.S. Department of Justice in response to an AP request are now in the hands of German authorities, and could provide the legal basis for charging him as an accessory to the murder of hundreds of thousands of Jews in the Nazi death camp.”

Robbins, Liz. “After Anti-Semitic Crimes, Revisiting the Nightmares Forever Within.” The New York Times. 19 Jan. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <>. “They come to talk about their families, to laugh, to learn and to praise Hilda Weiss’s famous chocolate coffee cake. Other than Mrs. Weiss’s recipe from Hungary, they never liked to go on about the past — even if this was the reason that originally brought the women together in a weekly support group for Holocaust survivors. But in recent days, this fragile yet spirited community of elderly women in Borough Park, Brooklyn, found themselves revisiting details of that unspeakable horror, and haunted by events far too close to home.”

Rodman, Selden. “Forty Years After: The Nazi Heartland.” National Review 11 May 1979: 622+. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. “The article considers whether the European nations involved in World War II should feel guilty that they have contributed to the promotion of Nazism and antisemitism during Adolf Hitler’s time. According to the author, every country that Hitler penetrated had discovered a sense of racism just lying under almost every nation’s surface.”

Rubinger, Aaron D. “Deja Jew.” Jerusalem Post, 22 Jan. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Over the course of 2 months, I visited Jewish communities in the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, France, Belgium and the UK and interviewed dozens of Jewish leaders as well as ‘laymen’ – both Jews and non-Jews. While attempting to determine the seriousness of contemporary European Anti-Semitism, I experienced what I would term ‘déjà Jew’ – the peculiar sense that we, the members of Jewish people, are reliving an experience from the past; that we have somehow time-traveled and are now re-experiencing occurrences that are all too familiar.”

“Russian Lawmaker Wants to Strip Holocaust Survivors of Privileges.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. ” A Russian lawmaker from President Vladimir Putin’s ruling United Russia party reportedly opposed making public transportation free for Holocaust survivors.”

Samuels, Shimon. “In the Shadow of Wannsee.” The 20 Jan. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <>. “The 70th anniversary of the Wannsee Conference provides a valuable opportunity to reengage the battle for memory, for – unlike any other genocide – it provides, in the Wannsee Protocol, a clear and horrifyingly dispassionate roadmap to mass murder. Albeit marked ‘Top Secret’, the 16th duplicate of 30 copies survived the war.”

Shefler, Gilad. “Documents Show Venezuela Spying on Jewish Community.” Jewish Ideas Daily. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 4 Feb. 2013. Web. 06 Feb. 2013. <>. “The Venezuelan human rights group Espacio Anna Frank says its goal is to promote tolerance by teaching the life story of the teenage diarist murdered by the Nazis. But is there something sinister lurking behind the organization’s benevolent facade? SEBIN, the Venezuelan intelligence service, seems to believe so. According to a dossier attributed to SEBIN, the Caracas-based group is actually part of an Israeli cloak-and-dagger operation aimed at undermining the leftist government of President Hugo Chavez.”

“Slovak Court Moves toward Imprisoning War Criminal in Hungary.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Web. 04 May 2013. <>. “A Slovak court commuted a death sentence against Laszlo Csatary, a war criminal whom Slovakia wants extradited from Hungary for his complicity in murdering thousands of Jews.”

Snyder, Don. “Nazi-Era Case Reopens Old Polish Wounds.” The Jewish Daily Forward.13 July 2012. Web. 6 July 2012. <>. “Poland has just reopened a 71-year-old case involving the rape and murder of 20 Jewish women. In the 1941 case — in the midst of World II, and two years after the Nazi invasion of Poland — six Poles allegedly beat the Jewish women to death with metal-tipped clubs outside the hamlet of Bzury, in northeastern Poland. Government prosecutor Radoslaw Ignatiew hopes to prosecute the killers, if they are still alive. He also hopes to discover the identities of the women and the location of their graves.”

“State Dept. Notes Anti-Semitism Spike, Israel’s Religious Pluralism Issues.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 20 May 2013. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. “The U.S. State Department’s religious freedoms report described ‘a continued global increase in anti-Semitism.’”

Stoltzfus, Nathan. “Postwar Germany: The Profits of Peace.” History Today. 13 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <>. “Keith Lowe on the dilemmas faced by a victorious but financially ruined Britain in its dealings with postwar Germany.”

“Sweden to Honor Wallenberg with Annual Memorial Day.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Sweden will honor World War II hero Raoul Wallenberg with an annual memorial day. Aug. 27 will be earmarked as the official Wallenberg day, …”

“Swiss Army Officer Slammed for Praising Nazi-era German General.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 13 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. ” A Swiss army commander reportedly praised Nazi-era German general Erwin Rommel to a group of officers as a role model to emulate. According to a report in the Swiss newspaper Der Sonntag, the officer, a lieutenant colonel identified only as ‘PL,’ defended his words as ‘no praise for Rommel the person, but merely highlighting his leadership.”

“Synagogue Reopens in Polish Town without Jews.” The 04 Apr. 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <>. “A Polish town where the Jewish population was almost entirely wiped out by the Nazis 72 years ago is to be home to a synagogue once again.”

Taube, Friedel. “German Fashion Label Hugo Boss Goes Public with Nazi past.” DW.DE. 25 Sept. 2011. Web. 17 May 2013. <>. “The fashion label Hugo Boss has joined a growing number of German companies that have voluntarily commissioned investigations into their former ties with the Nazi regime during the Second World War.”

Tercatin, Rossella. “Italian Jewish Fury after Yad Vashem Changes Description of Wartime Pope.” 19 July 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <>. “A furious debate has broken out in Italy after the decision of Israel’s Holocaust Museum, Yad Vashem, to change the captions under the museum’s display on the wartime pope, Pius XII.”

Trevor-Roper, H. R. “The Germans Reappraise the War.” Foreign Affairs 31.2 (1953): 225-37. JSTOR. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. In 1953 the author examines literature concerning Nazi Germany and looks for “the evidence which it supplies of the changing political climate of Germany since Hitler’s death.”

“Ukrainian Officials Are Trying to Take over Jewish TV Station, Owner Alleges.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 23 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <>. “Vadim Rabinovich, the owner of the Jewish international TV channel JN1, charged that Ukrainian officials are trying to take over the station and have threatened him.”

“U.S. Appeals Court Upholds Deportation Order for Accused Nazi.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “A U.S. appeals court upheld an immigration appeals board decision to deport an accused Nazi living in Michigan. The 6th Circuit Appeals Court in Cincinnati, Ohio, on Friday upheld the deportation of John (Ivan) Kalymon, 91, who allegedly rounded up and shot Jews as a member of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police during World War II.”

Whitty, Julia. “How Hitler’s U-Boats Are Still Attacking Us.” Mother Jones. 21 May 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <>. “The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has some fresh news from World War II: 13 Merchant Marine ships sunk by the German navy in the Battle of the Atlantic threaten to release oil from their watery graves. The finding comes in an assessment presented to the Coast Guard that analyzed 20,000 shipwrecks in US waters, and identified 36 as posing a significant threat of oil pollution. Seventeen of those are recommended for further assessment, which could lead to missions to remove their fuel oil and oil cargo. Besides the Merchant Marine vessels, the worrisome ships include a barge lost in bad weather in 1936, two ships sunk in separate collisions in 1947 and 1952, and a tanker that exploded in 1984.”

“Witness Found in Trial of Hungarian War Criminal Csatary.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 10 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <>. “Slovak police reportedly have found a witness to corroborate charges against the Hungarian war criminal Laszlo Csatary. Csatary, 97, served during World War II as a Hungarian police commander in the Jewish ghetto of Kosice, then a part of Hungary and now in Slovakia.”

Yanover, Yori. “Bulgaria Commemorates 70 Years of Saving Its Jews.” The Jewish Press.10 Mar. 2013. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <>. “The 70th anniversary of the rescue of Bulgaria’s Jews in WW II is being commemorated with a number of solemn ceremonies in Bulgarian capital Sofia Sunday, Sofia News Agency reports. Unlike most other Nazi allies or Nazi -occupied countries, Bulgaria saved its entire Jewish population from deportation to concentration camps.”

Zahra, Tara. “A Brutal Peace: On the Postwar Expulsions of Germans.” The Nation. (2012): The Nation. 17 Dec. 2012. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <>. “It was one of many ugly episodes in 1945. On a summer day in Horní Moštenice, a small town in central Czechoslovakia, 265 people, including 120 women and seventy-four children, were dragged from a train, shot in the neck, and buried in a mass grave that had been dug beside the local railway station. It was a common enough scene in Central and Eastern Europe during World War II, when Nazi extermination policies threatened entire ethnic groups. But despite the similarity of means and ends, the massacre in Horní Moštenice was different. For one thing, it occurred on June 18, after the war in Europe had officially ended. Moreover, the perpetrators were Czechoslovak troops, and their victims were Germans who had been a presence in the region for centuries.”

Zlotowski, Michele. “Tour De France Snubs Velodrome Holocaust Memorial.” The 12 July 12. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <>. “The Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), which runs the Tour de France, has said it is not the business of a sports organisation to commemorate the 1942 round-up of Paris’s Jews, despite the involvement of the cycling body’s former director in the mass-deportation. Jacques Goddet, director of the ASO from 1936 to 1986, was responsible for the Paris velodrome into which 8,000 Jews were herded by French police acting on Nazi orders.”