Germany, Nazis, War #3


 Bodies of U.S. officers and soldiers slain by the Nazis after capture near Malmedy, Belgium.


“The Battle of Berlin, 1945.” EyeWitnesstoHistory. 2002. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <>. “The final chapter in the destruction of Hitler’s Third Reich began on April 16, 1945 when Stalin unleashed the brutal power of 20 armies, 6,300 tanks and 8,500 aircraft with the objective of crushing German resistance and capturing Berlin. By prior agreement, the Allied armies (positioned approximately 60 miles to the west) halted their advance on the city in order to give the Soviets a free hand. The depleted German forces put up a stiff defense, initially repelling the attacking Russians, but ultimately succumbing to overwhelming force. By April 24 the Soviet army surrounded the city slowly tightening its stranglehold on the remaining Nazi defenders. Fighting street-to-street and house-to-house, Russian troops blasted their way towards Hitler’s chancellery in the city’s center. Inside his underground bunker Hitler lived in a world of fantasy as his ‘Thousand Year Reich’ crumbled above him. In his final hours the Fuehrer married his long-time mistress and then joined her in suicide. The Third Reich was dead.”

Boenau, A. Bruce. “Among the Dead Cities: The History and Moral Legacy of the WWII Bombing of Civilians in Germany and Japan.” Perspectives on Political Science 36.2 (2007): 115-16. ProQuest. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. Review of “Among the Dead Cities: The History and Moral Legacy of the WWII Bombing of Civilians in Germany and Japan” by A.C. Grayling. “[T]he area bombing was not necessary or proportionate; contravened humanitarian principles aimed at controlling and limiting war; and violated recognized moral standards and ‘mature’ national laws outlawing murder, bodily harm, and destruction of property.”

Bytwerk, Randall. “German Propaganda Archive (Guide Page).” German Propaganda Archive (Guide Page). Calvin College. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <>. “Propaganda was central to Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The German Propaganda Archive includes both propaganda itself and material produced for the guidance of propagandists. The goal is to help people understand the two great totalitarian systems of the twentieth century by giving them access to the primary material.”

Chase, Randall. “Feds Announce Recovery of Missing Nazi Diary.” ABC News. ABC News Network, 13 June 2013. Web. 14 June 2013. <>. “Federal authorities have recovered about 400 handwritten pages from the wartime diary of a key Nazi adviser to Adolf Hitler after a 17-year search for the documents, officials said Thursday. Alfred Rosenberg played a significant role in the slaughter of millions of Jews and other non-Aryans considered inferior under the Third Reich. He was convicted of war crimes at the Nuremberg trials after World War II and executed in 1946. Officials from the Department of Homeland Security and the Justice Department joined officials from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum for a news conference Thursday to outline how they found the documents, which cover the years 1936 to 1944.” Video of the newscast is included. Historical Nazi and Department of Homeland Security video of the diary pages are also included.

Conspiracy. Dir. Frank Pierson. Perf. Kenneth Branagh, Stanley Tucci. HBO. DVD. <>. In January of 1942, 15 of Hitler’s right-hand men gathered together and laid the practical groundwork for the “Final Solution.”

Crossland, David. “Historian Stirs Interest With Book on Family History Under Nazism.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. Spiegel Online International, 4 Oct. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <>. “Historian Moritz Pfeiffer asked his grandfather about the Nazi era and was struck by the former soldier’s lack of empathy for the victims of the Third Reich. His book has aroused the interest of aging Germans mystified by what made their parents follow Hitler. It’s a question that leaves younger generations cold.”

“Documents Related to World War II.” Documents Related to World War II. Mount Holyoke College. Web. 22 June 2012. <>. 64 pages of World War II documents chronologically. A great find! Also see WWII documents.

Donahue, Patrick. “German Diplomats Participated in Nazi Crimes, Minister Westerwelle Says.” Bloomberg. 28 Oct. 2010. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <>. “Germany’s foreign service played an active role in Nazi crimes under Adolf Hitler and continued to employ diplomats tied to the regime after World War II, Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle said today in Berlin.”

Englund, Seven. “A Surprising Six Weeks.” America Magazine. 14 May 2001. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “Strange Victory” by Ernest May is reviewed.”He closely examines German archives. He mainly considers historical data taken mostly from before or during the fall of France that is, before the protagonists and most historians started spinning convincing arguments as to why France had to lose, and lose quickly. Third, he has a grasp of the military mind and of the role of military intelligence in war that is subtler and surer than anything I have seen since John Keegan.”

Fest, Joachim C., and Michael Bullock. The Face of the Third Reich: Portraits of the Nazi Leadership. London: I.B. Tauris, 2011. Print. “In this compelling account, Joachim Fest – one of the greatest authorities on the Third Reich and an icon of post-war Germany – shows how it was these individual personalities and their vicious power.”

“The Forced Suicide of Field Marshall Rommel, 1944.” EyeWitnesstoHistory. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <>. “For a time, Erwin Rommel was Hitler’s favorite general. Gaining prominence in 1940 as a commander of a panzer division that smashed the French defenses, Rommel went on to command the Afrika Korps where his tactical genius, ability to inspire his troops and make the best of limited resources, prompted Hitler to elevate him to the rank of Field Marshall.”

“France Surrenders, 1940.” EyeWitnesstoHistory. 2007. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <>. “Hitler unleashes his blitzkrieg invasion of the Low Countries and France with a fury on May 10, 1940. Within three weeks, a large part of the British force, accompanied by some of the French defenders, is pushed to the English Channel and compelled to abandon the continent at Dunkirk. The German advance continues to sweep southward driving before it not only the retreating French army, but an estimated 10 million refugees fleeing for their lives. The French abandon Paris, declaring it an open city. This allows the Germans to enter the French capital on June 14 without resistance.” William Shirer filed this report for CBS News.

Frantzman, Seth. “Hitler’s Geographer: Walter Christaller and Nazi Academics.” Jerusalem Post. 27 Aug. 2010. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. <>. “Who was Walter Christaller, and why do so many still deem it necessary to whitewash his employment under Heinrich Himmler?” A member of the Nazi party “he served under Heinrich Himmler in the SS Planning and Soil Office. … He was a dramatic thinker living out the dark dream of any intellectual.”

“Germany Has Paid Out More Than $61.8 Billion in Third Reich Reparations.” Institute for Historical Review 17.6 (1998): 19. Ihr. Institute for Historical Review. Web. 18 May 2013. <>. “Since 1951 Germany has paid more than 102 billion marks, about $61.8 billion at 1998 exchange rates, in federal government reparation payments to Israel and Third Reich victims. In addition, Germans have paid out billions in private and other public funds, including about 75 million marks ($49 million) by German firms in compensation to wartime forced laborers, the Welt am Sonntag newspaper reported recently. These figures are based on calculations by the German Finance Ministry, the influential paper said.”

Gerwarth, Robert. Hitler’s Hangman: The Life of Heydrich. New Haven: Yale UP, 2011. Print. “Reinhard Heydrich was one of the most feared men of the twentieth century, an appalling figure even in the context of the Nazi leadership.”

Geyer, Michael. “Life in the Third Reich: The Nazi State: Machine or Morass?” History Today 36.1 (1986): 35. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 July 2012. “Examines the political history of the Nationalist Socialist regime in Germany. … Competing interests as much as ideology fuelled the functioning of the Third Reich, augmented by forced labour and the plunder of Occupied Europe.”

Gluck, Robert. “‘Fighting the Fires Of Hate’” 23 Jan. 2012. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <>. “Books can represent a love of life, of people, of God, and of the human spirit. Why did the Nazis burn books? What was America’s reaction to the Nazi bookburnings? Why did they burn the work of certain authors? Answers to these haunting questions are suggested in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s traveling exhibition ‘Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Book Burnings.’”

Grigg, William N. “From Republic to Reich.” The New American, Suppl. The Rising Police State 18.20 (2002): 34-38. ProQuest. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. “Adolf Hitler’s Nazi regime exploited a terrorist assault on the Reichstag Building to carry out a pre-positioned strategy to convert the Weimar Republic into a police state under the pretext of ‘protecting the Fatherland.’ Grigg explains how the Nazis used this opportunity to establish a brutal police state.”

Hamza, Gabor. “The “Third Reich” in the German Legal, Philosophical and Political Thinking.” Nordicum-Mediterraneum. 2010. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <>. From the “Icelandic E-Journal of Nordic and Mediterranean Studies” Vol, no.1 (2010). “The idea that after the Nazi (‘national-socialist’) takeover the German political propaganda machine strongly supported the naming of their land the ‘Third Reich’ (Drittes Reich) is a misperception shared by many historians, political scientists as well as lawyers all around the world even today. It is much less known that Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) himself was never in full support of this expression even though it proved quite effective both before and after the NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) takeover.”

“Haushofer’s Heritage.” Time 47.12 (1946): 37. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. In a quiet, rambling country house near Munich, 76-year-old Major General Professor Dr. Karl Ernst Nikolas Haushofer, Germany’s apostle of geopolitics, last week took poison.”

Heineman, John L. “John L. Heineman’s Home Page.” John L. Heineman’s Home Page. Boston College, 2003. Web. 01 Sept. 2012. <>. Contains links to websites about Germany, Nazis, Jews etc.

Heineman, John L. “Maps Concerning World War II.” John L. Heineman’s Home Page. Boston College. Web. 01 Sept. 2012. <>. Twelve maps concerning World War II.

Heineman, John L. “The Road to War: A Selection of Primary Documents.” John L. Heineman’s Home Page. Boston College. Web. 01 Sept. 2012. <>. “This site contains four pages which include a large number of primary documents about the origins of World War II.” Also see WWII Documents.

Heineman, John L. “Third Reich Bibliography.” John L. Heineman’s Home Page. Boston College. Web. 01 Sept. 2012. <>. Thirty-two page bibliography of books to introduce various aspects of the third Reich. Also see Reference, Bibliographies, Lists.

Herf, Jeffrey. “Hate Radio The Long, Toxic Afterlife of Nazi Propaganda in the Arab World.” The Chronicle Review. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 22 Nov. 2009. Web. 09 May 2013. <>. “Between 1939 and 1945, shortwave radio transmitters near Berlin broadcast Nazi propaganda in many languages around the world, including Arabic throughout the Middle East and North Africa, and Persian programs in Iran. English-language transcripts of the Arabic broadcasts shed light on a particularly dark chapter in the globalization of pernicious ideas. The transcripts’ significance, however, is not purely historical. Since September 11, 2001, scholars have debated the lineages, similarities, and differences between Nazi anti-Semitism and the anti-Semitism of Islamic extremists. These radio broadcasts suggest that Nazi Arabic-language propaganda helped introduce radical anti-Semitism into the Middle East, where it found common ground with anti-Jewish currents in Islam.”

“History: Luftwaffe.” BBC News. BBC. Web. 20 May 2013. <>. “Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It was also the official name for the Nazi air force founded in 1935. Led by Hermann Goering, it became the largest and most powerful in Europe by the start of World War Two.” Contains videos and pictures of the Battle of Britain and highlights of other BBC programmes about WWII.

Holdsworth, Nick. “Third Reich 3D Movies Unearthed.” Variety. 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <>. “Films shot on 3D in pre-war Nazi Germany have been unearthed in Berlin’s Federal Archives. Two 30 minute black and white propaganda films in 1936 were found by Australian director Philippe Mora, who is prepping a feature length documentary on how the Nazis used images to manipulate reality.”

Hoover, Calvin B. Germany Enters the Third Reich,. New York: Macmillan, 1933. Print. “Rarely in history has there been a period in which the factors determining the course of political events were so complex as those which operated during the twilight of the German Republic from June, 1932, … until January, 1933, when Hitler finally became Chancellor of the Reich.”

Housden, Martyn. “Lebensraum: Policy or Rhetoric?” History Today 51.11 (2001). History Today. Web. 07 May 2013. <>. “Martyn Housden tries to unravel what Hitler really meant when he talked about living space for the German people.”

Hudson, Roger. “In Focus: Paris, Summer 1944.” History Today 63.4 (2013). History Today. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <>. “Roger Hudson explains a moment of panic on the streets of the newly liberated French capital.”

Hutton, Christopher. Linguistics and the Third Reich: Mother-tongue Fascism, Race, and the Science of Language. London: Routledge, 1999. Print. “This book presents an insightful account of the academic politics of the Nazi era and analyses the work of selected linguists, including Jos Trier and Leo Weisgerber. Hutton situates Nazi linguistics within the politics of Hitler’s state and within the history of modern linguistics.”

“Inside a Nazi Death Camp, 1944.” EyeWitnesstoHistory. 2004. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <>. “Hitler established the first concentration camp soon after he came to power in 1933. The system grew to include about 100 camps divided into two types: concentration camps for slave labor in nearby factories and death camps for the systematic extermination of ‘undesirables’ including Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, the mentally retarded and others. … Soviet troops entered the camp in July 1944. A week later, Alexander Werth joined a group of fellow reporters in a guided tour of the facility.”

Jones, Nigel. “The Making of a Nazi Hero.” History Today. 23 May 2013. Web. 27 May 2013. <>. Review: The Making of a Nazi Hero: The Murder and Myth of Horst Wessel Danial Siemens I.B. Tauris. “Horst Wessel, or so ran the propaganda legend created by Goebbels, was the ideal Nazi hero. Young, idealistic and dedicated to the movement for which he had sacrificed his middle-class status and a promising career.”

Karenberg, Axel. “Neurosciences and the Third Reich Introduction.” Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 15.3 (2006): 168-72. Print. “The article discusses the ethical issues concerning medicine and science development in Germany during the Third Reich, the dictatorship under Hitler.”

Karsan, Saj. “Rise and Fall of the Third Reich.” 26 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <>. “The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich is a book that all policy makers should read. It details the rise and fall of Adolf’s leadership of Germany, including both the external (e.g. deficits, debt, The Depression) and internal (organization, oration, trickery) conditions that allowed him to thrive.”

Kavanagh, Sarah. “Claiming Responsibility: Understanding the Rise and Popularity of Hitler.” The Learning Network. New York Times, 19 Oct. 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <>. “Did the German people elevate Hitler, or did Hitler victimize the Germans? How do historians formulate claims about complex historical events? In this lesson, students consider competing historical claims about responsibility for the rise of Adolf Hitler and then examine primary sources to generate and support their own historical claims. They also consider what the significance of these claims might be for contemporary society.”

Kerr, Philip. Man without Breath. [S.l.]: Putnam, 2013. Print. “Berlin, March, 1943. A month has passed since the stunning defeat at Stalingrad. Though Hitler insists Germany is winning the war, commanders on the ground know better. Morale is low, discipline at risk. Now word has reached Berlin of a Red massacre of Polish officers in the Katyn Forest near Smolensk. If true, the message it would send to the troops is clear: Fight on or risk certain death. For once, both the Wehrmacht and Propaganda Minister Goebbels want the same thing: irrefutable evidence of this Russian atrocity. To the Wehrmacht, such proof will soften the reality of its own war crimes in the eyes of the victors. For Goebbels, such proof could turn the tide of war by destroying the Alliance, cutting Russia off from its western supply lines.”

Koonz, Claudia. The Nazi Conscience. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 2003. Print. “Koonz (History, Duke Univ.) meticulously details how the Nazis developed a ‘secular ethos’ that conferred privilege upon the Aryan volk and excluded outsiders from protection. In addition to examining the role of Hitler’s ideology through his public speeches and private directives, Koonz pays particular attention to the role of academics in amplifying and promoting racial ideology, the ‘Nazi conscience’ of the title. One of the most disturbing chapters, ‘Allies in the Academy,’ details the Nazification of German universities and intellectual life. Professors were among the most enthusiastic supporters of Hitler’s regime and provided Nazi ideology with pedagogical respectability. Koonz not only analyzes several Nazi professors, but she also helps plot their impact upon popular culture. The results can be seen in attitudes toward Jews.”

Kuper, Simon. “Soccer as a Wartime Prism.” Interview. Audio blog post. Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 22 Nov. 2012. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. <>. “Growing up in the Netherlands, Simon Kuper was raised on soccer and on stories of the Dutch resistance during World War II. It was only as an adult that Kuper, a columnist for the Financial Times, began to understand the level of complicity on the part of the Dutch: more than 75 percent of the Jews in the country were killed during the war. And yet ordinary life—including soccer playing and viewing—continued with little disruption.”

Lawler, Justus G. “Terror Bombing.” America Magazine. 28 Aug. 2008. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “Winston Churchill launched Operation Gomorrah, ordering high-explosive and incendiary bombs to be dropped on the city of Hamburg on July 24, 1943. Five days later more than 50,000 civilians were dead. Two-and-a-half years later, the city of Dresden, crowded with refugees and of little strategic importance, was devastated by Allied bombers in February, just three months before the war’s end, making it a symbol to the world of the ruthlessness of modern warfare. … From the beginning of World War II, however, with the bombing of Warsaw, Pope Pius XII had repeatedly condemned the bombing of civilian centers. In this he was joined by George Bell, the Anglican bishop of Chichester, who would join him again in condemning weapons of indiscriminate destruction during the oncoming nuclear era.”

Lengyel, Emil. “Concept of Third Reich Begins to Take Reality.” New York Times 7 Oct. 1934: XX5. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. “Adolf Hitler, heavily entrenched in power, recently predicted that the Third Reich would last a thousand years. Even if, to those outside Germany, it does not seem firmly established, in the minds of the Nazis the concept of the new Reich is taking definite form.”

McCormick, Anne O. “The Reich Three Years After.” New York Times 2 Feb. 1936: SM4. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. “A close-up of Germany as the Fourth Year of Rule by the Nazis rule opens. Reveals a Burdened people whose faith in Hitler remains Strong.”

McMenamin, Michael. “” Reason 31.4 (1999): 72-75. Reason. Web. 7 May 2013. <>. McMenamin reviews “Hitler, 1899-1936: Hubris” by Ian Kershaw. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 845 pages. “Adolf Hitler was “wholly ignorant” of economics, Ian Kershaw boldly writes in his excellent new study … . What the dictator did know was politics and how to achieve public support–Hitler was an immensely popular leader with approval ratings even Bill Clinton would envy–and early on, he made it clear that economics would be subordinate to politics.”

Mitcham, Samuel W., and Gene Mueller. Hitler’s Commanders: Officers of the Wehrmacht, the Luftwaffe, the Kriegsmarine, and the Waffen-SS. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012. Print. “[T]hese men actually consisted of a diverse group of soldiers rather than just fanatical Nazi robots … bringing to light the careers of lower-ranking and lesser-known Wehrmacht officers makes for compelling reading and sheds valuable light on the complexities of the German military command during World War II.”

Muller, Rolf-Dieter. “The Unknown Eastern Front: The Wehrmacht and Hitler’s Foreign Soldiers.” Ibatauris: Eastern Europe. I. B. Tauris Publishers. Web. 9 Nov. 2012. <>. “When Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa with his attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Wehrmacht deployed 600,000 troops to the Eastern Front. Their numbers were later swelled by a range of foreign volunteers so that, at the height of World War II, astonishingly one in three men fighting for the Germans in the East was not a native German.”

“Nazi Language and Terminology.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 17 May 2013. <>. “Every detail of daily life was strictly controlled and regulated under National Socialism. This control by the state extended to the German language, both in the colloquial and the official context. Certain words such as Volk (‘the people’) and Fanatismus (‘fanaticism’) became synonymous with the official party line of the Third Reich. Other terms were created as euphemisms to hide acts of terror. For example, in the language of the Nazis, Sonderbehandlung (‘special treatment’) meant execution, and the term Endlösung (‘final solution’) referred to the systematic extermination and mass murder of the Jewish peoples.”

“The Nazi Occupation of Poland.” EyeWitnesstoHistory. 1997. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <>. At dawn on September 1, 1939, the German army launched a ferocious assault across the Polish border. The Luftwaffe sent its bombers and fighters to attack airfields, rail heads, troop concentrations or anything else considered important to the command and movement of the Polish armed forces. The first Blitzkrieg had begun. One hour later German troops attacked from the north and south intent on encircling the Polish army. The Poles fell back only to find German troops in their rear.” Dr. Zygmunt Klukowski chronicled the Nazi occupation.

“Nazi War Criminals Sentenced at Nuremberg.” A&E Television Networks, 1 Oct. 1946. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. “On October 1, 1946, 12 high-ranking Nazis are sentenced to death by the International War Crimes Tribunal in Nuremberg.”

The Nazis: A Warning from History. Dir. Samuel West. 1997. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <>. “Through archival footage and interviews with those who survived Adolph Hitler’s reign — including unrepentant Nazis — this comprehensive documentary series sheds new light on the rise of the Third Reich in Germany. Chapters reveal how the Nazi state compelled ordinary people to commit atrocities, the order and disorder within the German army, and Hitler’s propensity for getting his minions to do his work, among other enlightening facts.”

Neumann, Boaz. “The National Socialist Politics of Life.” New German Critique 85 (2002): 107. Proquest. Web. 7 May 2013. “All shaking I raise my eyes to God … and there I see the face of an SS guard standing in front of the truck. He is still very tired. Dawn is cold, his hands are in his black military coat. In front of his eyes is a river of skeletons streaming silently from the block’s entrance to the truck. And here, his mouth is wide open and a long yawn comes out.”

Nutinen, Joni. “Third Reich in Trial.” WW2-articles. Cloudworth. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. “A Gestapo torturer protected by the CIA, a Soviet Red Army soldier who ended up as a Nazi guard – These are only some of the strange and controversial Nazi court cases which have emerged over the decades. The public knows surprisingly little about the Third Reich related trials which have taken place through the decades. The biggest reason, it seems, is the uninspiring presentation of these cases both in media and in history books. This article covers the noteworthy court cases linked to Hitler’s Nazi Germany, summing up their essence in a sentence or two, plus exploring various interesting – and often debated – controversies linked to these trials.”

Nuutinen, Joni. “Best World War II Documentary Series.” WW2-articles. Cloudworth. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. “This list contains WWII series which have made a lasting impression over the years for one reason or the other. These documentaries are warmly recommended to anyone interested in history, and especially to those keen to learn more about the Second World War. In addition to concise evaluation of each series, various pros and cons are contemplated. Note: This list only includes series with multiple parts. Individual WWII related documentary films are excluded.”

“The Occult History of the Third Reich: Himmler the Mystic (1991).” The New York Times: Movies. New York Times, 26 Nov. 2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <>. “The second in a three-part series of documentaries that explore the links between the Third Reich and its leaders and belief in occult powers and practices, this episode looks into the history of the SS. Originally organized as Hitler’s elite bodyguards, the SS became a sinister military/spiritual order under Heinrich Himmler; this film examines the roots in German mystic and occult teachings which inspired Himmler in the creation of this murderous gang.”

Onion, Rebecca. “‘God Sleepeth Not’: Helen Keller’s Blistering Letter to Book-Burning German Students.” The Vault. Slate, 16 May 2013. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. “In mid-May 1933, Americans learned that students in German universities planned to burn a long list of books deemed ‘un-German.’ Helen Keller, whose How I Became a Socialist was on this list, wrote this open letter to the students a day before the burning took place.”

Overy, R. J. War and Economy in the Third Reich. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994. Print. “War and Economy in the Third Reich examines the nature of the German economy in the 1930s and the Second World War. When Hitler came to power in 1933 he had two aims for the economy: a rapid recovery from the depths of the Great Slump and the creation of a vast economic foundation for Germany’s renewed bid for world power. He wanted to turn Germany into a military superpower in the 1940s. These eleven essays explore the tension between Hitler’s vision of an armed economy and the reality of German economic and social life.”

Perl, Jed. “When the Surrealists Met the Nazis.” The New Republic. 13 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <>. The author evaluates the “Art at War” the big show about French during the German Occupation.”

Petropoulos, Jonathan. “Co-Opting Nazi Germany: Neutrality in Europe During World War II.” Dimnsions 14.1. ADL. Anti-Defamation League’s Braun Holocaust Institute, 1998. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <>. “Neutrality, when practiced by nations, is not always neutral. It does not preclude involvement in international affairs, or even partisanship. According to international law, there are varying kinds of neutrality. For example, Switzerland adopted ‘differentiated’ neutrality in 1920, a decision which indicated a willingness to employ economic sanctions to communicate disapprobation of another nation; in 1938 the Swiss embraced ‘integral,’ or supposedly unconditional, neutrality. Despite the apparent precision of these legal terms, neutrality for Switzerland during World War II, as well as for the other continental European countries that claimed neutral status during that period — Portugal, Sweden, Spain, and the Vatican — can best be summed up by the phrase, self-interested noncombatant.

Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. The Prize Lies of a Nazi Tycoon. Standpoint. Web. Apr. 2010. <>. “Alfred Toepfer was one of postwar Germany’s leading businessmen and philanthropists. His fortune stemmed from his Hamburg-based grain and shipping company, which was a powerful engine of his country’s economic boom in the 1950s and ’60s. … It took many years for doubts about Toepfer’s self-proclaimed anti-Nazism to emerge. Critical material appeared in a German dissertation published in 1973. In 1978, American doctoral research cast light (based partly on French war crimes trials) on Toepfer’s subversive pre-war role in Alsace-Lorraine.”

“The Press in the Third Reich.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 04 May 2013. <>. “When Adolf Hitler took power in 1933, the Nazis controlled less than three percent of Germany’s 4,700 papers. The elimination of the German multi-party political system not only brought about the demise of hundreds of newspapers produced by outlawed political parties; it also allowed the state to seize the printing plants and equipment of the Communist and Social Democratic Parties, which were often turned over directly to the Nazi Party. In the following months, the Nazis established control or exerted influence over independent press organs.”

Prisoner of Paradise. Dir. Malcolm Clarke. 2002. IMDb. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <>. “Malcolm Clarke (You Don’t Have to Die) and Stuart Sender directed this documentary feature about one of the leading theatrical figures in 1930s Berlin, Kurt Gerron. A popular actor, director and cabaret performer, Gerron, a German Jew, was later forced to write and direct a Nazi propaganda film while being held prisoner in a concentration camp.”

Radio Report of the Surrender of Germany May 8, 1945. 8 May 1945. Radio. “On April 30, 1945, as Russian troops fought to within yards of his subterranean bunker, Adolph Hitler put a pistol to his head, pulled the trigger and closed the curtain on the Third Reich. Before his death, Hitler anointed Admiral Karl Donitz as his successor with orders to continue the fighting. Hitler was unaware that the German surrender had already begun.”

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: Part Three. By Joachim Fest. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: Part Three. 03 June 2013. Web. 05 June 2013. <>. The “Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: Part Three” of the documentary video series. “He wanted to build up his people by building up a fictitious enemy – the Jews.”

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: Part Two. By Jaochim Fest. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: Part Two. 03 June 2013. Web. 05 June 2013. <>. The second documentary video of the “The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich.” Thirty-five minutes long. “The people went peacefully about their business against a background of rampant injustice.”

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: The Rise and Fall of Adolph Hitler. By Joachim Fest. The Rise and Fall of Adolph Hitler. Werner Rieb Production, 03 June 2013. Web. 05 June 2013. <>. The first of three “The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich” documentary videos. One hour and ten minutes long. Adolph Hitler, rabble rouser and leader – one of the most monstrous careers in history. “Thanks to him Germany and the old Europe came to a catastrophic and inglorious end.”

Rogers, Thomas. “German War Guilt: The Miniseries.” The New Republic. 7 May 2013. Web. 14 May 2013. <>. “One hour into ‘Our Mothers, Our Fathers’ (‘Unsere Mütter, unsere Väter’), the hit new German miniseries about World War II, a group of German soldiers is trapped in front of a Russian minefield. … The scene stands out for a couple reasons—not just for its high production values (a rarity in Germany, whose TV offerings tend to be low-budget) but for its frank depiction of wartime atrocity. The minefield scene is, in fact, just one of many horrific acts the two brothers perpetrate over the course of the miniseries, a sweeping television event that has galvanized a new discussion about Germany’s war guilt.”

Rosenfeld, Arno. “Exhibit Recalls Jewish Refugees and Nazi Prisoners Held Together in Canadian Prisons.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 31 Mar. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <>. ” When Austrian and German Jews escaped Nazism by fleeing to Britain during the 1930s, the last thing they expected was to find themselves prisoners in Canada, interred in camps with some of the same Nazis they had tried to escape back home.”

Rowley, Clive. “Dambusters 70: The Raid Struck a Blow Right to the Heart of the Third Reich.” This Is Lincolnshire. Local World. Web. 18 May 2013. <>. “Clive Rowley served for 36 years as a pilot with the Royal Air Force, retiring from full-time service as a Squadron Leader in 2007. Since retiring from the RAF he has become and established author on aviation history. In his latest book ‘Dambusters’, Clive looks at the affect of the raids and argues that it was more than a propaganda mission.”

“Saving Nietzsche and Ourselves.” Blog. 2 May 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <>. “Nietzsche is incorrectly often associated with fascism, especially Nazism. When he descended into insanity, his sister Elizabeth took control of his works and selectively edited them to support the Third Reich. This is a shame, because Nietzche wrote many prescient passages in his early aphoristic days. In The Wanderer and His Shadow, Nietzsche writes, ‘No government admits any more that it keeps an army to satisfy occasionally the desire for conquest. Rather the army is supposed to serve for defense, and one invokes the morality that approves of self-defense.’”

Schwarz, Benjamin. “Hitler’s Co-Conspirators.” The Atlantic 1 May 2009. The Atlantic, May 2009. Web. 27 May 2013. <>. “New histories reveal that the Nazi Regime deliberately insinuated knowledge of the Final Solution, devilishly making Germans complicit in the crime and binding them, with guilt and dread, to their leaders.” Books reviewed: Life and Death in the Third Reich; Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution; Germany and the Second World War: German Wartime Society; The Third Reich at War.

“Second World War: The Storm of War.” History Today. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <>. “The German army’s training, discipline and Blitzkrieg tactics – directed by the supremely confident Führer – swept away Polish resistance in 1939. It took the shell-shocked Allies another three years to catch up, writes Andrew Roberts.”

“The Sentencing and Execution of Nazi War Criminals, 1946.” EyeWitnesstoHistory. 2004. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <>. “In November 1945, twenty-one men sat in the dock of a Nuremberg courtroom on trial for their lives. The group represented the ‘cream of the crop’ of the Nazi leadership including Herman Goering, Hitler’s heir apparent until falling out of favor in the closing days of the war, and Rudolph Hess, Hitler’s deputy who had been in custody since parachuting into England in 1941. (A 22nd defendant – Martin Bormann – had escaped capture and was tried in absentia). … The verdicts were announced on October 1, 1946. Eighteen of the defendants were found guilty while three were acquitted. Eleven of the guilty were sentenced to death by hanging, the remainder received prison sentences ranging from 10 years to life.

Shapreau, Carla. “A Violin Once Owned by Goebbels Keeps Its Secrets.” The New York Times. 23 Sept. 2012. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <>. “Joseph Goebbels, in a pinstripe suit, his hair slicked back, gave a simple but philosophical speech about the importance of music. Then, smiling, he handed over the violin to a young woman. The passing was captured on film: the violin’s elegant outline, the figure on its flamed-maple back, the wear pattern of its varnish. Japan’s ambassador to Germany, Hiroshi Oshima, was on hand to witness the transfer. Nejiko Suwa, 23, played her new gift on the spot.”

Smith, S.E., and O. Wallace. “What Is the Difference between the German Army, Gestapo, Nazi Party, SA, SS, and Wehrmacht?” WiseGeek. Conjecture. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <>. “Students of European history often encounter discussions of the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo), Wehrmacht, Sturmabteilung (SA), Schutzstaffel (SS), and Nationalsozialisische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nazi Party) in books and commentaries about Germany in the first half of the 20th century. These organizations all had slightly different roles in Germany in the 1930s through 1940s, contributing to Hitler’s rise to power and the conflict of the Second World War. Understanding the precise role and function of each organization can be helpful to people who are trying to understand the military and political structure of Germany in the 1930s and 1940s.”

Snyder, Timothy. “How Hitler Could Have Won.” Rev. of The Storm of the Second World War: A New History of the Second World War. The New York Times 17 June 2011. 17 June 2011. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. <>. “How did the Wehrmacht, the best fighting force, lose World War II? The reader seeking the answer to this question, posed by Andrew Roberts in his splendid history, will be treated to a brilliantly clear and accessible account of the war in all of its theaters: Asian, African and European.”

Sonthoff, Herert G. “Last Hours in Germany.” The Atlantic. Nov. 1939. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <>. The author reflects on his last hours visiting Germany. “There was the ‘man in the street.’ To me he exemplified completely the effect of the Nazi propaganda machine. The way of thinking of the German people, based on their readiness to believe and trust their authorities, has been shrewdly utilized by their present rulers. … The people’s natural sense of justice, righteousness, and fairness was submerged in a wave of nationalism, gradually producing the readiness to distrust everything ‘foreign’ and believe what the Wilhelmstrasse chose to lay before the public.”

Stackelberg, Roderick, and Sally Anne. Winkle. The Nazi Germany Sourcebook: An Anthology of Texts. London: Routledge, 2002. Print. “The Nazi Germany Sourcebook is an exciting new collection of documents on the origins, rise, course and consequences of National Socialism, the Third Reich, the Second World War, and the Holocaust. Packed full of both official and private papers from the perspectives of perpetrators and victims, these sources offer a revealing insight into why Nazism came into being, its extraordinary popularity in the 1930s, how it affected the lives of people, and what it means to us today. This carefully edited series of 148 documents, drawn from 1850 to 2000, covers the pre-history and aftermath of Nazism: * the ideological roots of Nazism, and the First World War * the Weimar Republic * the consolidation of Nazi power * Hitler’s motives, aims and preparation for war * the Second World War * the Holocaust * the Cold War and recent historical debates.” Also see WWII Documents.

Stoddard, Lothrop. “The National Socialist Party in Third Reich Germany: Himmler Talks with an American Journalist.” The Journal of Historical Review 18.5/6 (1999): 50-56. Print. A January 1940 interview with Heinrich Himmler: “From the moment I first looked at those rulers of the Third Reich, I felt there was something about them which, from my American viewpoint, was queer. As I analyzed them, I realized that it was a sort of twisted cynicism combined with a hard ruthlessness. And when I listened to their life-stories, I saw it could scarcely be otherwise. Most of them had entered the war as volunteers when they were mere boys. One, I recall, was only fifteen at the time; others were not much older. These burningly patriotic lads went through the hell of a losing war, culminating in crushing defeat. Then their abased spirits were given a savage tonic by joining the Free Corps formed to combat the attempt at a ‘Spartakist’ [Communist] revolution. Joyously, they killed Communists for a while.” …  Some of them went abroad, adventuring; the rest sulked and brooded until their ears heard a sudden trumpet-call. It as Nazidom’s brazen clarion: Deutschland, Erwache! ‘Germany, Awake!’ They listened to Adolf Hitler’s oratory which stressed all the longings of their embittered hearts and they fell under his hypnotic spell. Into the ranks of the Storm-Troops they went, with additional years of fighting as they killed more Communists and ‘mastered the streets.’ Then, at last, victory — and undisputed power.”

“A Surprising Six Weeks.” America Magazine. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “Strange Victory” by Ernest May is reviewed. “He closely examines German archives, … He mainly considers historical data taken mostly from before or during the fall of France that is, before the protagonists and most historians started spinning convincing arguments as to why France had to lose, and lose quickly. Third, he has a grasp of the military mind and of the role of military intelligence in war that is subtler and surer than anything I have seen since John Keegan.”

“Third Reich Videos.” YouTube. Web. 6 May 2013. <…0.0…>. YouTube includes includes copious Third Reich videos; many are lectures or documentaries.

Tiley, Marc. “The Third Reich’s Bank of England.” History Today 57.8 (2007). Print. “For the duration of the Second World War, the British fought a covert battle against a large-scale influx of forged bank notes that threatened to bust the economy. Marc Tiley traces the story of the largest counterfeiting scheme in history.”

“Top 10 Little-Known Events in World War II.” Listverse. 2 Mar. 2011. Web. 04 July 2012. <>. A list of very interesting and unusual World War II events. The list contains paragraphs and photos for episodes such as Vichy France vs. the Allies.

Tucker, Edwin. “Fascist Political Aestheticism: A Vitalist Critique of Walter Benjamin [eScholarship].” EScholarship. UCLA, 1999. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <>. Title: Fascist Political Aestheticism: A Vitalist Critique of Walter Benjamin Journal Issue: UCLA Historical Journal, 18(0) Author: Tucker, Edwin Publication Date: 1999 Publication Info: UCLA Historical Journal, UCLA Department of History, UC Los Angeles “This paper is an attempt to reexamine the European fascist phenomenon as it developed between the world wars within the context of philosophic irrationalism. Specifically, this irrationalism was typified by vitalism, a ‘life philosophy’ that had recognizable precursors throughout the nineteenth century. This philosophy placed value upon a nonrational means of knowing and experiencing, emphasizing subjective intuition, which perceives reality in its unending flux. These ideas appealed on an aesthetic level to fascists as an accurate description of the artistic process and complemented a contemporary view of the aestheticization of life. … The final section of this paper will involve some general observations regarding the German fascist, or Nazi, perpetration of the Holocaust.”

Tyson, Peter. “The Experiments.” PBS. Oct. 2000. Web. 04 May 2013. <>. “During World War II, Nazi doctors conducted as many as 30 different types of experiments on concentration-camp inmates. They performed these studies without the consent of the victims, who suffered indescribable pain, mutilation, permanent disability, or in many cases death as a result. At the Nuremberg ‘doctor’s trial,’ which brought 23 German doctors to trial immediately after the war, prosecutors found 15 defendants guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity; seven were hung.”

“Vichy Lives!-In a Way.” The New York Review of Books. The New York Times, 25 Apr. 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <>. “L’Héritage de Vichy is an unconventional work—more a catalog of curiosities than a regular book. It advances a strong claim: that contemporary France still bears today many traces of the Vichy regime that governed under German occupation from 1940 to 1944. Cécile Desprairies proceeds item by item—vaccination, for example, or television—showing for each one, aided by contemporary photos and texts, what its situation was in 1939, how Vichy dealt with it, and what part of Vichy’s actions remained in effect after 1944. She offers, however, only the sketchiest general analysis of what continued, what didn’t, and why.”

“Warsaw Uprising Ends.” A&E Television Networks. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. “The Warsaw Uprising ends with the surrender of the surviving Polish rebels to German forces.”

Weber, Charles E. “Aspects of the Third Reich (review).” Institute for Historical Review 10.2: 241-48. Institute for Historical Review. Web. 18 May 2013. <>. “For the sake of understanding the general nature of this book, which is a sort of anthology by various specialists on a number of aspects of the history of Germany during the National Socialist period, we must first look at the structure of the book. It is divided into five parts, each with an introduction by the editor, H. W. Koch, a professor at the University of York. These introductions, which are perhaps the most valuable parts of the book, occupy about one-tenth of its pages. In addition to the introductions by Koch, there are sixteen individual studies of various aspects of the Third Reich.”

“Weimar Republic.” Weimar Republic. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <>. List of Weimar Republic websites

Welch, David. “Nazi Propaganda and the Volksgemeinschaft: Constructing a People’s Community.” Journal of Contemporary History 39.2 (2004): 213-38. JSTOR. Web. 9 May 2013. “This article argues that the concept of a ‘national’ or ‘people’s’ community (Volksgemeinschaft) was a key element in the ‘revolutionary’ aims of the nazi regime, and illustrates the remarkably ambitious nature of its propaganda. Propaganda presented an image of society that had successfully manufactured a ‘national community’ by transcending social and class divisiveness through a new ethnic unity based on ‘true’ German values. But was there a gap between the claims trumpeted in nazi propaganda and social reality? The intention of this article is to reappraise the effectiveness (or otherwise) of Volksgemeinschaft by analysing the response from two sections of the community – the industrial working class and German youth.”

Welch, David. The Third Reich: Politics and Propaganda. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print. “The art of propaganda lies in understanding the emotional ideas of the great masses and finding, through a psychologically correct form, the way to the attention and thence to the heart of the broad masses.” Adolf Hitler

“Welcome to World War II News.” Hitler News. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <>. “Hitler’s Third Reich and World War II in the News is a daily edited review of WWII articles-including German WW2 militaria – providing thought-provoking collection of hand-picked WW2 information.”

“When Berlin Meant Business.” Audio blog post. Vox Tablet. Tablet Magazine, 20 May 2013. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. “Berlin has long had an anti-capitalist bent, part of its countercultural charm. But before the war, it was a more enterprising and bustling place, due in no small part to the nearly 50,000 Jewish-owned businesses located there. What happened to those businesses under Hitler is at the core of meticulous research by Humboldt University historian Christoph Kreutzmüller. While most of us are familiar with images of Nazi boycotts and smashed storefront windows, Kreutzmüller and his research team have assembled less familiar details about the escalating campaign of violence and administrative harassment that led to the demise of Jewish enterprises and, ultimately, the demise of the idea of Berlin as a center of industry and commerce.”

Wistrich, Robert Solomon. Who’s Who in Nazi Germany. London: Routledge, 1995. Print. This book looks “at the individuals who influenced every aspect to life in Nazi Germany. It covers a representative cross-section of German society from 1933-1945 … ”

“World War II in the News.” Hitlernews.cloudworth. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. “Hitler’s Third Reich and World War II in the News is a daily edited review of WWII articles – including German WW2 militaria – providing thought-provoking collection of hand-picked WW2 information.”