Holocaust, Jews #5

“I am talking about the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish people. It is on of those things that is easily said, ‘The Jewish people is being exterminated,’ every Party member will tell you, ‘perfectly clear, it’s part of our plans, we’re eliminating the Jews, exterminating them, a small matter.’”  Heinrich Himmler, October 4, 1943


“6,000 Danish Jews Reported Safe in Sweden; Two ‘prison Ships’ Leave Denmark.” JTA Jewish News Archive. 13 Oct. 1943. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/13/2860952/6000-danish-jews-reported-safe-in-sweden-two-prison-ships-leave-denmark>. “Approximately 6,000 of the 8,000 native and refugee Jews of Denmark have succeeded in reaching Sweden, it is reported in the Swedish press today. Large numbers of Danish Jews have entered the country during the last two days.”

“8000 Jews Will Be Executed in Hungary for Every Allied Raid on Budapest.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 11 May 1944. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1944/05/11/archive/8000-jews-will-be-executed-in-hungary-for-every-allied-raid-on-budapest>. “One thousand Jews will be executed in Hungary every time Allied bombers raid Budapest, the Algiers radio reported today quoting the Hungarian Government newspaper Uj Magyarsag.”

Aberman, Inbar. “Confronting Auschwitz and Birkenau.” The Jewish Press. 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/opinions/confronting-auschwitz-and-birkenau/2013/01/27/>. “There was a shift in the paradigm of my life after my experience at Auschwitz-Birkenau, one of the largest concentration and extermination camps operating during the Holocaust. The cold, hard facts of the Holocaust are well known, but it is only once you hear a survivor tell you their personal story that it truly strikes you how they now appreciate their lives in a way that not many of us do today; some attribute their survival to God, some to faith, to love, to family, to luck.”

Aleksiun, Natalia. “Huberman, Bronisław.” YIVO. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/printarticle.aspx?id=1723>. “In the early 1930s, Huberman took on the responsibilty of creating a symphony orchestra in Palestine. To that end, he organized the American Association of Friends of the Palestine Orchestra, with Albert Einstein as its chair, and in 1936 founded the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra in Tel Aviv with refugees from Europe. The orchestra made its debut under Huberman’s leadership. Huberman left for America in 1940. He returned to tour Europe after the war and died at Nant-sur-Corsier in Switzerland. His archives were placed in the Central Music Library in Tel Aviv.”

“Amsterdam Fined, Taxed Holocaust Survivors in Hiding.” The Times of Israel. 2 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.timesofisrael.com/amsterdam-fined-taxed-holocaust-survivors-in-hiding/>. “The City of Amsterdam fined hundreds of Jewish Holocaust survivors for failing to pay taxes while they were in hiding or in concentration camps. The affair was exposed in an article in Het Parool, a local daily, on March 30 [2013]. Many of the houses in question were confiscated and used by members of the NSB Dutch Nazi party while the Jewish owners were in hiding or in camps.”

“Anti-jewish Boycott Opens Throughout Germany; Armed Nazis Picket Jewish Stores and Offices of Jewish.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 3 Apr. 1933. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1933/04/03/2798761/antijewish-boycott-opens-throughout-germany-armed-nazis-picket-jewish-stores-and-offices-of-jewish-professional-men>. “Thirty thousand Nazis are picketing Jewish shops in Berlin today. The city presents a strange spectacle. … Scores of motor lorries bearing anti-Jewish placards may be seen rushing through the streets. Platoons of marching Nazis, headed by brass bands, appear everywhere, either to take up positions outside Jewish stores or as part of the general demonstration. In all towns there are parades of National Socialists, blocking the shopping quarters or ostensibly maintaining order and preventing the anti-Jewish boycott degenerating into violence. Throughout Germany all Jewish shops, large and small, are closed, including those of Tietz. The Jewish shop windows have been pasted over with posters printed in German and English, bearing slogans such as ‘Germans, Defend Yourself Against Jewish Propaganda of Atrocities by Not Buying from Jews.’”

Apostolou, Andrew. “The Betrayal of Salonika’s Jews.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 18 Apr. 2013. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/6341/features/the-betrayal-of-salonikas-jews/>. “The Nazis’ mass deportations of Jews from Greece in 1943 and 1944 largely ended the life of a thriving community, one responsible for centuries of important contributions to Jewish culture and to the life of the land in which the community lived. Eighty-six percent of Greece’s prewar Jewish population perished. In Salonika, where 70 percent of Greek Jews lived, the death rate exceeded 90 percent. While the German campaign to kill the Jews is no secret, few in Greece acknowledge that the Germans had the support of Greek administrators and police.”

Axelrod, Toby. “For One Holocaust Survivor, Siemens Held the Key to Unlocking His past.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/04/03/3123301/for-one-holocaust-survivor-siemens-was-a-roadblock-to-his-story>. ” I was 23 when I first met my cousin Gilbert Michlin. He was sitting at a brasserie near his office in Paris wearing a dark suit with a folded handkerchief poking out of the breast pocket. His short, dark hair was perfectly combed. He said, in charmingly accented English, ‘There is one thing I must tell you: I was in Auschwitz.’ Of course, I already knew. But I had never met a survivor before, let alone our French cousin, who had been a slave laborer for Siemens at the death camp.”

Baker, Leonard. Days of Sorrow and Pain: Leo Baeck and the Berlin Jews. New York: Macmillan, 1978. Print. “Leo Baeck has become a symbol, both of the Jews he had led in Berlin and of the Jews imprisoned at Theresienstadt.”

Berebaum, Michael. “Reflections on the Holocaust.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 09 May 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/holocaust>. “Encyclopædia Britannica is proud to present a new feature on one of history’s darkest chapters, the Holocaust. … This feature is divided into five parts, covering everything from the origins of the Holocaust in the mind of Adolf Hitler to the legacy of the horror in art and memory. Long-debated controversies are discussed, such as why the Allies chose not to bomb Hitler’s death camps, as well as the actions of the Roman Catholic Church, and of Pope Pius XII in particular, during the years of the Holocaust. There are also extensive photographs and videos (warning: some of them are graphic), an extended bibliography, and discussion questions tied to each of the five parts and written especially for teachers and classroom use.”

Berger, Paul. “How $57 Million Holocaust Fraud Unfolded at Claims Conference.” The Jewish Daily Forward. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://forward.com/articles/176250/how–million-holocaust-fraud-unfolded-at-claims/?p=all>. “The federal courtroom in Manhattan was notably empty considering the eye-catching size and target of the fraud: a 15-year campaign to falsely claim $57 million meant for some of the world’s neediest Holocaust survivors.”

Bialik, Mayim. “How I’m Teaching My Sons About the Holocaust.” Kveller. 5 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.kveller.com/mayim-bialik/how-im-teaching-my-sons-about-the-holocaust/>. “A good friend of mine recently asked me when she should tell her son about the Holocaust. She is not Jewish, she homeschools her son, and he is 11 years old. She was asking me because she knows I grew up with a strong consciousness of the Holocaust (and family members who died during the Holocaust) and as a homeschooler, she wanted to present as accurately as possible the historical relevance and significance of the Holocaust in a way that a school might not.”

“Bibliography of Web Sites.” Jewish Virtual Library. Web. 9 Aug. 2012. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/bibliowf.html#Holocauste/>. A lengthy bibliography of all things Jewish, including the Holocaust, biography, and history.

Bildner, Elisa S. “Shining a Light on the Holocaust Saga of Bronislaw Huberman.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 18 Oct. 25012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/10/18/3109661/shining-a-light-on-the-holocaust-saga-of-bronislaw-huberman>. “This is the Holocaust story you don’t know. Almost guaranteed. Bronislaw Huberman, a Polish-Jewish violin prodigy from the late 19th into the 20th century, is the protagonist, joined by familiar names such as Albert Einstein and the acclaimed (non-Jewish) conductor Arturo Toscanini. It is the tale of the founding in 1936 of what would become the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and how Huberman, its founder, saved more than 1,000 Jews in the process.”

Cardozo, Nathan L. “Unmasking Anti-Semitism.” JPost.com. 5 Jan. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/Unmasking-anti-Semitism-311730>. “As Europe and other countries around the world become aggressively more anti-Semitic, and antagonism towards the State of Israel escalates, there is a need for careful assessment of the nature of anti-Semitism.”

The Children of Chabannes. By Lisa Gossels and Dean Wetherell. Good Egg Productions: Wetherell & Associates, 1999. IMDb. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0202831/>. “This uplifting documentary that premiered on HBO recounts a small miracle in the midst of sweeping tragedy. Between 1939 and ’42, more than 400 Jewish children were given sanctuary at Château de Chabannes, a school in an outlying region of France.”

Conspiracy. Dir. Frank R. Pierson. HBO, 2001. DVD.  <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0266425/>. “‘Conspiracy’ is based on the only surviving record of that meeting [the Wannsee Conference]. It would be the blueprint for Hitler’s ‘final solution’.”

Cosgrove, Ben. “At the Gates of Hell: The Liberation of Bergen-Belsen, April 1945.” Life.com. LIFE. Web. 03 May 2013.  <http://life.time.com/history/at-the-gates-of-hell-the-liberation-of-bergen-belsen-april-1945/#1>. ”Compared to the appalling number of men, women and children killed at the Nazi extermination camps — places like Sobibor, Chelmno, Treblinka and others where, cumulatively, millions perished — the death toll at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in northwest Germany was (a horrible thing to say!) relatively small. More than a million people were killed at Auschwitz-Birkenau alone; at Belsen, by most estimates, fewer than 100,000 died — from starvation and disease (typhus, for example), as well as outright slaughter. … LIFE.com presents a series of photographs made at the camp by the great George Rodger (later a founding Magnum member). In an issue of LIFE published a few weeks later, in which several of the pictures in this gallery first appeared, the magazine told its readers of a ‘barbarism that reaches the low point of human degradation.’”

Cottrell, Chris. “Memorial to Roma Victims of Holocaust Opens in Berlin.” Europe. The New York Times, 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/25/world/europe/memorial-to-romany-victims-of-holocaust-opens-in-berlin.html>. “Germany paid tribute on Wednesday to the hundreds of thousands of Romany people killed in the Holocaust, opening a long-awaited place of remembrance for a minority still plagued by discrimination.”

Cottrell, Chris. “Nearly 70 Years Later, a New Round of Auschwitz Prosecutions.” The New York Times. 11 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/11/world/europe/nearly-70-years-later-a-new-round-of-auschwitz-prosecutions.html>. “They worked as guards at the Holocaust’s most notorious death camp, and nearly seven decades later they may finally be brought to account before a court of law. Germany’s Central Office for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes has prepared a list of 50 former guards who worked at the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland and are still alive, said Kurt Schrimm, the head of the office. Staff members searched old court records and Holocaust-related documents looking for names, and even traveled to Poland last year to try to augment their lists. One checked the names of the Auschwitz guards against databases to determine which were still alive.”

“Could the BBC Have Done More to Help Hungarian Jews?” BBC News. BBC, 13 Nov. 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-20267659>. “Nearly half a million Hungarian Jews were killed in a matter of weeks in 1944 soon after German forces invaded their country. Mike Thomson reveals how the BBC’s Hungarian Service could have warned them of their likely fate in the event of such an invasion, but did not do so.”

Cowell, Alan. “Files Suggest British Knew Early Of Nazi Atrocities Against Jews.” New York Times. 19 Nov. 1996. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/1996/11/19/world/files-suggest-british-knew-early-of-nazi-atrocities-against-jews.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm>. “Those messages, many historians now believe, were a shorthand about the beginnings of the Holocaust. But in a striking display of official secretiveness, only in recent days have the contents of the radio intercepts finally been made public in Washington. For historians and Holocaust researchers, they provide a clue to one of the vital missing links of the history of the era: who in the West knew at the time that genocide was beginning? ‘What is perfectly clear is that British intelligence had absolutely definite information, not about all of Europe, but certainly about occupied parts of the Soviet Union,’ Prof. Richard Breitman said.”

Dovere, Maxine. “50 Years Later, Impact of Eichmann Trial endures.” JNS.org. 20 Feb. 2012. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/2/20/50-years-later-impact-of-eichmann-trial-endures.html>. “The 1961 trial of Nazi arch criminal Adolf Eichmann changed the philosophy and future thinking of the state of Israel. Opening a window of understanding about the unimaginable horrors of the Nazi killing machine, the testimony given by those Eichmann sought to murder proved to be a turning point in Israel’s attitude toward those who survived—and those who were murdered—of the Shoah.”

Dovere, Maxine. “Bavarian Public Broadcasting Airing Holocaust Survivor’s story.” JNS.org. 17 Apr. 2012. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/4/17/bavarian-public-broadcasting-airing-holocaust-survivors-stor.html>. “In 2009, New York businessman Leslie Schwartz found a new vocation as teacher, educator, and role model. Now, the octogenarian is seeking a way of understanding the parts of the puzzle that is his personal history. Schwartz has sparked the interest of students throughout Germany who have heard him speak of his teenage years under Nazi rule.”

Dromi, Uri. “How It All Began.” Rev. of End of the Rope. Haaretz Daily Newspaper 31 July 2012. Israel News. 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. <http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/week-s-end/how-it-all-began-1.218551>. “Through the stories of seven families, intertwined with episodes of degradation and suffering as well as others of heroism and self-sacrifice, he traces the beginning of the process that led to German Jewry’s dehumanization, a process that ended in the gas chambers.”

“Dutch Bounty Hunters Preyed on Jews during Holocaust, Study Shows.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 19 Apr. 2013. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/04/19/3124671/dutch-bounty-hunters-preyed-on-jews-during-holocaust-study-shows>. “Dozens of Dutchmen preyed on Jews for cash during the Holocaust, according to a new study. According to the research by Pinchas Bar Efrat, 82, as many as 80 bounty hunters roamed the Netherlands during the German occupation during World War II.”

“EHRI-European Holocaust Research Infrastructure.” About EHRI: Connecting Collections. EHRI. Web. 17 May 2013. <http://www.ehri-project.eu/about-ehri>. “On the 16th of November 2010 the project called EHRI, the European Holocaust Research Infrastructure, was launched in Brussels. This project is financed by the European Union and will take four years to complete. EHRI’s main objective is to support the Holocaust research community by opening up a portal that will give online access to dispersed sources relating to the Holocaust, and by encouraging collaborative research through the development of tools. To achieve this by 2014 twenty organizations – research institutions, libraries, archives, museums and memorial sites – from thirteen countries will work together in a consortium.”

“Escape from the Third Reich; the Harrowing True Story of the Largest Rescue Effort inside Nazi Germany (Book Review).” Highbeam. Reference & Research Book News, 1 Nov. 2010. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-241136121.html>. Review: Escape from the Third Reich; the harrowing true story of the largest rescue effort inside Nazi Germany. Persson, Sune. Trans. by Graham Long. Skyhorse Pub. Co. 2009. “Persson’s engaging narrative recounts the daring rescue of some 17,000 concentration camp prisoners from the heart of Germany towards the end of the Second World War. The Red Cross expedition, sponsored by the Swedish government . . . carried the prisoners to the safety of Sweden between March and May of 1945.”

“Feiglin Wants Turkey Apology for Deaths of 766 Holocaust Refugees.” The Jewish Press. 2 Apr. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/news/feiglin-wants-turkey-apology-for-deaths-of-766-holocaust-refugees/2013/04/02/>. “Turkey should apologize for the deaths of 766 Holocaust refugees whose Deputy MV Struma boat was sunk in February 1942 after the country refused to allow their boat to remain in port for repairs, said Knesset Member Moshe Feiglin. … Feiglin, who heads the Jewish Leadership faction of the Likud, wrote, ‘The truth is that we don’t need an apology. And also not financial compensation. The Jewish people have a special skill. They know how to remember.’”

Filipov, David. “One Last Journey into the Night.” Boston.com. The New York Times, 03 June 2012. Web. 08 June 2012. <http://articles.boston.com/2012-06-03/news/32009887_1_izzy-candlesticks-poland>. “Izzy has traveled more than 4,000 miles from his Newton home to get here. It is not his first trip back to the towns and fields where he and his family encountered a Nazi regime intent on wiping out Jewish life in Europe. But, at 87, he believes it will be his last.”

“First Detailed History of Theresienstadt Camp Since Establishment Given JTA Correspondent.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 18 May 1945. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/05/18/2867169/first-detailed-history-of-theresienstadt-camp-since-establishment-given-jta-correspondent>. “Long-time Jewish inmates of this ghetto city today gave the first detailed account of what has been going on in the three-and-a-half years since the Germans first established a concentration center here for Jews from Czechoslovakia, Germany and Austria.”

Fox, Margalit. “HERSCHEL SCHACTER | 1917-2013; Rabbi Who Cried to the Jews Of Buchenwald: &#x2018;You Are Free&#x2019;.” The New York Times. 27 Mar. 2013. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/27/nyregion/rabbi-herschel-schacter-who-carried-word-of-freedom-to-buchenwald-dies-at-95.html?pagewanted=all>. “The smoke was still rising as Rabbi Herschel Schacter rode through the gates of Buchenwald. It was April 11, 1945, and Gen. George S. Patton’s Third Army had liberated the concentration camp scarcely an hour before. Rabbi Schacter, who was attached to the Third Army’s VIII Corps, was the first Jewish chaplain to enter in its wake. That morning, after learning that Patton’s forward tanks had arrived at the camp, Rabbi Schacter, who died in the Riverdale section of the Bronx on Thursday at 95 after a career as one of the most prominent Modern Orthodox rabbis in the United States, commandeered a jeep and driver. He left headquarters and sped toward Buchenwald.”

Friedlander, Henry, and Sybil Milton. Archives of the Holocaust: An International Collection of Selected Documents. New York: Garland, 1989. Print. Twenty-two volumes. “Each volume or group of volumes covers one repository.”

Friedman, Adam. “In Germany, Some Closure for the Son of Survivors.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/04/03/3123441/in-germany-a-mourners-prayer-takes-on-a-new-meaning>. ” As a child of Holocaust survivors, I have always managed to avoid visiting Germany. Part of my parents’ legacy was never to visit the country, with its dark past — not even to own any products in our home that were made in Germany. Despite my reluctance to visit Germany, an opportunity arose that I could not forgo.”

“German Chancellor Scores Antisemitic Movement.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 17 Jan. 1924. Web. 21 Apr. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1924/01/17/2757892/german-chancellor-scores-antisemitic-movement>. “‘In certain German circles’ declared the German Chancellor Marx in an exclusive interview granted the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, there is an attempt to exploit the distress of the German people for the purpose of anti-Semitic agitation. This movement is not only unsupport by the Central Government and the various state governments, but is uncompromisingly opposed as harmful to the general interests of Germany.”

“German Office to Investigate 50 Alleged Auschwitz Guards.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 7 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/04/07/3123686/german-office-to-investigate-50-alleged-auschwitz-guards>. “A Nazi crimes agency in Germany will launch an investigation of 50 alleged former Auschwitz guards living in the country. Following a precedent set by the successful case in 2011 against John Demjanjuk, the Central Office for Clarification of Nazi Crimes will begin reviewing cases. … The aim is to prosecute the individuals on charges of accessory to murder.”

Goeschel, Christian. “Suicides of German Jews in the Third Reich.” German History 25.1 (2007): 22-45. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 July 2012. “This article re-examines Jewish responses towards Nazi racism by studying German-Jewish suicides.”

The Grey Zone. Dir. Tim Blake Nelson. Perf. David Arquette. Lions Gate Entertainment, 2001. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0252480/>. “The true story of Dr. Miklos Nyiszli, a Hungarian Jew chosen by Josef Mengele to be the head pathologist at Auschwitz. Nyiszli was one of Auschwitz’s Sonderkommandos – Special Squads of Jewish prisoners placed by the Nazis in the excruciating moral dilemma of helping to exterminate fellow Jews in exchange for a few more months of life. Together, the Sonderkommandos struggled to organize the only armed revolt that would ever take place at Auschwitz.”

Heller, Rachel. “Boldface Aid for Shoah Victims.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 5 Apr. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-life-and-religion/128492/boldface-aid-for-shoah-victims>. “Blossom director Zane Buzby offers financial support to a group of tragically overlooked Holocaust survivors.” She “oversees a growing effort to provide emergency aid to ailing survivors in Eastern Europe. The homegrown nonprofit is the only one of its kind to give continuous financial support directly to some 2,000 elderly survivors living out their last days poor, sick, and alone.”

Hoffman, Jordan. “Saved from the Nazis in the Caves of the Ukraine.” The Times of Israel. 4 Apr. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.timesofisrael.com/saved-from-the-nazis-in-the-caves-of-the-ukraine/>. “The story of the Sterner and Wexler families was uncovered by accident. In 1993 a cave enthusiast living in New York City named Chris Nicola began licking his chops at the unseen-to-Western-eyes gypsum caves in the then-opening up Eastern Bloc. This gentile of Eastern European descent traveled to Ukraine and stumbled upon mundane artifacts that convinced him that people had been living down there. He began asking questions.”

“The Holocaust.” Mitchell.libguides. Mitchell College. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://mitchell.libguides.com/content.php?pid=220805>. A list of books covering the Holocaust.

I Have Never Forgotten You: The Life & Legacy of Simon Wiesenthal. Dir. Richard Trank. Perf. Simon Wiesenthal. Moriah Films, 2007. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “The documentary, ‘I Have Never Forgotten You,’ explores the life and legacy of Simon Wiesenthal, the concentration camp survivor who became known as the ‘Conscience of the Holocaust’ for his tireless efforts at tracking down Nazi war criminals and for making sure that the memory of that shameful event would – as the title declares – never be forgotten.”

“In Lithuania, $47 Million Lump Sum Payout for Jewish Property Gets Go-ahead.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 23 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/10/23/3110101/outgoing-lithuanian-official-okays-47m-compensation-for-jewish-property>. ” Lithuania agreed in principle to a lump sum transfer of $47 million to its Jewish community as compensation for lost Holocaust-era property. Chancellor Deividas Matulionis, chief of staff for Prime Minister Andrius Kubilius, agreed to the transfer at a meeting last week with Gunther Saathoff, director of the German government’s EVZ Foundation for compensating victims of Nazi Germany, …”

“Insane Hatred Taken Possession of Large Sections of German People: In Russia Judaism Continues to Be [sic].” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 11 May 1932. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1932/05/11/archive/insane-hatred-taken-possession-of-large-sections-of-german-people-in-russia-judaism-continues-to-be>. “We note with amazed alarm the growth of Hitlerism in Germany, the Chief Rabbi. Dr. J. H. Hertz, said in his opening address to-day to the Fifth Conference of Anglo-Jewish Preachers, surveying conditions in world Jewry since the last Conference was held in 1929.”

“Jewish Suicides in Germany Still Go on Despite Jewish Community’s Incpeased [sic] Allocation for Relief Fu [sic].” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 11 Sept. 1931. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1931/09/11/2791827/jewish-suicides-in-germany-still-go-on-despite-jewish-communitys-incpeased-allocation-for-relief-funds-notwithstanding-its-bulget-difficulties>. “In spite of the fact that the relief office of the Berlin Jewish Community, notwithstanding the serious difficulties of the Community in covering its budget, has increased its relief allocations, because of the growing economic distress among the Jews of Berlin, the wave of Jewish suicides shows no sign of abatement, and to-day there were no less than four Jewish suicides in Berlin.”

“Jews Don’t Need Tutoring in Democracy.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 22 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/interview-with-jewish-german-leader-charlotte-knobloch-a-862650.html>. “Ahead of her 80th birthday, Charlotte Knobloch, one of Germany’s most prominent Jewish leaders, talks with SPIEGEL about her relationship with the country, her outrage over the recent circumcision debate and the former housemaid in Bavaria who saved her from the Nazis.”

“Jews in Denmark Committing Suicide; Germany Remains €œunmoved, Berlin Says.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 7 Oct. 1943. Web. 2 July 2012. <http://www.jta.org/1943/10/07/archive/jews-in-denmark-committing-suicide-germany-remains-unmoved-berlin-says>. ”A considerable number of Jews have committed suicide in Denmark as a result of the Gestapo manhunt, it was reported here today by Danish policemen who escaped to Sweden after being disarmed by the German military authorities in Copenhagen for refusing to cooperate in rounding up the Jews. Einar Dessau, noted Jewish philanthropist, is among those who took their life by poison, they said.”

Jud Suss. Dir. Veit Harlan. Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team, 1940. Holocaust Research Project. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/holoprelude/judsuss.html>. “Long recognized as history’s most incendiary film, Jud Süss was the cultural centerpiece in Joseph Goebbels’ campaign against the Jews. Released in 1940, it was a box office sensation across Germany and Europe; alongside the movie’s theatrical distribution, it became a staple of Nazi propaganda evenings organized by the Hitler Youth, SS and others.”

Kassow, Samuel D. Who Will Write Our History?: Emanuel Ringelblum, the Warsaw Ghetto, and the Oyneg Shabes Archive. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2007. Print. “In 1940, in the Jewish ghetto of Nazi-occupied Warsaw, the Polish historian Emanuel Ringelblum established a clandestine scholarly organization called the Oyneg Shabes to record the experiences of the ghetto’s inhabitants. For three years, members of the Oyneb Shabes worked in secret to chronicle the lives of hundereds of thousands as they suffered starvation, disease, and deportation by the Nazis. Shortly before the Warsaw ghetto was emptied and razed in 1943, the Oyneg Shabes buried thousands of documents from this massive archive in milk cans and tin boxes, ensuring that the voice and culture of a doomed people would outlast the efforts of their enemies to silence them. Impeccably researched and thoroughly compelling, Samuel D. Kassow’s Who Will Write Our History? tells the tragic story of Ringelblum and his heroic determination to use historical scholarship to preserve the memory of a threatened people.”

Khan, Azmat. “Returning to the Haunted Ground of the Warsaw Ghetto.” Frontline. PBS, 13 May 2013. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/biographies/never-forget-to-lie/returning-to-the-haunted-ground-of-the-warsaw-ghetto/?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=&utm_campaign=>. “Seventy years ago this week, German authorities liquidated the Warsaw ghetto, a 1.3-square mile area sealed off from the rest of the city where authorities forced all of the city’s Jewish residents to live. At its peak, more than 400,000 Jews were crammed into the ghetto, living in squalid conditions with insufficient food rations. No more than 20,000 of them survived the Holocaust.” … [F]ilmmaker Marian Marzynski has occasionally turned his cameras on himself and his story of surviving the Holocaust, which claimed the life of his father and millions of other European Jews.”

Kutner, Jeanney. “Lawyers without Rights; Jewish Lawyers in Germany under the Third Reich.” George Bar Journal. State Bar of Georgia, June 2011. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.gabar.org/newsandpublications/georgiabarjournal/loader.cfm?csModule=security/getfile&pageID=4481>. Georgia Bar Journal June 2011, Volume 16, Number 7: “Lawyers Without Rights–Jewish Lawyers in Germany under the Third Reich, [is] an exhibition that provides the historic account of the lives and fates of Jewish lawyers during Nazi rule in Germany, highlighting the need to protect lawyers and the rule of law around the world.”

Langer, Emily, and Ellen Belcher. “Sisters Live to Tell Their Holocaust Story.” Washington Post. The Washington Post, 08 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/sisters-live-to-tell-their-holocaust-story/2013/04/07/5c2d24a2-9aea-11e2-9bda-edd1a7fb557d_story_1.html>. “Andra and Tatiana Bucci were only 4 and 6 years old when they were taken to Auschwitz, the most infamous Nazi concentration camp. Almost seven decades later, they return to the site time and time again to teach Italian students about unspeakable loss, and the power of remembrance.”

“Lawyers without Rights; Jewish Lawyers in Germany under the Third Reich.” Schildhaus. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.schildhaus.com/downloads/BroschüreLWR_USA.pdf>. “ExhibiTion presented by the German Federal bar in cooperation with the American bar Association and its Section of international Law. . . . The relatively peaceful times of the Weimar Republic came to an abrupt end on January 30, 1933, when Hindenburg granted power to Adolf Hitler. The democratic state ceased to exist. On that day the fate of German Jews was sealed. Jews were excluded from all areas of social life. In justice, too, a distinction was made between Jews and non-Jews. As early as in March 1933 a decree was issued, which refused all Jewish judges, public prosecutors and lawyers access to the courts from the following day. The exhibition reflects a time in Germany when the individual rights and the rule of law were utterly neglected. Many non-Jewish Geman lawyers in those days kept silent. They did not say a word. There was no real resistance. Most of them did not even try to help their colleagues. Why? We do not know, and this exhibiton does not give an answer to this question either. They failed to act and so did the lawyers‘ organizations. What the exhibition does, however, is reminding us to raise this question again and again.” Twenty-three Jewish lawyers are profiled.

Leibovich, Avital. “Third Generation Breaks the Silence of Holocaust Survivor.” The Jewish Press. 8 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/news/third-generation-breaks-the-silence-of-holocaust-survivor/2013/04/08/>. “Senior IDF spokeswoman Lt. Col. Leibovich never was able to convince her father to speak of his horrors in surviving the Holocaust, even after she visited Auschwitz. Her daughter broke the silence.”

“Leo Baeck.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 12 Apr. 2010. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/613/features/leo-baeck/>. “‘Jewish leadership’ is a phrase whose meaningful content seems to grow paler with each new workshop aimed at cultivating it. (‘Where are the Jewish followers?’ quipped the late Arthur Hertzberg.) Since Moses, however, one true test of leadership has been the willingness to share the worst fate of one’s followers. Such a leader was Leo Baeck.”

Lisa Leff. “The Book Thief.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/129210/the-book-thief>. “In 1968, Victor Berch, the Special Collections librarian at Brandeis University, was approached by the historian Zosa Szajkowski, who had a stack of archival documents for sale. The documents, Szajkowski said, were rare materials that documented the history of Jews in France. When asked where they came from, Szajkowski said that he had salvaged them during World War II, when as an American soldier he had ‘liberated them from boxcars’ and then smuggled them to America for safety. Berch purchased the material, now called the Consistoire Central Israélite de France Collection. Its several thousand documents cover almost 200 years of French Jewish history.”

Margulies, Abby. “Kubrick’s Lost Holocaust Film.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/128033/kubricks-lost-holocaust-film>. “The subject he most wanted to make a film about, Stanley Kubrick once said, was the Holocaust—“But good luck putting all of that into a 2-hour movie.” Kubrick, who directed 13 feature-length films, … was fascinated by manifestations of power in his films but was deeply fearful of its existence in the real world. Born in 1928 on the cusp of World War II, Kubrick was raised in the Bronx by secular parents and demonstrated little to no interest in Judaism, or religion in general. Though the fact of Kubrick’s Jewishness is largely unknown among his fans and had little impact in his everyday existence … being a Jew in what he perceived as a largely unfriendly world had a marked effect on his life.”

Mikies, David. “The Diplomat of Shoah History.” Tablet. 26 July 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyb7Hjv_AVI&feature=related>. The dispute between Poles and Jews about the Nazi period can move in unsettling directions, ones that make an unhealed wound hurt even worse. … The Polish role in the Holocaust had other roots, darker ones: traditional anti-Semitism and the greedy desire for Jewish property.”

Morgentaler, Goldie. “My Mother’s Life.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 18 Apr. 2013. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/129384/the-bard-of-lodz>. “The three volumes of my mother Chava Rosenfarb’s The Tree of Life: A Trilogy of Life in the Lodz Ghetto chronicle in precise, unflinching detail the destruction of an entire Jewish community during the Holocaust. That this community was also intimately known to the author who had been one of its members lends both an urgency and an authenticity to the novel.”

Nazi Concentration Camps (1945). National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 04 July 2012. <http://archive.org/details/nazi_concentration_camps>. “Motion Picture Films Used as Exhibits and Evidence at World War Crimes.”

“Nazi Germany and the Jews: 1933-1939 Rise of the Nazis and Beginning of Persecution.” Holocaust History. Yad Vashem. Web. 17 May 2013. <http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/holocaust/about/01/persecution.asp>. “Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power due to the social and political circumstances that characterized the interwar period in Germany. Many Germans could not concede their country’s defeat in World War I, arguing that ‘backstabbing’ and weakness in the rear had paralyzed and, eventually, caused the front to collapse. The Jews, they claimed, had done much to spread defeatism and thus destroy the German army. Democracy in the Weimar Republic, they argued, was a form of governance that had been imposed on Germany and was unsuited to the German nature and way of life.”

“Nazis Expel 600 Jews to €˜no-man’€™s-land, Shoot Poles Who Feed Them; 8 Children Die.” Jewish News Archive 9 Nov. 1939. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1939/11/10/2848471/nazis-expel-600-jews-to-nomansland-shoot-poles-who-feed-them-8-children-die>. “The Gestapo has expelled 600 Polish Jews into the ‘no-man’ sland’ on the Lithuanian frontier, fatally injuring four of them, in addition to eight children who died of exposure, and shooting several Polish farmers who attempted to provide the refugees with food, it was learned here today.”

Niewyk, Donald L., and Francis R. Nicosia. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. New York: Columbia UP, 2000. Print. “Offers a general history of the Holocaust and addresses many of the core issues and debates surrounding it.”

No Place on Earth. YouTube. Jewniverse, 03 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 May 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqA1GDs5e70>. “In the 2012 documentary No Place on Earth, we hear from Sima and 4 of her relatives who, with 33 others, evaded death and deportation by hiding in caves beneath snow-covered Ukrainian fields. They are remarkable not only for their unique story of survival, but also for being the longest uninterrupted cave dwellers in recorded history.” The film trailer is shown.

O’Rourke, John. “How Bulgaria Saved Its Jews.” BU Today. Jewish Ideas Daily, 26 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/c158f?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=a83976c75e-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “While the Holocaust claimed the lives of six million Jews living across Europe, one country was able to shield nearly all of its Jewish citizens from deportation and death. That newly revealed godsend is the subject of a provocative exhibition … The Power of Civil Society: The Fate of Jews in Bulgaria During the Holocaust, 1940–1944 chronicles the courageous refusal of that country’s citizenry to comply with government plans to surrender its Jews to Germany.”

“Patriotic German Jews Must Support Hitlerist Party in Germany’s Interests Even If It Is Antisemitic.” JTA Jewish News Arhive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 7 Jan. 1931. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1931/01/07/2789387/patriotic-german-jews-must-support-hitlerist-party-in-germanys-interests-even-if-it-is-antisemitic-says-organ-of-union-of-patriotic-german-jews>. “Patriotic German Jews must support any party which stands for German interests, even if it is antisemitic, says the “National-deutsche Jude”, the organ of the so-called National German-Jewish Party, headed by Dr. Max Naumann, which in the Jewish communal elections of last month issued posters calling on the electors to ‘vote German’, that is, not for the East European Jews … ”

Pelinka, Anton. “Collaboration, Resistance, or What? The Story of Jewish Vienna during the Holocaust.” H-Net Reviews. Net Online. Web. 17 May 2013. <http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=35122>. Review of Doron Rabinovici. Eichmann’s Jews: The Jewish Administration of Holocaust Vienna, 1938-1945. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2011. “When Doron Rabinovici published the German version of this book in 2000, the topic and the way the author dealt with it touched a very sensitive aspect of Jewish and Austrian history: the behavior and the fate of the Jews who were condemned to cooperate (collaborate?) with the Nazis–specifically with Adolf Eichmann who in 1938 started the process leading to the extermination in Vienna; with Baldur von Schirach, who (as “Gauleiter” of Vienna) was extremely proud to present his city as ‘free of Jews’ (which, by the way, was not completely true); and with all the bigger and smaller wheels that the Nazi regime had established to delegitimize and expel all the Jews of Vienna, about 10 percent of the city’s population.”

Pine, Dan. “Poker Pals in Philippines Took Gamble, Saved 1,200 Jews.” J. the Jewish News Weekly of Northern California. 4 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jweekly.com/article/full/68189/poker-pals-in-philippines-took-gamble-saved-1200-jews/>. “Mary Farquhar’s earliest memory is of flame. Specifically, the flames of war in the last months of World War II, when Japanese forces battled the Americans in a fight to reclaim Manila, Farquhar’s city of refuge. She was a toddler at the time, the daughter of Austrian Jews given safe harbor in the Philippines, where she was born in 1943. Hers was one of hundreds of European Jewish families — 1,200 Jews in all — taken in by the Pacific island nation between 1938 and 1941, saved from the Nazis by an unlikely alliance of Americans and Filipinos determined to do the right thing.”

Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. “The Holocaust: Excusing the Inexcusable.” Standpoint. July-Aug. 2011. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://standpointmag.co.uk/features-julyaugust11-the-holocaust-excusing-the-inexcusable-michael-pinto-duschinsky-holocaust-toepfer-richard-evans>. “During the years after the Second World War, the nations of the victors and the vanquished concentrated on rebuilding their economic and political infrastructures. They did too little to bring the Nazi perpetrators of the Holocaust and their accomplices to account. In large part, regrets for the murder of some six million Jews were crocodile tears. Europe continues to suffer today from this failure to rebuild the moral foundations of our civilisation. … During the years after the Second World War, the nations of the victors and the vanquished concentrated on rebuilding their economic and political infrastructures. They did too little to bring the Nazi perpetrators of the Holocaust and their accomplices to account.”

Pitzke, Marc. “Holocaust at Sea: The Lone Survivor of Torpedoed Jewish Refugee Ship Struma.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 23 May 2013. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/interview-with-lone-survivor-of-torpedoed-jewish-refugee-ship-struma-a-901490.html>. “In 1942, a Soviet submarine in the Black Sea torpedoed and sank the Struma, a ship filled with almost 800 Jewish refugees headed from Romania to the Holy Land. David Stoliar, the lone survivor, agreed to share his story.”

“Rescued from Kristallnacht, a Family Torah Reaches a New Generation.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/10/24/3110266/rescued-from-kristallnacht-a-family-torah-reaches-a-new-generation>. “It was the ‘Night of Broken Glass’ in Germany, Kristallnacht — a national pogrom of death and destruction of Jewish property and the rounding up of Jews — and Dietrich (David) Hamburger was in hiding.”

“Research and Remembrance.” EHRI- European Holocaust Research Infrastructure. Web. 15 May 2013. <http://www.ehri-project.eu/drupal/content/research-and-remembrance>. “EHRI aims to support the Holocaust research community by providing (online) access to dispersed sources relating to the Holocaust and by encouraging collaborative research through the development of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE). To achieve this by 2014 twenty organisations from thirteen countries – research institutions, libraries, archives, museums and memorial sites – are working together to build this infrastructure. EHRI will help researchers overcome one of the hallmark challenges in Holocaust research – the distributed and dispersed nature of the research materials. Holocaust research relies on a huge variety of archives – more than most other fields of historical research. Holocaust- related archival material tends to be fragmented and scattered all over the world, making access complicated, if not impossible, as well as very time-consuming.”

Rewald, Ilse. “Berliners Who Helped Us to Survive the Hitler Dictatorship.” Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand. German Resistance Memorial Center, 1990. Web. 02 May 2011. <http://www.gdw-berlin.de/index-e.php>. The author uses her war diary to recount the brave Berliners who helped her and her husband survive the Holocaust.

The Ritchie Boys. Dir. Christian Bauer. 2004. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0435725/>. ”This compelling documentary recounts the story of 10 Jewish intellectuals who were expelled from Nazi Germany, only to return during World War II to use their intimate knowledge of the country to wreak psychological havoc on Hitler’s Nazi forces.”

Rosenfarb, Chava. “The Last Poet of Lodz.” Tablet Magazine. 13 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/111880/the-last-poet-of-lodz>. “This essay, by the Yiddish author Chava Rosenfarb, appeared in Yiddish in 1991 in Di goldene keyt. This is the first publication of the English version—which was translated by Rosenfarb, who died last year. … Simkha-Bunim Shayevitch’s name is known only to a very few people. He would have joined the mass of nameless ghetto Jews who perished without a trace had it not been for the fact that during his time in the ghetto Shayevitch found himself in extremely difficult circumstances.”

Rotbart, Harley A. “For an Auschwitz Survivor, His Son’s Graduation Spelled Freedom.” New York Times. 21 May 2013. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/21/booming/for-an-auschwitz-survivor-his-sons-graduation-spelled-freedom.html>. “Dad fell to his knees in what can only be described as a total emotional breakdown. He shook and shivered and sobbed. People all around turned to stare, but he didn’t notice or didn’t care. The usual self-consciousness was gone. As I dropped to my knees to face him, he held me like never before. Everyone backed away to give us space; a few applauded. Strangers took pictures. Dad and I stayed on our knees, crying and hugging for a long time, until we both had the strength to stand up. … Only later did I fully realize what had happened. On that day, and again in a similar scene at my brother’s journalism school ceremony the next year, Dad was liberated from Auschwitz. He was no longer ’142178,’ a Nazi victim.”

Rothstein, Edward. “Resisting The Nazis Despite The Odds.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Apr. 2007. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/arts/16resi.html?_r=0>. “The discipline and determination are half-brilliant, half-mad: in 1940, in Warsaw, the Polish-Jewish historian Emanuel Ringelblum decided that the entire experience of Jewry under Nazi rule should be thoroughly documented. The internment of Jews within the Warsaw ghetto, he wrote (with chilly irony), ‘provided even greater opportunity for development of the archive.’”

Round, Simon. “Revealed: The British Troops Imprisoned at Auschwitz.” TheJC.com. 14 Jan. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/26001>. “Amid all the testimonies about Auschwitz and the Final Solution which have been published since the end of the Second World War, one small group has remained silent. Alongside the main Auschwitz complex was a prisoner-of-war camp known as Auschwitz E715, where the inmates included several hundred British soldiers.”

Rubin, Barry. “With an Anti-Semitic Holland, Where Is It Safe for Jews?” The Jewish Press. 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/analysis/rubin-reports/if-holland-is-becoming-anti-semitic-where-else-is-safe-for-jews/2013/04/03/>. “A few years ago in Amsterdam I was shown the most popular manual published in the Netherlands, in Dutch, on how to raise one’s children as proper Muslims. The book included virulently anti-Semitic passages, based on Muslim holy texts. After the Jewish community objected, the authorities forced the publisher to put white tape over the offending passages. The tape could easily be peeled off by purchases [sic] so that these words could be read.”

Rupnow, Dirk. “Racializing Historiography: Anti-Jewish Scholarship in the Third Reich.” Patterns of Prejudice 42.1 (2008): 27-59. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 July 2012. “Despite continued debates about the role of German historians in the Third Reich, current scholarship views the work that was conducted under National Socialism under the rubric of Judenforschung (research on Jews) as a marginal and pseudo-scientific phenomenon.”

“Says Anti-semitic Program of Hitler Will Never Be Carried out but Jews Are Greatly Injured.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 29 Sept. 1932. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1932/09/29/2796158/says-antisemitic-program-of-hitler-will-never-be-carried-out-but-jews-are-greatly-injured>. “The anti-Semitic program of Adolph Hitler and his National Socialists will never be carried out in Germany but the racial antagonism engendered by their activities is the cause of great injury to the Jewish population in the opinion of Mark Eisner, prominent Jewish attorney of New York, who recently returned from a five-week survey of conditions in Central Europe.”

Schtuter, Hans H. “Danish Resistance during the Holocaust.” HolocaustResearchProject.org. HEART, 2007. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/revolt/danishresistance.html>. “At the beginning of World War II, the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden and Norway declared their neutrality. That means they would not take sides in the conflict. With memories of the devastation of World War I still fresh in the memories of many Danes, the governments thought that by being neutral their citizens would be spared the horrors of this new crisis.”

Shangai Ghetto. Dir. Dana Janklowicz-Mann. Perf. Martin Landau. Rebel Child Productions, 2002. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0318068/>. “A gentle loving accounting of 20,000 mostly German Jews who were able to escape the Nazi’s before World War II started and go to Shanghai, China, where the Japanese were in control of that city. Once Pearl Harbor occurred, the Jews, along with the Brits and other ‘whites’, were once again considered ‘the enemy.’”

Shwayder, Maya. “New Encyclopedia Of Holocaust Will Completely Redraw The Atrocities Of The Third Reich.” International Business Times. 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ibtimes.com/new-encyclopedia-holocaust-will-completely-redraw-atrocities-third-reich-1183393>. “With the recent discovery in early March of more than 42,200 new sites used by the Nazis as ghettos and labor, concentration and death camps, comes the redrawing of the map of World War II, the Holocaust and the Third Reich.”

Silver, Marc. “Creating a New Map of the Holocaust.” National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 08 Apr. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/04/130408-encyclopedia-labor-camps-nazi-holocaust-memorial-museum-holocaust-remembrance-week/>. “The map of the Third Reich is being dramatically redrawn. Thirteen years ago, when he started digging into the past to document the number and nature of Nazi-era ghettos and camps, scholar Geoffrey Megargee expected to identify perhaps 7,000 sites. He vastly underestimated his task. More than 42,200 sites will be named in the planned seven-volume encyclopedia that he is editing: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933-1945.”

“Sketching the SS St. Louis.” JNS.org. 1 June 2012. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/6/1/sketching-the-ss-st-louis.html>. “Seventy-three years ago this week (June 4, 1939), the SS St. Louis, the infamous ‘Voyage of the Damned,’ hovered off the coast of Florida, hoping to be granted permission to land. In a telegram to the White House, the Jewish refugees begged: ‘Help [us], Mr. President, the 900 passengers, of which more than 400 are women and children.’ There was no reply. Meanwhile, a handful of editorial cartoonists tried to rally American public opinion in support of the refugees.”

Smith, Peter. “An Unsung Hero and His ‘children’” The Courier-Journal. 30 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.courier-journal.com/article/20130329/COLUMNISTS22/303290097/Faith-Works-An-unsung-hero-his-children->. A newspaper story about John and Renee Rothschild who had a dramatic escape from the Holocaust in France at a time when the Germans were tightening their grip on that country.

Snyder, Timothy. “‘Were We All People?’ ‘The Auschwitz Volunteer.’” Rev. of The Auschwitz Volunteer Beyond Bravery. New York Times 22 June 2012. Print. “One man volunteered for Ausch­witz, and now we have his story. In September 1940 the 39-year-old Polish cavalry officer Witold Pilecki deliberately walked into a German roundup in Warsaw, and was sent by train to the new German camp. His astounding choice was made within, and for, Poland’s anti-Nazi underground.”

Soclof, Adam. “From the Beginning, It Was Clear Kristallnacht Was Different.” JTA. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 1 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2011/11/01/3090068/from-the-beginning-it-was-clear-kristallnacht-was-different>. “Before it was called Kristallnacht, it was known simply as ‘the pogrom.’ Designated ‘the night of broken glass,’ the 14-hour wave of Nazi violence on Nov. 9-10, 1938 left hundreds of Jewish storefronts and synagogues across Germany and parts of Austria in shards and splinters, and many Jews dead. Tens of thousands of Jews were arrested over the next few days, among them a number of prominent Jewish communal leaders. … In hindsight, Kristallnacht was not merely a horrific event; it was a harbinger of horrors to come. The violence accelerated events that already were familiar to Jews living under the Third Reich. Eleven months later, as described in JTA reports, the Nazis began the mass deportation of 100,000 Jews from Vienna to camps in Poland.”

Steinmetz, Chaim. “Smiling on Yom Hashoah.” Blogs The Times of Israel. The Times of Israel, 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/smiling-on-yom-hashoah/>. “Yom Hashoah is the saddest day on the calendar. It is not only the deaths of 6,000,000 that overwhelms us; it is the barbarity with which they were murdered. Each atrocity shocks the soul. Jan Karski, a member of the Polish Underground who was one of the first witnesses to report about the Holocaust, described an atrocity he witnessed in Izbica, Eastern Poland. There, multiple groups of 120-130 Jews were forced into train cars made to fit 40 people, and the doors were slammed shut. On the floor of the train was quicklime powder, a chemical that generates enormous heat when mixed with water. The human sweat dripping down to the floor caused the quicklime to bubble, and painfully and slowly, the inhabitants of the cars began to burn. These poor victims cried in agony for over a day until they met their inevitable deaths. Remembering the Holocaust forces us to recall some of the most barbaric massacres in the history of mankind.”

Sussman, Lance J. “They All Could Have Been Saved.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 2 May 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/6423/features/they-all-could-have-been-saved-2/>. “Gilbert and Eleanor Kraus, a well-off and highly assimilated Jewish couple from Philadelphia with two school-age children of their own, went to Vienna by themselves after Hitler’s annexation of Austria, rescued 50 Jewish children, and took them home to Philadelphia. The HBO documentary tells their story through photographs, old newsreels, and archival materials, supplemented by taped interviews with some of their descendants. What emerges is a compelling but strangely incomplete story.”

“Texts of Nazi Degrees Isolating All Jews in Poland Received in London.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/01/14/2859638/texts-of-nazi-degrees-isolating-all-jews-in-poland-received-in-london>. “The Polish Government-in-Exile today received the texts of two Nazi decrees ordering all Jews in the hundreds of cities and townships in Poland to move to 42 small townships designated as ‘Jewish residential localities’ and to 13 ghettos in the districts of Warsaw, Radom, Lublin and Galicia. The exodus of all Jews from other places in occupied Poland to the restricted areas was to be completed by December 1, 1942, the Nazi decrees provided.”

Todorov, Tzvetan. Facing the Extreme: Moral Life in the Concentration Camps. New York: Metropolitan, 1996. Print. “An examination of the human capacity for moral life; reconstructs a vivid portrait of those who ran the camps and those who suffered their outrages. Also offers an elequent plea for the recognition of everyday virtues as a basis for contemporary morality.”

“Train Carrying 20,000 Jews Deported from France Arrives in Bessarabia; Many Dead.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 16 Oct. 1942. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/10/16/2857600/train-carrying-20000-jews-deported-from-france-arrives-in-bessarabia-many-dead>. “Twenty thousand Jews who were deported from France in filthy, sealed cattle cars without adequate supplies of food and water, have arrived in Rumania, according to a reliable report received here today from Bucharest.”

Tzur, Nissan. “Poles Finally Learn about Their Holocaust Whistleblower.” The JC.com. 12 May 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/news/world-news/48808/poles-finally-learn-about-their-holocaust-whistleblower>. ”The late Jan Karski is a national hero in Poland for his role as a resistance fighter during the Second World War. Few, however, knew that he was also one of the first eyewitnesses of the Holocaust and documented the horrors of the Warsaw Ghetto – despite having been recognised as ‘Righteous Among the Nations’ by Yad Vashem in 1982.”

“Von Prittwitz Says Anti-semitism Temporary Phase; Hitler Not Voice of Germany.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Oct. 1930. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/10/27/2787917/von-prittwitz-says-antisemitism-temporary-phase-hitler-not-voice-of-germany>. “A very young looking man for an ambassador, with a polite worldly manner, offered a statement to America, on his arrival to resume his duties as Ambassador, reassuring the citizens of the United States that any seeming disturbances in Germany were due only to the lack of economic stability and not to any untoward tendencies of the German public.”

Ward, Alex. “The Photographer at Auschwitz: Man Forced to Take Chilling Images of Inmates and Their Nazi Guards Was Haunted until His Death at 94.” Mail Online. 27 Oct. 2012. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2224026/The-photographer-Auschwitz-Man-forced-chilling-images-Jewish-prisoners-haunted-death-94.html>. “These chilling images of a young Jewish girl at Auschwitz are among thousands that have haunted a Nazi photographer all his life. Wilhelm Brasse was forced to take photographs of frightened children and victims of gruesome medical experiments moments from their death at the extermination camp where some 1.5million people, mostly Jewish died in the Holocaust. Mr Brasse, who died this week aged 94, has had relive those horrors from inside Auschwitz but is considered a hero after he risked his life to preserve the harrowing photographs, which later helped convict the very Nazi monsters who commissioned the photographs.”

Warnick, Todd. “Hitler’s Jewish Soccer League.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 9 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/128742/hitlers-jewish-soccer-league>. “In 1939 there were hundreds of professional soccer clubs playing in every country in Europe. But as Hitler’s war swept the continent, clubs shuttered as players everywhere were called up to combat. Amazingly, one of the only places that maintained a soccer league during World War II was the Terezin ghetto—arguably the strangest of the Nazi transit camps and ghettos—where, under German imprisonment, professional and amateur Jewish players were allowed to organize and self-administer a vibrant soccer league: Liga Terezin (Terezin League). There, in the fortress and garrison town of Terezin, 40 miles northwest of Prague, hundreds of games with dozens of players were played between 1942 and 1944. For the Jews, it was a matter of survival; for the Nazis, it was part of an overall strategy designed to fool the world.”

Webb, Sam. “The Last War Criminals of the Holocaust: German Nazi Hunters to Hold Auschwitz Guards to Account after Nearly 70 Years.” Mail Online. Associated Newspapers Ltd., 11 Apr. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2307506/The-war-criminals-Holocaust-German-Nazi-hunters-hold-Auschwitz-guards-account-nearly-70-years.html?ito=feeds-newsxml>. “Former guards at the death camp that has become the most enduring symbol of the Holocaust could face prosecution almost seven decades after the fall of the Nazi regime. Germany’s Central Office for the Investigation of National Socialist (Nazi) Crimes is set to begin proceedings against 50 former guards at the notorious concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland.”

Weber, Mark. “Zionism and the Third Reich.” The Journal of Historical Review 13.4 (1993): 29-37. Institute for Historical Review. Journal of Historical Review. Web. 23 May 2013. <http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v13/v13n4p29_Weber.html>. “In spite of the basic hostility between the Hitler regime and international Jewry, for several years Jewish Zionist and German National Socialist interests coincided. In collaborating with the Zionists for a mutually desirable and humane solution to a complex problem, the Third Reich was willing to make foreign exchange sacrifices, impair relations with Britain and anger the Arabs. Indeed, during the 1930s no nation did more to substantively further Jewish-Zionist goals than Hitler’s Germany.”

Wildman, Sarah. “Our Lost Warsaw Ghetto Diary.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 18 Apr. 2013. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/129585/our-lost-warsaw-ghetto-diary>. “‘Jews began to write,’ wrote Emmanuel Ringleblum, the most famous Warsaw Ghetto chronicler, recalling efforts to document the destruction. Ringleblum founded the Oneg Shabbat group, the collection of ‘journalists, writers, teachers, public figures, youth, even children,’ who decided they would record their experiences. The group buried an archive of selected materials, to bear witness. ‘A great deal was written,’ Ringleblum recounted, before his own murder, ‘but most of it was lost during the deportations and extermination of Warsaw’s Jews. Only the material hidden in the ghetto archive remained.’ That’s what Ringleblum believed. But missing from the famous ghetto archive is the diary of a man named Reuven Ben-Shem. About 800 pages long, penned in minuscule handwriting that is almost impossible to read with the naked eye, the diary is a remarkable account, clear-eyed and poignant, spanning roughly the time from the establishment of the ghetto to the arrival of Soviet troops in Warsaw.”

Williams, Althea, and Sarah Ehrlich. “Escaping the Train to Auschwitz.” BBC News. BBC, 19 Apr. 2013. Web. 21 Apr. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22188075>. “On 19 April 1943, a train carrying 1,631 Jews set off from a Nazi detention camp in Belgium for the gas chambers of Auschwitz. But resistance fighters stopped the train. One boy who jumped to freedom that night retains vivid memories, 70 years later.”

Williams, Althea. “History Today.” History Today 63.4 (2013). History Today. 5 May 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/althea-williams/child-time-surviving-auschwitz>. “Seventy years ago this month a Nazi train was stopped by resisters as it travelled from Flanders to Auschwitz. Althea Williams tells the story of a survivor. Kazerne Dossin, a former infantry barracks, during its use as a detention centre in 1942. On the night of April 19th, 1943 a train pulled out of Mechelen, a small town in Belgium. It carried 1,631 men, women and children and was the 20th convoy to leave the infamous Kazerne Dossin assembly camp for Auschwitz-Birkenau. Up to that point, of the 18,000 people who had already made the journey only a handful had escaped.”

Wolfe, Aaron. “Grandpa’s Secret Shoah.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 19 Apr. 2013. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-life-and-religion/97199/grandpas-secret-shoah>. “My grandfather never talked about his time in a concentration camp. Five years after his death, I finally heard his story. … In 1995, a pretty, middle-aged woman with a European accent named Dora Sorell visited my grandfather’s house, along with a small camera crew, and interviewed him for Spielberg’s Shoah Foundation, as part of the Visual History Archives. For more than 12 years, the tapes sat in my father’s house, unwatched.”

Yahil, Leni. The Holocaust, the Fate of European Jewry. New York: Oxford Universtiy, 1987. Print. “A solid, thoroughly documented and well-written history of the tragedy that befell European Jewry during the Second World War. … Bound to emerge as one of the major standard texts on the Holocaust.”