Life in the Third Reich

Berlin, Boykott-Posten vor jüdischem Warenhaus


Israel’s Department Store in Berlin on April 1, 1933 at the start of the Nazi boycott of Jewish-owned businesses. These are members of the SA (Sturmabteilung) holding placards that say: “Germans defend yourselves! Don’t buy from Jews.” (“Deutsche! Wehrt Euch! Kauft nicht bei Juden!”)


Aichele, Wolfram. “Innocent in a Guilty World.” History Today 61.3 (2011). Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. “What was it like to grow up in Germany in a family quietly opposed to National Socialism? Giles Milton describes one boy’s experience.”

Allen, Phillip. “Was It Possible to Have Fun in Nazi Germany?” Hindsight Jan. 2007: 4. General OneFile. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. “This article considers how much some people were able to enjoy their lives in Nazi Germany.”

Ambrose, Tom. Hitler’s Loss: What Britain and America Gained from Europe’s Cultural Exiles. London: Peter Owen in Association with the European Jewish Publication Society, 2001. Print. “When the Nazis came to power in 1933 they drove many of the world’s great artists, musicians, film-makers, writers and scientists out of Germany … ‘Hitler’s Loss’ tells the story of the escape from danger and oppression of many major figures in the arts and science – mainly but not exclusively, Jews … ”

Ayçoberry, Pierre. The Social History of the Third Reich: 1933-1945. New York: New, 1999. Print. “Now, Pierre Aycoberry, author of the highly praised ‘The Nazi Question’, combines an extraordinary mastery of German history with original research to give us a uniquely balanced account of all aspects of German life under Hitler.”

Baranowski, Shelley. Strength through Joy: Consumerism and Mass Tourism in the Third Reich. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 2004. Print. “The giant Nazi leisure and tourism agency, Strength through Joy (KdF)’s low cost cultural events, factory beautification programs, organized sports, and, especially, mass tourism mitigated the tension between the Nazi regime’s investment in rearmament and German consumers’ desire for a higher standard of living.”

Bar-On, Dan. Legacy of Silence: Encounters with Children of the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1989. Print. This book “records the voices of those who experience Nazi Germany not merely as a relic of the political past but as an ever-present legacy that shapes the the most familiar reminiscences of childhood.”

Beall, Lewis L. “Academic Freedom and the Third Reich: Can It Happen Here?” The Clearing House 43.8 (1969): 483-87. JSTOR. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. “Germany has provided us with a stark example that academic freedom is not an inalienable right.”

Bergerson, Andrew Stuart. Ordinary Germans in Extraordinary Times: The Nazi Revolution in Hildesheim. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2004. Print. The author “argues that ordinary Germans did in fact make Germany and Europe more fascist, more racist, and more modern during the 1930s, but the disguised their involvement behaid a pre-existing veil of normalcy.”

Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2004. Print. “Berkhoff (Ctr. for Holocaust & Genocide Studies, Univ. of Amsterdam) has produced a remarkable chronicle of murderous brutality carried out between 1941 and 1943 in the Reichskomissariat of the Ukraine. Because of the author’s meticulous use of exhaustive sources, some not previously available, he has credibly addressed such controversial matters as the role of the Ukrainian Resistance Army, the extent of Ukrainian national consciousness, and local involvement in the Holocaust. Berkhoff finds that while a few Ukrainians attempted to save Jews, the “vast majority just stood by and watched,” and some blamed Jews for Ukrainian sufferings under ‘Bolshevism.’”

Bessel, Richard. Life in the Third Reich. Oxford [Oxfordshire: Oxford UP, 1987. Print. "Even today, the Third Reich--the regime that instigated the most destructive war in modern history--evokes powerful images of fascination and horror. Yet how were the lives of the ordinary German people of the 1930s and '40s affected by the politics of Hitler and his followers? Looking beyond the catalog of events, this intriguing book reveals that daily German life involved a complex mixture of bribery and terror; of fear and concessions; of barbarism and appeals to conventional moral values employed by the Nazis to maintain their grip on society."

Borut, Jacob. "Struggles for Spaces: Where Could Jews Spend Free Time in Nazi Germany?" Leo Baeck InstituteYear Book 56 (September 2011): 307-50. Print. "This article presents a detailed picture of the free time activities of the Jews, and the energy, efforts and material sacrifices needed to maintain them. Several realms of leisure activities are considered. For each realm, the need for Jewish spaces - that is, to which amount the Jews were secluded and had to find places of their own rather than remain in non-Jewish company - is assessed. This was an evolving matter, as efforts to isolate the Jews wherever they could still get involved with ‘Aryans’. were continuously made. This seclusion led the Jewish leadership to largely increase inner-Jewish activities and provide the Jewish public with possibilities for free time activity within Jewish circles. But this was not always easy and necessitated, apart from the financial expenses involved (at a time of a great strain on communal budgets), overcoming local opposition to the presence of Jews."

Cary, Noel D. "Antisemitism, Everyday Life, and the Devastation of Public Morals in Nazi Germany." Central European History 35.04 (2002): 551. EbscoHost. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. Reviews of Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany; Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany; Probing the Depths of German Antisemitism: German Society and the Persecution of the Jews, 1933-1941; Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans, and other books.

Cocks, Geoffrey. Psychotherapy in the Third Reich: The Göring Institute. New York ; Oxford: Oxford UP, 1985. Print. "In Psychotherapy in the Third Reich, Geoffrey Cocks focuses on a curious phenomenon which has heretofore escaped notice: even at the zenith of Nazi persecution, the profession of psychotherapy achieved an institutional status and capacity for practice unrivaled in Germany before or since."

"Coming of Age in Nazi Germany." Interview by Gene Santoro. Academic Search Premier. World War II, Jan.-Feb. 2012. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. "An interview with author Frederic C. Tubach about his book 'German Voices: Memories of Life During Hitler's Third Reich' is presented. He explains what inspired him to write the book. He offers a description of the Nazi-staged reality in Germany. According to Tubach, solidarity was created in German through the use of collection boxes for the poor in every town."

Durlacher, G. L. Drowning: Growing up in the Third Reich. London, U.K.: Serpent's Tail, 1993. Print. "The mundane chores of everyday life, holiday and birthday celebrations and family vacations become increasingly infused and a sense of impending tragedy for Baden-Baden's Jewish population."

"Education in Nazi Germany." Hindsight 20.1 (Sept 2009): 9. General OneFile. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "Hitler appeared to very clear in his expectations of German young people. They were the means to his end of creating a new, racially pure German Reich in the East ..."

"The Educational Principles of the New Germany." German Propaganda Archive. Calvin College, 1998. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. <>. "This article is titled “The Educational Principles of the New Germany,” and was published in the Nazi magazine for women. It explains how the Nazis wanted women to view education. It is a rather explicit summary of Nazi educational policy. ... All those involved in education must have a clear and unified idea of the educational tasks before them. The four iron pillars of the national school and educational system are: race, military training, leadership, and religion!"

Englemann, Bernt. In Hitler's Germany: Daily Life in the Third Reich. Trans. Krishna Winston. New York: Pantheon, 1986. Print. "How did the Germans experience the Nazis? How did it affect their lives--in the schools, on the job, at home? How much did they know about the concentration camps? Did they all 'follow orders'?"

Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power, 1933-1939. New York: Penguin, 2005. Print. "In this book, historian Evans tells of Germany's radical reshaping under Nazi rule. Every area of life, from literature, culture, and the arts to religion, education, and science, was subordinated to the relentless drive to prepare Germany for war. Evans shows how the Nazis attempted to reorder every aspect of German society, encountering many kinds and degrees of resistance along the way but gradually winning the acceptance of the German people."

"Everyday Life in Nazi Germany." German History 27.4 (2009): 560-79. EbscoHost. Web. 7 Mar. 2013. "The article presents a forum of an international panel of historians about the way the history of everyday life changed the interpretations of the Third Reich and modern history of Germany. ... [Paul] Steege explains the role of ordinary Germans in the production, distribution and reception of knowledge in everyday life.”

Fritzsche, Peter. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1998. Print. “Why did ordinary Germans vote for Hitler? In this dramatically plotted book, organized around crucial turning points in 1914, 1918, and 1933, Peter Fritzsche explains why the Nazis were so popular and what was behind the political choice made by the German people.”

Fritzsche, Peter. Life and Death in the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2008. Print. “What makes this thoroughly engrossing account of everyday life in Nazi Germany so important is Fritzsche’s ability to show how the ideology of racism enveloped not only the public but also the private sphere and eventually informed all thought and action in this empire of death.”

Fulbrook, Mary. A Small Town near Auschwitz: Ordinary Nazis and the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2012. Print. “The Silesian town of Bedzin lies a mere twenty-five miles from Auschwitz; through the ghettos of Bedzin and neighbouring Sosnowiec some 85,000 Jews were deported to the gas chambers.”

Geyer, Michael. “Life in the Third Reich: The Nazi State: Machine or Morass?” History Today 36.1 (1986): 35. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 July 2012. “Examines the political history of the Nationalist Socialist regime in Germany. … Competing interests as much as ideology fuelled the functioning of the Third Reich, augmented by forced labour and the plunder of Occupied Europe.”

Glass, Charles. Americans in Paris: Life and Death under Nazi Occupation. New York: Penguin, 2010. Print. This book contains “tales of adventure, intrigue, passion, deceit and survival under the brutal Nazi occupation” from 1940 to 1944.

“Growing up in Nazi Germany: Innocent in a Guilty World.” History Today. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. <>.

Hollander, Richard S., Christopher R. Browning, and Nechama Tec. Every Day Lasts a Year: A Jewish Family’s Correspondence from Poland. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007. Print. “While rummaging through their [his parents] attic, he discovered letters from a family he never knew — his father’s mother, three sisters, and their husbands and children. The letters, neatly stacked in a briefcase, were written from Krakow, Poland, between 1939 and 1942. They depict day-to-day life under the most extraordinary pain and stress. At the same time, Richard’s father, Joseph Hollander, was fighting the United States government to avoid deportation and death. Richard was astounded to learn that his father saved the lives of many Polish Jews, but — despite heroic efforts — could not save his family.”

Hollman, Holly. “Writing about Life in the Third Reich.” Gale, 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. Margret Hoffman Mefford is interviewed about life in Nazi Germany. She is writing a book after interviewing German natives who lived in Germany during the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s.

Housden, Martyn. Resistance and Conformity in the Third Reich. London: Routledge, 1997. Print. “This is a thematically arranged text illustrating popular resisitance to Nazism in Germany from 1930-1945, and the affect of Nazism on everyday life. The book combines a lucid, synthesized analysis together with a wide selection of integrated source material taken from pamphlets, diaries, recent oral testimonies, correspondence and more. Different chapters focus on social groups and activities, such as youth movements, religion, Jewish Germans, and the working classes.”

Johnson, Eric A., and Karl-Heinz Reuband. What We Knew: Terror, Mass Murder and Everyday Life in Nazi Germany : An Oral History. Cambridge, MA: Basic, 2005. Print. “The horrors of the Nazi regime and the Holocaust still present some of the most disturbing question in modern history … In this unprecedented firsthand analysis of daily life as experienced in the Third Reich, What We Knew offers definitive and surprising answers to these crucial questions.”

Kanter, Trudi. Some Girls, Some Hats and Hitler: A True Love Story Rediscovered. New York: Scribner, 2012. Print. “In 1938 Trudi Kanter, stunningly beautiful, chic and charismatic, was a hat designer for the best-dressed women in Vienna. She frequented the most elegant cafés. She had suitors. She flew to Paris to see the latest fashions. And she fell deeply in love with Walter Ehrlich, a charming and romantic businessman. But as Hitler’s tanks rolled into Austria, the world this young Jewish couple knew collapsed, leaving them desperate to escape. In prose that cuts straight to the bone, Some Girls, Some Hats and Hitler tells the true story of Trudi’s astonishing journey from Vienna to Prague to blitzed London seeking safety for her and Walter amid the horror engulfing Europe. It was her courage, resourcefulness and perseverance that kept both her and her beloved safe during the Nazi invasion and that make this an indelible memoir of love and survival.”

Kaplan, Marion A. Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. “A gripping account of the everyday life of Jews under conditions of isolation and persecution, focusing especially on the responses of women, as gathered from memoirs and letters.”

Kaplan, Marion A. “Jewish Women in Nazi Germany Daily Life Daily Struggles 1933-1939.” Feminist Studies 16.3 (1990). EbscoHost. Web. 3 Mar. 2013. Twenty-six page article: “This essay explores the increasingly difficult daily lives of Jewish middle-class women and the work of their main organization, the League of Jewish Women, Juedischer Frauenbund (JFB), in prewar Nazi Germany. … [E]xploring the lives of Jews as they interacted daily with Gentiles challenges the myth of political innocence with which so many Germans today surround their accounts of ‘daily life in Nazi Germany.’”

Kaplan, Thomas P. “Jewish Life in Nazi Germany: Dilemmas and Response.” Rev. of Jewish Life in Nazi Germany: Dilemmas & Rsponses. Central European History 45.1 (2012): 165-67. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. “The article reviews the book “Jewish Life in Nazi Germany:Dilemmas and Responses,” edited by Francis R. Nicosia and David Scrase.”

Keeley, Jennifer. Life in the Hitler Youth. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 2000. Print. “Discusses life among the Hitler Youth, including their ideology and activities, school and home life, and involvement in World War II.”

Klemperer, Victor, and Martin Brady. The Language of the Third Reich: LTI, Lingua Tertii Imperii : A Philologist’s Notebook. London: Athlone, 2000. Print. “Under the Third Reich, the official language of Nazism came to be used as a political tool. The existing social culture was manipulated and subverted as the German people had their ethical values and their thoughts about politics, history and daily life recast in a new language.”

Kurlander, Eric. Living with Hitler: Liberal Democrats in the Third Reich. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 2009. Print. “Kurlander’s provocative book portrays German liberalism not only as an opponent and a victim of National Socialism but also as an ideological and sociological antecedent. The author comprehensively tells the story of German liberalism during the crucial years 1918 to 1945 for the first time, offering another perspective on ‘ordinary Germans.’

“Living under Dictatorship.” Modern History Review 15.1 (2003): 18. General OneFile. Web. 9 Mar. 2013. “Here are two contrasting accounts written 2003 especially for this Modern History Review occasional series.” Henry Metelmann, who grew up in Germany, and Yuri Ivanovich Khodakov, who grew up In Siberia, are interviewed.

Lofton, Lynn. “What Life Was like for American Living in Nazi Germany in the 1930s.” Mississippi Business Journal 34.17 (2012): 21. Ge. Web. The nonfiction book “Garden of Beasts” is reviewed. It describes “what life was life was like for Americans living in Nazi Germany in the 1930s.”

Lyons, Eugene. “Black on White.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 17 Dec. 1934. Web. 06 Feb. 2013. <>. “As he talked [my friend], my mind swung to my last sojourn in Germany, about ten months ago. I had found the Jews huddled together, for mutual comfort, for human warmth. Once upon a time they used to frequent cafes and restaurants and clubs of their own economic class or professional group. Now they foregathered only in Jewish cafes and clubs and restaurants. Everything else was closed to them, not so much by law as by the danger of humiliation. All of them were sorrowful over the turn of events. Many were bitter, vengeful.”

Milton, Giles. “Innocent in a Guilty World.” History Today 61.3 (2011): 37-43. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. “The article presents a profile of the life of Wolfram Aichele, a German boy who grew up at the time of the Nazi regime. Details are given describing the Aichele family, and those like them, who dissented against the extremism of the Nazis and their nationalistic doctrines.”

Morton, Brian. “Swing Time for Hitler.” The Nation 277.7 (2003): 33. General OneFile. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. ‘[W]e have long been used to the idea that the Nazis proscribed jazz and sought to ban it from every corner of the Reich. To the ideologists of National Socialism, it was a music of racial impurity, lumped in with other examples of entartete Kunst or ‘degenerate art,” damned as ‘Judeo-Negroid” and not fit for the ears of good Germans. In recent years this rather one-dimensional picture has begun to shift significantly.”

Mosse, George L. Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural and Social Life in the Third Reich. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin, 2003. Print. “Selections from newspapers, novellas, plays, and diaries as well as the public pronouncement of Nazi leaders, churchmen, and professors describe National Socialism in practice and explore what it meant for the average German.”

Nagorski, Andrew. Hitlerland: American Eyewitnesses to the Nazis Rise to Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2012. Print. “Andrew Nagorski, a deft storyteller, has plumbed the dispatches, diaries, letters, and interviews of American journalists, diplomats, and others who were present in Berlin to write fascinating account of a fateful era.”

Neville, Peter. Life in the Third Reich. London: Batsford, 1992. Print. In this juvenile book “Peter Neville examines the reason behind the Nazi Party’s rise to power, and the consequences of Nazi rule for the German people.”

Noakes, Jeremy. “Life in the Third Reich Social Outcasts in Nazi Germany.” History Today 35.12 (1985): 15–. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 July 2012. “Presents information on social outcasts in Nazi Germany. Cause of German’s collapse; Types of outsiders; Theory of eugenics; Formation of a propaganda campaign designed to devalue the handicapped as burdens on the community.”

Pearce, Robert. “Otto Klemperer: Diarist of Nazi Germany.” History Review Mar2009.63: 28-33. Ebsco Host. Web. 7 Mar. 2013. “The article focuses on Victor Klemperer, the diarist of Nazi Germany. … He was writing a diary out of habit as well as to provide source material for possible memoirs and for a book he was determined to write on the German language. His diaries are considered a priceless source describing the lives of ordinary Germans, and of German Jews in particular.”

Riding, Alan. And the Show Went On: Cultural Life in Nazi-occupied Paris. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010. Print. “On June 14, 1940, German tanks rolled into a silent and deserted Paris. Eight days later, a humbled France accepted defeat along with foreign occupation. While the swastika now flew over Paris, the City of Light was undamaged, and soon a peculiar kind of normalcy returned as theaters, opera houses, movie theaters, and nightclubs reopened for business. Shedding light on this critical moment of twentieth-century European cultural history, And the Show Went On focuses anew on whether artists and writers have a special duty to show moral leadership in moments of national trauma.”

Santoro, Gene. “Coming of Age in Nazi Germany.” Rev. of German Voices: Memories of Life during Hitler’s Third Reich. World War II 26.5 (2012). Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. “Author Frederic C. Tubach talks about his new book German Voices: Memories of LIfe during Hitler’s Third Reich.”

Santoro, Gene. “Coming of Age in Nazi Germany.” World War II Jan/Feb 2012: 18. General OneFile. Web. 9 Mar. 2013. “For his new book ‘German Voices: Memories of Life during Hitler’s Third Reich,’ author Frederic C. Tubach drew on his own experience, as well as interviews and archives.”

Sax, Boria. Animals in the Third Reich: Pets, Scapegoats, and the Holocaust. New York: Continuum, 2000. Print. “This book is a must for all collections in German history and animal rights. It is a deep and profound reflection on the complex and perplexing ways that animals can shape human culture and politics.”

Snyder, Louis L. Rev. of German Youth: Bond or Free. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social July 1947: 164-65. JSTOR. Web. 24 July 2012. “German Youth: Bond or Free” by Howard Becker is reviewed.

Stargardt, Nicholas. Witnesses of War: Children’s Lives under the Nazis. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006. Print. “Children were at the center of the Nazi ideology; now we have their history of those years. In this groundbreaking study–based on a wide range of new sources–Nicholas Stargardt details what happened to children of all nationalities and religions living under the Nazi regime. Their stories open a world we have never seen before. As the Nazis overran Europe, children were saved or damned according to their race.”

Steakley, James. “Homosexuals and the Third Reich.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Fordham University, Jan.-Feb. 1074. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. <>. “In recent years the pink triangle has been widely adopted by individuals and gay organizations around the world as a symbol of gay visibility and gay resistance. Used by the Nazis to identify homosexual prisoners in German concentration camps, it is a powerful reminder of a grim episode in the history of gay oppression. The first account in English of the situation of homosexuals in Nazi Germany appeared origninally in The Body Politic as part of a series by James Steakley on the development of an early German homosexual emancipation movement. The discovery of the existence — and abrupt disappearance — of this first wave of homosexual organization has had a lasting impact on the contemporary movement’s sense of its place in history. Perhaps no other TBP article has so jolted the imagination and political consciousness of gay activists and other readers.”

Stewart, Gail B. Hitler’s Reich. San Diego: Lucent, 1994. Print. “Traces the rise to power of Adolph Hitler and discusses life in Nazi Germany before, during, and after World War II.”

Swing Kids. Dir. Thomas Carter. Hollywood Pictures Home Video, 2002. DVD. Fiction: “Two swing-music loving friends in Nazi Germany must choose between their individual freedom or loyalty to the murderous Third Reich.”

Tubach, Frederic C. German Voices: Life during Hitler’s Third Reich. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 2011. Print.

Tucker, Nicholas. “Surviving Hitler’s War: Family Life in Germany, 1939-48, By Hester Vaizey.” The Independent. Independent Digital News and Media, 09 Oct. 2011. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. <>. “Eighteen million German men left their families from 1939 to serve in the armed forces. Five million never came back from the Second World War and 11 million were held in prisoner of war camps after 1945. Forced to be self-reliant, did German wives also take this opportunity to claim, then build on, a new sense of empowerment unthinkable before?”

Wilke, Gerhard. “Village Life in Nazi Germany.” History Today 35.10 (1985): 23. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Mar. 2013. “Looks at the lifestyle of people at a rural community in northern Hesse, Germany during the early 1930s. Impact of industrialization on Hesse, Germany; Involvement of village households in a double economy during the 1920s; Overview of the life of horse farmers in the village.”

Winter, Christine. “The Long Arm of the Third Reich.” The Journal of Pacific History 38.1 (2003): 85-108. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. “Separation of families, internment itself and the sometime long lost post-war wait to return to New Guinea have caused pain distress to many families. The New Guinea Germans were divided in their political attitudes. Some embraced National Socialism, some opposed it.”

“Women of Reich Complain of Work.” New York Times. 21 Jan. 1934. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. “Cautious argument at meeting indicates objection to being crowded out. Government official tells them their part is ‘service of love for people!”