Before the Third Reich


Coat of Arms of the Weimar Republic, 1919-1933

The Weimar Republic is “The German republic lasting from 1918 to 1933. In early 1919, after the defeat of World War I, a National Constituent Assembly was convened in Weimar, … which was noted for its liberal traditions. The new Weimar Constitution provided for a President serving seven years, a bicameral legislature, and proportional representation. … From the day of its inception the Weimar Republic was in serious trouble. … What had begun as a bold experiment in democracy degenerated into the nightmare of Hitlerism.” Encyclopedia of the Third Reich


“All€™s Well in Land of Nazis–hitler O.k.–so Says Journalist.” Jewish Ideas Daily. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 6 Apr. 1934. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <>. “AMERICAN, RECENTLY BACK FROM GERMAN REICH, HAS NOTHING BUT PRAISE FOR POLICIES–AND HE’S NO PROPAGANDIST–SAYS HE”

“America Needs a Hitler Says Nazi Representative.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 Feb. 1933. Web. 06 Feb. 2013. <>. “America needs a Hitler and the American press lauds in streamer headlines Adolf Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor of Germany, was the statement broadcast throughout Germany by K. G. W. Luedecke, representative of the German National Socialist Party in the United States, in the course of a radio program arranged yesterday afternoon at two o’clock over the network of the National Broadcasting company of New York City.”

“American Jewish Congress Appeals to Hindenburg to Save German Jews.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 17 Aug. 1933. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “President von Hindenburg of Germany, in an open letter from the American Jewish Congress, is asked to use his prerogatives under the Weimar Constitution to ‘rescue from certain extermination the 600,000 Jews of Germany who look to you for succor.’”

“Anti-jewish Excesses Occur in Jassy; Iron Guardists Overpower Gendarmes.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 31 Jan. 1933. Web. 06 Feb. 2013. <>. “Anti-Jewish disturbances occurred yesterday when Iron Guardists attacked a Jewish house after services held at the grave of the unknown soldier. Led by the Archbishop, the Iron Guardists attacked and demolished the home of a Jew, named Aronovitch, situated near the Nicolae Domnesc Church.”

“The Anti-jewish Outbreak at Berlin University: About 40 Jewish Students Injured: 300 Nazis Surrounde [sic].” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 25 Jan. 1932. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <>. “About 40 Jewish students were injured in the anti-Jewish rioting at Berlin University, because of which the authorities have closed down the University till Monday. The J.T.A. representative has visited the Jewish students in hospital, and has found several in a serious condition.”

“Antisemitism Defended at International Students€™ Conference on Jewish Problem: German Delegate Says.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 18 Apr. 1931. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “A scientific exposition and defence of antisemitism lasting about two hours, delivered by Dr. Stappel, a German Nationalist, who is the editor of the periodical “Das deutsche Volkstum”, was the feature of to-day’s session of the Conference meeting here under the auspices of the International Student Service to discuss the problem of antisemitism at the Universities.”

Apel, Dora. “‘Heroes’ and ‘Whores’: The Politics of Gender Weimar Antiwar Imagery.” The Art Bulletin 79.3 (1997): 366-84. JSTOR. Sept. 1997. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. “At the peak of a debate over the memory and meaning of World War I, the ten-year anniversary of war mobilization in 1924 became the crucial point of convergence of for many of the social and political issues that had surface in antiwar imagery in Germany. … antiwar imagery was presented in art exhibitions, left-wing periodicals, mass-produced lithographic portfolios, and photographic albums.”

Berman, Sheri. “Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic.” World Politics Apr., 1997 49.3 (1997): 401-29. JSTOR. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. “This essay shows how a robust civil society helped scuttle the twentieth century’s most critical democratic experiment, Weimar Germany.”

Bernhard, George. “Notes on Germany.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 3 Sept. 1933. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “The Hitler government has carried out its threat and has issued a list of the thirty-three German emigrants who have been deprived of their German citizenship.”

Bernstin, Herman. “Now-editorial Notes: Germany’s Sorrow and Shame.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 Aug. 1934. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “The death of President Hindenburg gives Hitler the opportunity he sought for sometime. He assumes the leadership of Germany without the restraining influence of the one German who still enjoyed prestige both in Germany and abroad. While Hindenburg’s restraining influence was insignificant of late, the symbol of the old Field Marshal was outwardly respected even by Hitler. … The new head of the German people has the most unenviable record, stained with blood and savage persecutions. It is inconceivable that Hitler will be able to retain his power much longer while Germany is crumbling under the criminal and destructive follies of Hitlerism.”

Brustein, William I., and Ryan D. King. “Ati-semitism in Europe before the Holocaust.” International Political Science Review 25.1 (2004): 35-53. JSTOR. Sage Publications, Ltd. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. “It is commonly accepted that the years 1899-1939 represent a highpoint in anti-Semitism in western societies. What factors account for the wave of extraordinary anti-Semitism after 1899. … Pooled time-series analyses suggest that variation in anti-Semitism over time and across countries was largely a function of economic conditions and Jewish immigration, and to a limited extent of the rise of leftist parties.”

Burleigh, Michael. The Third Reich: A New History. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001. Print. Section 1 “The Weimar Republic and National Socialist German Workers’ Party, 1918-1933″ contains information on the Great War, the political parties, and mass unemployment before the Third Reich.

“Campaign Against East European Jews in Germany Continued.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 3 Apr. 1923. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <>. “The claim that Berlin and other parts of Germany must find room for the Germans now leaving in great numbers the Ruhr region, is being used by the anti-Semitic press as a further argument in their campaign against the East European Jews who have recently settled in Germany.”

“Confiscation of All Property of East European Jews Who Have Come into Germany Since August 1st.,1914.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 June 1932. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “At five o’clock in the early hours of this morning, during an all-night sitting of the Prussian Parliament, the Nazis succeeded in carrying at a snap-division, in the absence of many of the Deputies of the Social Democratic and Centre Parties, a motion for the confiscation of all property belonging to East European Jews who have come into Prussia after the outbreak of the Great war, on August 1st., 1914.”

“‘Daily Mail Continues Anti-zionist Campaign.” JTA News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Aug. 1927. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <>. “The London Daily Express continued yesterday its anti-Zionist campaign by publishing another article advocating that Great Britain relinquish the Palestine mandate. The article, written in a sensational tone, is full of nonsensical claims.”

Elder, Sace. “Murder, Denunciation and Criminal Policing in Weimar Berlin.” Journal of Contemporary History July 41.3 (2006): 401-19. JSTOR. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. “Since 1989, there has been a wealth of scholarly research into the role of denunciation in supporting Germany’s two twentieth-century authoritarian regimes.”


“Ford Discussed Alleged ‘Jewish Banking Ring€’ with Him, ‘€œIndependent€’ Editor Admits.” JTA News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Mar. 1927. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <>. “Important admissions to the effect that Ford discussed the alleged ‘Jewish banking ring’ with him and that the automobile manufacturer saw Sapiro’s demand for retraction of the former’s charges against him, were drawn from William J. Cameron, editor of the ‘Dearborn Independent’ during today’s questioning of him by Gallagher, Sapiro’s counsel. The admissions were made by Cameron under a barrage of objections from the Ford counsel.”

“German Anti-semite Paper Advocates Scheme for Annihilation of Jewish Race.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 16 June 1927. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <>. “A solution of the Jewish question by bringing about the annihilation of the Jewish race is put forward by ‘Der Stuermer,’ an anti-Semitic paper published in Nurenberg, quoting a decision of the United States Supreme Court, upholding the constitutionality of the Virginia state law providing for the sterilization of the feeble-minded to prevent the continuation of the stock.”

“German Jewry Breathes Freely Again: President Hindenburgs Re-election Restores Confidence in German.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 15 Mar. 1932. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <>. “German Jewry is breathing freely again with the reelection of President Hindenburg, with an absolute majority of nearly 2¼ million votes over the combined vote of Hitler and the Communist candidate, Thaelmann. … Responsible Jewish leaders are determined to demand now more vigorously than ever that the German Governments should effectively protect Jewish honour and make incitement to anti-Jewish boycott a punishable offence.”

“German Jewry Need Not Fear Victory of National Socialists, Minister of Interior Says.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 30 Sept. 1930. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>. “Assurances regarding the safety of the Jews of Germany were given today by Dr. Joseph Wirth, minister of the interior in the Bruening cabinet … In an authorized statement, Dr. Wirth emphasized that there was no ground for the anxiety of the Jews the world over in view of the unexpected increase in the National Social representation in the Reichstag and that there was no danger of an anti-Semitic wave sweeping over Germany.”

“German-jewish Leaders, Headed by Einstein, Urge Jews Not to Despair over Hitler Victory.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <>. “Not to despair but to close ranks and establish a united Jewish front against the growing anti-Semitic danger is the keynote of statements made by Professor Albert Einstein and other prominent Jewish leaders of Germany who were queried today by the Jewish Telegraphic Agency regarding the tremendous victory of the Hitlerites in Sunday’s Reichstag elections.”

Hacken, Richard. “Germany: World War I and Weimar Republic.” Euro Docs. Brigham Young University, 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <>. The links in the online source “connect to European primary historical documents that are transcribed, reproduced in facsimile, or translated. They shed light within the respective countries over a broad range of historical happenings (political, economic, social and cultural).”

“Hitler Shouts He Is Victim of Jewish Conspiracy As Evidence Mounts Against Him.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 9 May 1929. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “Adolf Hitler, German super-patriot and leader of the rabid anti-Semitic forces, was depicted as a man without patriotic scruples, willing to receive money from any source to further his political propaganda in Germany.”

“Hitler Threatens Jews, Americans, English.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 30 Jan. 1923. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <>. “Adolph Hitler, the Bavarian Fascisti leader, made bold by his victory over the Bavarian Government in having demonstrations of the National Socialists permitted while the country was in a state of martial law, has been making speeches threatening Jews, English and Americans.”

“Hitler’s First Appearance in Berlin Attracts Few.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 16 May 1927. Web. 06 Feb. 2013. <>. “Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nationalist Socialist Labor Party, made his first public speech since the collapse of his Fascist rising in Bavaria, in Berlin yesterday. The police took precautionary measures with a view to preventing disturbances. The prohibition against Hitler speaking in public in Prussia has not yet been lifted, so that the meeting had to be held behind closed doors.”

“Hitler’€™s Following Recruited from Those Who Are Suffering in Germany’€™s Economic Crisis and Europe Mu [sic].” Jewish Ideas Daily. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 21 Mar. 1932. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>. “There are six million unemployed in Germany. There are in Hitler’s camp millions of young Germans who did not experience the hourrors of the war, but see themselves now faced by unemployment and starvation and see no chance ahead of building up any security in the future. Antisemitism is not the child of reason. It is a kind of mystical faith in a superman of the Nordic race Hitler stands to the antisemites as a Nordic Saviour who will bring the millenium by wiping out the Jews, who stand for them as the representatives of capital.”

Hoover, Calvin B. Germany Enters the Third Reich. New York: Macmillan, 1933. Print. The economic system in Germany before National Socialism is examined. The collapse of Marxian Socialism and the end of Weimar Republic are also discussed.

“If Hitler Should Become German President: Nazi Official Election Programme Issued: Jen Cannot Be Cit [sic].” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 1 Mar. 1932. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <>. “With Hitler in the field as a candidate against President Hindenburg in the presidential election, in which ballotting takes place on March 13th., the Nazi Party is to-day distributing to all houscholders the official Nazi programme, outlining the policy which would be pursued under the Hitlerist regime if Hitler should be elected President. The following seven points in the programme set out the policy of the Hitlerist regime in respect of the Jews: 1. A Jew cannot be a citizen, and will, therefore, be placed under the aliens laws…”

“J.D.B. News Letter: Fight Against Anti-Semitism Assumes New Form in Germany.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 1 Mar. 1928. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>. “The Central Union of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith in its work of combating anti-Semitism no longer engages in making complaints and interventions to the authorities, Dr. Alfred Wiener, the syndicus of the Central Union, stated in the course of his report to the Biennial Conference of the Union.”

“Jewish Congress Moves to Check German Pogrom.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 9 Nov. 1923. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. Officers of the American Jewish Congress together with members of the Administrative Committee met at noon yesterday under the chairmanship of Dr. Stephen S. Wise, at the Hotel Pennsylvania, to take action with regard to the anti-Jewish riots which are taking place in Berlin and other sections in Germany.”

“Jewish Homes Bombed Near Hanover, Graves Defiled at Badhomburg.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 15 Nov. 1923. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <>. “After several days respite the anti-Semitic nationalists have reorganized their forces sufficiently to stage a number of menacing anti-Jewish demonstrations in various parts of Berlin. Kurfurstendam, Steinplatz and other thoroughfares in West Berlin were the scenes last night of hostile demonstrations in which the cry ‘kill the Jews’ was incessantly raised. Order was restored with great difficulty,”

“Jewish Leaders Complain to Roumanian Government Against Renewed Excesses.” JTA News Archives. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Mar. 1927. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <>. “Minister of the Interior Octavian Goga received today a delegation including Deputy Meyer Ebner and Senator Klueger. The delegation came before the Minister to plead for government protection against anti-Jewish excesses.”

“Jews Note Anniversary of Weimar Constitution.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 20 Aug. 1928. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>. “On the occasion of the anniversary of the Weimar Constitution of the German Republic, drafted by the late German Jewish statesman, Dr. Hugo Preuss, the “Juedisehe Zeitung” of Breslau,  …”

Kniesche, Thomas W., and Stephen Brockmann, eds. Dancing on the Volcano: Essays on the Culture of the Weimar Republic. Columbia, SC, USA: Camden House, 1994. Print. Essays include the sections: “The Peculiarities of History: Different Views of Weimar,” American Influences in Weimar, “Berlin: A Case Study in Weimar,” and “Manipulations of Sexuality in Weimar Sex Reformers.”

Laqueur, Walter. Weimar: A Cultural History. New Brunswick: Transaction, 2011. Print. “This introductory survey of Weimar culture was written to stimulate interest among general readers in what was, for better or worst, the first truly modern culture.”

“Letters to the Editor: From Detroit.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 23 Aug. 1933. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “I have procured ‘Mein Kampf’ by Hitler, two volumes in German, and also ‘The Crimes of Masonry’ (Das Verbrechen Tev Freimaawerai) by Rosenberg. Both need great attention. I have called the books to the attention of Samuel Untermyer. Rosenberg’s book should be in the hands of the Grand Lodge of Masons of New York and reviewed by an alienist. The same holds good about Hitler’s book. A friend of mine told me, here, and I agree with him, that a great mistake is made in the U. S. by not inducing men with great oratorical abilities like Rabbi Silver of Cleveland and others to come out and put a little emotion into their speeches. Hitler relies on the emotions of his people.”

“Lord Rothermere Attacking Jews Advises Hitler to Eliminate Anti-semitism from Program.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 5 Oct. 1930. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>. “Advising Adolf Hitler, leader of the German Fascists, to follow the example of the founder of Fascism and eliminate anti-Semitism from program because ‘Jew-baiting is a stupid survival of mediæval prejudice.’ Viscount Rothermere, publisher of the Daily Mail and sponsor of universal Fascism “as an antidote to Bolshevism’ attacks British Jewry and the Jews throughout the world in a long signed article in yesterday’s Daily Mail. This article is considered to be the definition of the attitude of British Fascists toward the Jewish question.”

Lund, Joachim. “Denmark and the ‘European New Order’. 1940-1942.” Contemporary European History 13.3 (2004): 305-21. JSTOR. Web. 6 July 2012. The European New Order’s fundamental principles were to some extent tested in the First World War during short-lived German expansion in eastern Europe”

Lyons, Eugene. “Black on White.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 17 Dec. 1934. Web. 06 Feb. 2013. <>. “As he [my friend] talked , my mind swung to my last sojourn in Germany, about ten months ago. I had found the Jews huddled together, for mutual comfort, for human warmth. Once upon a time they used to frequent cafes and restaurants and clubs of their own economic class or professional group. Now they foregathered only in Jewish cafes and clubs and restaurants. Everything else was closed to them, not so much by law as by the danger of humiliation. All of them were sorrowful over the turn of events. Many were bitter, vengeful.”

“Machine Guns, Tanks Guard Devastated Jewish Quarter of Berlin.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 9 Nov. 1923. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “The Jewish quarter of Berlin today, four days after the pogrom, resembles an armed camp. Police armed with machine gunds [sic], hand grenades and rifles are stationed on the street corners and inhabitants of the area may pass the police cordon only after strict investigation. Tanks move about lumberingly, ominously.”

“Munich Jews Fear Pogroms.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 Nov. 1923. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <>. “Never in the history of Germany has the peril of pogroms hung over the heads of the Jewish population as it does now [11-5-1923]. Jewish bloodshed may be expected any day in Bavaria. ”

Myerson, Roger B. “Political Economics and the Weimar Disaster.” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 160.2 (2004): 187-209. JSATOR. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. This paper considers how advances in political and economic theory since [1919] …  could help to better understand the problems of Weimar and Versailles.”

“Nazi Organ Charges Jews Plan Violence Against Hitler, Pogrom Against Christian Population.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 19 Feb. 1933. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “Skilfully manoeuvering not to contravene the press curb decree, which invokes severe punishment for attacks on established religions and religious communities, the Nazi press nevertheless manages to publish anti-Semitic articles, anti-Semitic slogans and caricatures of Jews as part of its election campaign.”

“N.B.C. Disclaims Responsibility for Nazi Broadcast.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 Feb. 1933. Web. 06 Feb. 2013. <>. “The National Broadcasting Company, through its representative, Monique Iversen, director of its international department, disclaimed responsibility for the broadcast of Mr. Luedecke’s address in response to an inquiry by the Jewish Telegraphic Agency asking why Adolf Hitler’s representative in the United States was chosen to interpret the impression made upon American public opinion by Hitler’s appointment to the Chancellorship of Germany.”

Niewyk, Donald L. The Jews in Weimar Germany. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1980. Print. “This book analyzes the nature and extent of Jewish assimilation in pre-Nazi Germany and Jewish responses to the new wave of anti-Senitism that accompanied defeat and depression and culminated in the Holocaust.”

O’Beil, Hedy. “The Weimar Republic: Doomed To Fail.” Hedy O’Beil. 2005. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <>. “The Weimar Republic (1919-1933) was born in the aftermath of the defeat of Germany in World War I. Not only was this a fall from grace, it was a resounding crash that shattered Germany’s belief that they were the superior undefeatable race. Following the destruction of the old totalitarian German Empire, a new democratic republic was put into place. The question was, could Germany, splintered into groups of socialists, communists and the extreme right, unify into one democratic country?”

“Old Testament De-judaized and Germanized.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 6 Apr. 1923. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>. “The Old Testament has been revarnished a bit, the Jewish names exchanged for one hundred per cent Teutonic ones and the Jewish Scriptures can now be read by even a Bavarian anti-Semite without danger of Jewish infection. All of this has been accomplished by the German national author Heinrich Lhotzky, who has just published a book in which the Old Testament is rewritten in Old Germanic terms. The books of the Bible are renamed according to old German mythology ‘Wihinei’, ‘Urd’, Werdandi’ Skult.’”

Osmond, Jonathan. “Weimar: German Modernism and Anti-modernism.” Review. Burlington Magazine 141.1158 (Sept. 1999): 574-75. JSTOR. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. Review of exhibition, Weimar: German Modernism and Anti-modernism. “Alongside the celebration of the classical Weimar of Goeth and Schiller, the programme confronts more troubled aspect of the city’s past.”

“Our Daily News Letter: Dearborn Independent.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 11 Feb. 1926. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <>. “The connection between Ford’s anti-Jewish campaign and anti-Semitism in Europe has been demonstrated again. Statistical misinformation regarding the influence of Jews in Germany’s schools and educational institutions, which was assiduously compiled here by the correspondent of the ‘Dearborn Independent,’ traveled all the way to Ford’s organ in Dearborn, Michigan, and back again to Berlin. Thus the ‘Dearborn Independent’ has become a purveyor of ‘enlightenment’ for the German Jew haters who are only too happy to receive such cooperation.”

“Ousting Jews from Public Offices in Germany: State Secretary to Finance Ministry Resigning Because T [sic].” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 25 Dec. 1931. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <>. “For a long time the German antisemites have been conducting an agitation and trying to exercise pressure on the Federal Government to induce it to dismiss Ministerial-Councillor Hans Schaeffer, the State Secretary to the Federal Ministry of Finance, because he is a Jew. Now the Berlin Hitlerist paper ‘Angriff’, which is edited by Deputy Goebbels, the Hitlerist leader in Berlin, reports that Herr Schaeffer is resigning because he has been offered the position of Director-General of the big Ullstein publishing firm.”

“Outlook for German Jewry Not Rosy Says Jewish Police Chief of Berlin: Backbone of German Liberalist.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 4 June 1932. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “Things certainly do not look very rosy for us Jews, Dr. Pernhard Weiss, the Berlin Police Vice-President, writes in an article in the ‘C. V. Weitung’, the official organ of the Central Union of German Citisens [sic] of Jewish Faith. The backbone of German liberalism has been broken, Dr. Weiss says. Many of those who previously stood in the forefront of the fight against antisemitism have garden [sic] over to the enemy, and theo### [sic] no longer dare to raise their voice in protest against intolerance and antisemitism.”

Pachter, Henry Maximilian. Weimar Etudes. New York: Columbia UP, 1982. Print. “Weimar Etudes is a work of both social history and cultural criticism. … Henry Pachter captures the spirit of the ill-fated Weimar Republic in Germany between 1918 and 1933, a period that is still the object of of considerable interest, speculation, and controversy.”

Palmier, Jean-Michel. Weimar in Exile: The Antifascist Emigration in Europe and America. London: Verso, 2006. Print. “I always found the name false which they gave: Emigrants. That means those who leave their country. But we Did not leave, of our own free will Choosing another land. Nor did we enter Into a land, to stay there, if possible for ever. Merely, we fled.We were driven out, banned. Not a home, but an exile, shall the land be that took us in.” Bertolt Brecht, “Concerning the Label Emigrant”

“Prejudice Viewed As the Preservative of Race Distinctions.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 13 Aug. 1928. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “Race prejudice is not an unmitigated evil. It has its values, is a preservative of race distinctions. This was emphasized at the Jewish-Christian conference in Racine, under the auspices of the Feilowship of Reconciliation. The conference was called for the promotion of better understanding between the peoples of the world. The conference devoted one session especially to the consideration of the problems of the Jew.”

“Ritual Murder Charge No Insult to Jews but Historical Fact German Coupt [sic] Finds in Acquitting Hitleris [sic].” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 2 May 1931. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <>. “The ritual murder accusation is not an insult to the Jews, but a historical fact, since many churches in Germany, Austria and other countries are dedicated to Christian saints who were martyred for ritual purposes by the enemies of the Christian faith, the West Berlin District Court has found in acquitting Deputy Goebbels, the Hitlerist leader in Berlin, on a charge of insulting the Jews by publishing an article in the Hitlerist paper ‘Angriff’ [sic].

“Says Anti-semitic Program of Hitler Will Never Be Carried out but Jews Are Greatly Injured.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 29 Sept. 1932. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <>. “The anti-Semitic program of Adolph Hitler and his National Socialists will never be carried out in Germany but the racial antagonism engendered by their activities is the cause of great injury to the Jewish population in the opinion of Mark Eisner, prominent Jewish attorney of New York, who recently returned from a five-week survey of conditions in Central Europe.”

Scheele, Godfrey. The Weimar Republic, Overture to the Third Reich,. London: Faber and Faber, 1946. Print. 1946 “This work makes no attempt to propound a solution to the German problem, but seeks rather to throw light on the results of the failure to solve it a quarter of a century ago. … The role of the Weimar Republic in the development of German history has been insufficiently appreciated both in Germany and abroad.”

“Sees Jews ‘closed Mind’ on Christianity Changing.” JTA News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Aug. 1927. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <>. “A change in the attitude of what is termed the ‘closed mind’ of Jews toward Christianity and its founder is the subject of the new book, ‘The Jew and Christianity’ by Dr Herbert Danby, D.D. Residentiary Canon of St. George’s Cathedral, Jerusalem, published by the Maemillan Company.”

“Situation in Germany Will Become Worse During Winter but Hitlerism Will Not Spread and Antisemitism [sic].” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 10 Nov. 1931. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <>. “The situation in Germany will no doubt become worse during the coming winter, but Hitlerism will not spread and antisemitism will gradually subside, Dr. Albert Suedekum, former Prussian Minister of the Interior, declared to-day in an interview with the Jewish Telegraphic Agency here.”

Turk, Eleanor L. “The First World and the Weimar Republic.” The History of Germany. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999. 113-32. Print. This chapter “introduces a distinct period of German history, examining the problems of that era and how they affected subsequent events.”

“Unfounded Rumours of Revolution in Germany.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 6 June 1932. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “Most of the London Sunday papers comment to-day on rumours of a revolution in Germany that were circulated with dramatic persistence all over Europe last night. A message was circulated to the press that ‘a revolt has broken out in Germany, that troops have been called out, and that news messages for abroad have been stopped’. Though this message remained unconfirmed and denied, it reflects the state of unparalleled tension which has seized the German people, the “Sunday Express” remarks.”

“Urges Seizure of All German Jews’ Property.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 21 Nov. 1923. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <>. “The salvation of Germany and the regeneration of its people depends on the complete suppression of the Jews of Germany, in the opinion of Herr Maurenbrecher, editor-in-chief of the anti-Semitic Deutsche Zeitung, who devotes a leading article to the question of ridding Germany of the Jews and Jewish influence.”

“U.S. Public Opinion Will Prevent Hitlerites from Executing Anti-semitic Program, Former American En [sic].” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 28 Nov. 1930. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <>. “If the Hitlerites in Germany ever attempt to carry out their anti-Semitic policies, public opinion in the United States will rise so strong as to force them to drop activity against the Jews,” declared James J. Gerard, ex-ambassador to Germany, in an address in the auditorium of the Rodoff Sholom congregation, Tuesday night. Mr. Gerard, who was United States ambassador to Germany from 1913 to 1917 traced the history of anti-Jewish feeling in Germany, and described the Hitler anti-Semitism as a medieval hang-over.”

“Vienna Students Will Not Cease Riots Unless Anti-jewish Demands Are Granted, Body Tells Senate.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 16 June 1927. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <>. “Tranquility in the University of Vienna can be restored only if conditions demanded by the anti-Semitic students will be granted.”

“Von Prittwitz Says Anti-semitism Temporary Phase; Hitler Not Voice of Germany.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Oct. 1930. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <>. “A very young looking man for an ambassador, with a polite worldly manner, offered a statement to America, on his arrival to resume his duties as Ambassador, reassuring the citizens of the United States that any seeming disturbances in Germany were due only to the lack of economic stability and not to any untoward tendencies of the German public.”

Wachsmann, Nikolaus. “Between Reform And Repression: Imprisonment In Weimar Germany.” The Historical Journal 45.02 (2002): 411-32. JSTOR. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. “In the early, the Weimar prison was characterized by hunger, overcrowding, and conflict. At this time, leading officials agreed on a new approach to imprisonment, influenced by the demand for the ‘incapacitation of incorrigibles, reformation of reformable.’”

Wagner, Margaret E., David M. Kennedy, Linda Barrett Osborne, and Susan Reyburn. The Library of Congress World War II Companion. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007. Print. This 982 page book that covers World War II, also offers a chapter about pre-Third Reich German history.

“The Weimar Republic: From AD 19.” History of Germany. History World. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <>. This is mainly political history.

“World War I: Aftermath.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2012. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <>. “Burdensome reparations imposed after World War I, coupled with a general inflationary period in Europe in the 1920s—another direct result of a materially catastrophic war—caused spiraling hyperinflation of the German Reichsmark by 1923. This hyperinflationary period combined with the effects of the Great Depression (beginning in 1929) to seriously undermine the stability of the German economy, wiping out the personal savings of the middle class and spurring massive unemployment.”

Zukas, Alex. “Lazy, Apathetic and Dangerous: The Social Construction of Unemployed Workers in Germany during the Late Weimar Republic.” Contemporary European History Mar., 2001 10.01 (2001): 25-49. JSTOR. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. ” At the end of the Weimar Republic, German business people, socialists, and communists used images of unemployed workers to define the boundaries of of what they each considered acceptable and unacceptable in German Society.”