Holocaust, Jews #4

March 1, 2013

The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking


“The [United States Holocaust Memorial Museum] researchers have cataloged some 42,500 Nazi ghettos and camps throughout Europe, spanning German-controlled areas from France to Russia and Germany itself, during Hitler’s reign of brutality from 1933 to 1945. The figure is so staggering that even fellow Holocaust scholars had to make sure they had heard it correctly when the lead researchers previewed their findings at an academic forum in late January at the German Historical Institute in Washington.”

“The numbers are so much higher than what we originally thought,” Hartmut Berghoff, director of the institute, said in an interview after learning of the new data.

“We knew before how horrible life in the camps and ghettos was,” he said, “but the numbers are unbelievable.” New York Times, March 3, 2013

The New York Times  http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/03/sunday-review/the-holocaust-just-got-more-shocking.html?adxnnl=1&ref=nazipoliciestowardjewsandminorities&adxnnlx=1362475359-Li/ZqB8+QstvwSR2Nfho/w


“10,000 Jews Flee Nazi Persecution.” New York News 15 Apr. 1933: 6. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. “German-born refugees settle in near-by lands, hoping conditions will change.”

“1,000,000 Jews in Hungary Being Gradually Eliminated from Economic, Cultural Life.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 16 Dec. 1941. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1941/12/16/2856099/1000000-jews-in-hungary-being-gradually-eliminated-from-economic-cultural-life>. “The more than 1,000,000 Jews in Hungary are slowly being eliminated from the economic, cultural and social life of the country, it was stated today by Premier Lazlo De Bardossy …”

“27 Jews Deported After Seeking to Cross into Palestine.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 19 Feb. 1933. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1933/02/19/2797974/27-jews-deported-after-seeking-to-cross-into-palestine>. “Twenty-seven Jews who attempted to cross the Syrian frontier into Palestine where they hoped to settle as chaluzim, were sent out of the country on a French steamer which is due in Marseilles on Saturday, it is reported here.”

Anderson, George M. “A Tragedy Unearthed.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 22 June 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “Father Desbois, a historian and adviser to the cardinal-archbishop of Lyons and the Vatican on the Jewish religion, spends part of each year in Ukraine with a team intent on locating as many mass graves as possible. He first came to know of the Ukraine massacres as a boy from stories told by his grandfather, who was held for three years in a camp near one of the extermination sites. As a young priest, Father [Patrick] Desbois began to travel to the same town to uncover the truth for himself.”

Andrusier, Adam. “Buying Hitler.” Jewish Quarterly. June 2011. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. <http://jewishquarterly.org/2011/06/buying-hitler/>. An article “on the psychpathology of the collector and the attraction of dictator art. …”

“Anti-jewish Terror Increasing Nazi-held Poland; Typhus Epidemic Raging.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 16 Dec. 1941. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1941/12/16/2856098/antijewish-terror-increasing-naziheld-poland-typhus-epidemic-raging>. “Anti-Jewish terror is increasing in the sections of Nazi-held Poland and Russia where Jews are concentrated, according to information reaching Polish Jewish circles here today.”

Applebaum, Stephen. “Meet the Catholic Priest with the Kippah.” The JC.com. 22 Mar. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/65503>. “What makes a Jew? This is the question at the heart of Israeli filmmaker Ronit Kerstner’s documentary Torn. The film … tells the story of Romuald-Jakub Weksler-Waszkinel (now known as Yaacov Weksler-Waszkinel), a Polish Catholic priest who discovered, 12 years after his ordination, that he was in fact the son of Jews killed in the Holocaust. To ensure his safety, his mother had given him up to be looked after by a Polish couple days after his birth.”

Barnett, Victoria. Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999. Print. “The Holocaust did not introduce the phenomenon of the bystander, but it did illustrate the terrible consequences of indifference and passivity towards the persecution of others. Although the term was initially applied only to the good Germans—the apathetic citizens who made genocide possible through unquestioning obedience to evil leaders—recent Holocaust scholarship has shown that it applies to most of the world, including parts of the population in Nazi-occupied countries, some sectors within the international Christian and Jewish communities, and the Allied governments themselves.”

Bazyler, Michael J. “Timeline of the Holocaust Restitution Claims.” Reform Judaism Online. Union for Reform Judaism, Spring 2008. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://reformjudaismmag.org/_kd/Items/actions.cfm?action=Show&item_id=1320&destination=ShowItem>. Timeline from 1942 until November 2007 when “German Finance Minister Peer Steinbruck announces in Jerusalem that Germany has no plans to renegotiate the 1952 survivors’ request [to] increase reparation payments to Holocaust survivors.”

Behreandt, Dennis. “The Crimes of I.G. Farben: During WWII, I.G. Farben, a Synthetic-fuels Manufacturer for the German War Machine, Was a Major Supporter of the Nazi Regime and a Wiling Co-conspirator in the Holocaust.” The New American 27 Nov. 2006: 36. General OneFile. Web. 23 Feb. 2013.

Berebaum, Michael, and Abraham J. Peck. “The Amsterdam Police and the Persecution of the Jews.” The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1998. 284-300. Print. The complicated history of the Amsterdam Police during the Holocaust is discussed.” On two occasions they were driven to cross a threshold, with the implementation of the anti-Jewish measures in September 1941 and the raids on Jews in September 1942.”

Berebaum, Michael, and Abraham J. Peck. “The Other Crimes of Adolf Hitler.” The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1998. 228-36. Print. “Arguing from within the parameters of biblical theology, we will stipulate immediately that the Holocaust was indeed Hitler’s major crime.”

Berenbaum, Michael, and Abraham J. Peck. The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 1998. Print. Twenty-seven chapters written by different scholars who are experts in their fields.

Berenbaum, Michael, and Abraham J. Peck. “The T4 Killers.” The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1998. 243-51. Print. “The term ‘T4′ designated the mass murder of the handicapped; it was euphemistically called euthanasia was was initiated on Hitler’s orders in late 1939 and directed by the Chancellery of the Fuhrer (KdF).”

Berenbaum, Michael, and Abrahan J. Peck. “The Pink Triangle.” The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1998. 345-57. Print. “The persecution of homosexuals was aimed at preventing sexual behavior between men and men, not so much at the homosexual as a human being. Same-sex relations, precluding as they do biological reproduction, were antithetical to the demographic goals the Nazis had established for the German nation.”

Berg, Peter. “Misuses of the Holocaust.” Religion and Other Curiosities. The American Interest, 20 Feb. 2013. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://blogs.the-american-interest.com/berger/2013/02/20/misuses-of-the-holocaust/>. On February 8, 2013, The Christian Century carried an article by Lauren Markoe entitled ‘Did gun control prevent Jews from stopping the Holocaust?’ It reported on what must be one of the most bizarre misuses of the Holocaust. … a number of gun control opponents have made the argument that, if only Jews had possessed guns at the time, the Holocaust would not have happened, or at least the number of its victims would have been greatly reduced. The analogy is made between a Nazi law that prohibited Jews from owning weapons and the current move to strengthen gun controls in the United States. … The view of the historical situation during World War II is obviously absurd, as a number of commentators have pointed out.”

Birchall, Frederick T. “REICH PUTS LAWS ON JEWS IN FORCE; TRADE UNTOUCHED.” New York Times 16 Nov. 1935: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. “Decrees execute Nuremberg Acts banning citizenship and intermarriage. Fight over economic curbs continues.”

Black, Edwin. “DISPOSSESSED How Iraq’s 2,600-year-old Jewish Community Was Decimated in One Decade.” Reform Judaism Online. Union for Reform Judaism, Winter 2004. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://reformjudaismmag.org/Articles/index.cfm?id=2369>. “Baghdad, June 22, 2004. Just days before the Coalition Provisional Authority is scheduled to return power to Iraqi control, four Iraqi Jews–two in their forties, two elderly–inconspicuously board a Royal Jordanian airplane to Amman. … With the exception of approximately eleven Jews who have not chosen to leave, these are the last vestiges of a 125,000-strong Jewish community whose ancestors flourished here for twenty-six centuries. The dismantling of Iraqi Jewry, once the most established and affluent Jewish community in the Arab Middle East, began at 3 PM on June 1, 1941, some forty years before Saddam Hussein came to power. In Europe, the events of the next thirty-six hours would have been called a pogrom. Iraqi Jews called it the Farhud. Perhaps Farhud is best translated as violent dispossession. The Farhud was not a spontaneous outburst; it was the culmination of an anti-Jewish campaign rooted in an alliance between the Mufti of Jerusalem and Adolf Hitler.”

Black, Edwin. The Transfer Agreement: The Dramatic Story of the Pact between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine. Cambridge, MA: Brookline, 1999. Print. “The Transfer Agreement is Edwin Black’s compelling, award-winning story of a negotiated arrangement in 1933 between Zionist organizations and the Nazis to transfer some 50,000 Jews, and $100 million of their assets, to Jewish Palestine in exchange for stopping the worldwide Jewish-led boycott threatening to topple the Hitler regime in its first year.”

Bond, Anthony. “Worse than the World Ever Imagined: True Scale of the Holocaust Revealed as It’s Discovered Nazis Created 42,500 Camps and Ghettos to Persecute Jews – Not 7,000 as Previously Thought.” Mail Online. Associated Newspapers Ltd, 2 Mar. 2013. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2287071/Full-shocking-scale-Holocaust-revealed-researchers-Nazis-created-42-500-camps-ghettos-persecute-Jews-Europe.html>. “It is one of the worst moments in history, which still horrifies to this day. During Hitler’s brutal reign of Nazi Germany, more than six million Jews were killed. But now new research has discovered that the Holocaust may well be even worse than previously thought. Researchers at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum have been documenting all of the Nazi concentration camps, ghettos, slave labour sites and killing factories which had been set up across Europe. When they first started the project, the team expected to find about 7,000 camps and ghettos. Shockingly, they discovered 42,500 camps across large swathes of German-controlled Europe. The researchers predict that up to 20 million people died or were imprisoned in the sites.

Bonhoeffer. Dir. Martin Doblmeier. Released by Raymond/Taffner Co., 2003. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Based on actual events, this is the staggeringly powerful story of Auschwitz’s 12th Sonderkommando — one of 13 ‘special squads’ of Jewish prisoners forced by the Nazis to help exterminate fellow Jews in exchange for a few more months of life.”

Browning, Christopher R. “Ordinary Germans or Ordinary Men?” The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1998. 252-65. Print. “The preponderance of evidence suggests that in trying to understand the vast majority of the perpetrators, we are dealing not with ‘ordinary Germans’ but rather with ‘ordinary men.’”

(Bruno) Bar-On, D. “Holocaust Perpetrators and Their Children: A Paradoxical Morality.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 29.4 (1989): 424-43. Print. “Thru study attempts to trace evidence of a suppressed moral conflict in perpetrators of the extermination process during the Third Reich and in perpetrators’ children.”

Caldwell, Simon. “Nun Back on Shoah Hero List.” The JC.com. 14 May 2009. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/14493>. “A Catholic nun who saved a family of French Jews from the Nazis has been added to a list of British heroes proposed for an honour by the government after initially being forgotten. Sister Agnes Walsh is one of just 13 Britons already honoured as Righteous Among Nations by Yad Vashem.”

Coleman, John A. “Edith Stein.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 8 Aug. 2012. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “On August 9 every year, the church celebrates the ‘ martyrdom’ of the Carmelite Sister Teresia Benedicta of the Cross ( Edith Stein) who was gassed at Auschwitz that day, seventy years ago. I put the term ‘ martyrdom’ in quotations, since Edith Stein was murdered by the Nazis for being Jewish and only, secondarily, ( and out of spite!) for being Catholic. The Roman Catholic Bishops of the Netherlands had publicly issued a pastoral letter denouncing the Nazi’s Jewish policy of deportation and pogroms. Led by the intrepid Cardinal Johannes de Jong, the Dutch bishops had been warned that, if they proceeded to publish their denunciatory letter, the Nazi authorities would go after Jewish converts to Catholicism as well.”

Connelly, John. “The Noble and the Base: Poland and the Holocaust.” The Nation. 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.thenation.com/article/171262/noble-and-base-poland-and-holocaust>. “Earlier this year, while conferring a posthumous Presidential Medal of Freedom on the Polish hero Jan Karski, Barack Obama inadvertently touched off the greatest crisis in US-Polish relations in recent memory. The man he honored had served as a courier for the Polish resistance against Hitler, and in 1942 Karski traveled across occupied Europe to tell Western leaders about the Nazi war crimes being committed in Poland, including the Holocaust. Karski had been sent on this secret mission, Obama explained, after fellow underground fighters had told him that ‘Jews were being murdered on a massive scale and smuggled him into the Warsaw Ghetto and a Polish death camp to see for himself.’ … [W]ithin minutes Polish officials were demanding an apology for his use of the phrase ‘Polish death camp,’ which they thought scandalous.”

Cottrell, Chris. “Memorial to Roma Victims of Holocaust Opens in Berlin.” Europe. The New York Times, 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/25/world/europe/memorial-to-romany-victims-of-holocaust-opens-in-berlin.html>. ” Germany paid tribute on Wednesday to the hundreds of thousands of Romany people killed in the Holocaust, opening a long-awaited place of remembrance for a minority still plagued by discrimination.”

Crawford, F. R. “The Holocaust: A Never-Ending Agony.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 450.1 (1980): 250-55. JSTOR. Sage Publications, Inc. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. “How long does a severe traumatic experience remain in the memory and affect behavior. Many years later, in interviewing American soldiers who encountered Nazi concentration camps during World War II, we quickly learned that their responses in at least 40 percent of these interviews revealed severe emotional stress as they described the tragic details that they had seen as eyewitnesses.”

Donnelly, Doris. “Lovingly Observant.” America Magazine. 18 June 2007. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://americamagazine.org/issue/618/article/lovingly-observant>. Susannah Heschel, daughter of Abraham Joshua Heschel, is interviewed. “My father was born in Warsaw in 1907, one hundred years ago this year, into a family recognized as spiritual nobility in the Jewish world. Because he descended from prominent Hasidic rabbis, even as a child he was regarded as a genius by adults, who would rise when he entered a room. With the rise of Hitler, the world my father knew, the world that had nourished him, disappeared.”

“French Nazi Hunter: Swiss Holocaust Record Better than Believed.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 14 Feb. 2013. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/02/14/3119576/french-nazi-hunter-swiss-shoah-record-better-than-believed>. “Swiss authorities turned away only 3,000 Jewish refugees during the Holocaust and not 24,500 as believed, French Nazi hunter and historian Serge Klarsfeld said.”

Frumkin, Si. “Why Won’t Those SOBs Give Me My Money?” Reform Judaism Online. Reform Judaism Magazine, Spring 2008. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/02/14/3119576/french-nazi-hunter-swiss-shoah-record-better-than-believed>. “As banks, insurance companies, judges, presidents, and even Jewish organizations close off channels to individual claims, this survivor refuses to give up. This is a rhetorical question. I know why they won’t. They would rather keep it. They figure, if I got along all this time without them paying what they owe me, well then, I can wait a while longer, and eventually I will be gone and that will be the end of the story. If they bother to talk or think about what I and the other survivors are bitching about, … they’re probably saying: you shouldn’t bitch; you’re lucky to be alive. … The SOB I know best is the one whose slave I was, the one that worked my father to death, the one my government is protecting from me. Called Philipp Holzmann A.G., … the second largest company in Germany and one of the largest in Europe. During World War II, Holzmann owned my father and me for slightly more than a year. I was a 13-year-old Jewish kid from Lithuania given to Holzmann as a slave by the Nazi government. I didn’t have a name. I was Jew #82191. My dad was #82192 … Hitler took away my father’s name and gave him a number. The insurance companies took it away again by pretending that he never existed. I want them to acknowledge that he lived, that he died, and that the way he died matters to his son and to the grandchildren he never knew.”

Garbarini, Alexandra, Emil Kerenji, Jan Lambertz, and Avinoam J. Patt. Jewish Responses to Persecution: Volume II 1938-1940. Lanham, MD: Altamira, 2011. Print. “Jewish Responses to Persecution: Volume II, 1938-1940 is the second volume of the five-volume set within the series ‘Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context.’ This volume brings together in an accessible historical narrative a broad range of documents – including diaries, letters, speeches, newspaper articles, reports, Jewish identity cards, and personal photographs – from Jews in Nazi-dominated Europe and beyond Europe’s borders.”

Gladstone, Bill. “Hungary’s Secret Jewish Collection.” Bill Gladstone.Ca. 1 Jan. 2012. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jidaily.com/f018b?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=bdfce0f857-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “Dr. Gabriel Bar-Shaked, an expert on Hungarian Jewry for Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, is convinced that a massive trove of documents on the Jews of the Austro-Hungarian Empire lies hidden in a state archives in Budapest, and he’s determined to gain access to it. So vast is the collection, … that it would allow researchers to trace back to 1850 the family trees of all 800,000 or so Jews who were living in Habsburg lands before the Holocaust. However, because the papers throw light on Hungary’s Nazi period, during which two out of three Jews perished, Hungarian officials supposedly want to keep them buried.”

Goldstein, David. “Portrait of Papa as a Young Man.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-life-and-religion/118979/portrait-of-papa-as-a-young-man>. “In my grandfather’s village, I found the man he’d been before memories of the Holocaust destroyed him. … I found the gorgeous pastoral village where he’d lived, where he’d been more than just a victim, where he’d been an actual three-dimensional person who played and loved and thrived, and perhaps this was a far richer, more valuable thing to discover.”

Goss, Jennifer L. “Dachau.” About.com 20th Century History. Feb. 2013. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/a/Dachau.htm?nl=1>. “Auschwitz might be the most famous camp in the Nazi system of terror, but it was not the first. The first concentration camp was Dachau, established on March 20, 1933 in the southern German town of the same name (10 miles northwest of Munich). Although it was initially established to hold political prisoners of the Third Reich, only a minority of whom were Jews, Dachau soon grew to hold a large and diverse population of people targeted by the Nazis. Under the oversight of Nazi Theodor Eicke, Dachau became a model concentration camp, a place where SS guards and other camp officials went to train.”

Harrington, Daniel J. “Suppressing All Jewishness.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 16 Feb. 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “The Aryan Jesus” by Susannah Heschel is reviewed. The Institute for the Study and Eradication of Jewish Influence on German Church Life is discussed.

Hartman, Geoffrey. “What the Dead Have To Say to Us.” Tablet Magazine. 4 Feb. 2013. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/123189/what-the-dead-have-to-say-to-us>. “[T]he Holocaust Survivors Film Project (HSFP), … after little more than a year of taping, collected 183 testimonies. Recorded chiefly but not exclusively in New Haven, those tapes became the nucleus of Yale’s ‘Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies’— now the Fortunoff Archive … The Fortunoff Archive recast Holocaust survivor testimony as an extra-juridical genre — an oral and populist form of expression that opened the way for survivors or other eyewitnesses to tell what they knew.”

Herman, David. “Case for and against Holocaust Schlock.” Jewish Ideas Daily. The Jewish Chronicle Online, 25 Nov. 2012. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/c6357?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=cb735dc3c4-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “In his fascinating book, What Ever Happened to Modernism?, the Jewish writer, Gabriel Josipovici, lays into middlebrow writing. What attracted attention when his book came out last year was his attack on some of Britain’s best-known contemporary novelists, including Martin Amis, Julian Barnes and Ian McEwan. Reading these writers, he said, ‘leaves me feeling that I and the world have been made smaller and meaner.’”

“Holocaust Survivers Decrease, New Generation Finds A Controversial Way To Remember [Video]” Inquistir. 1 Oct. 2012. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. <http://www.inquisitr.com/349587/holocaust-survivers-decrease-new-generation-finds-a-controversial-way-to-remember-video/>. “A new generation of Jews is taking a bold step to remember the Holocaust as survivors of the genocide have dwindled by 50 percent in the last ten years. Only 200,000 survivors remain, only 200,000 stories of individual, first-account memories of those terrible years. While there are those who want to forget the past, young people like Eli Sagir feel as though remembering is the only way to make sure her people never go through the same torture and loss again. With the number 157,622 newly tattooed on her smooth forearm, Sagir returned from a high school trip to Poland and held her left arm up to her grandfather’s wrinkled one. Yosef Diamant, who was branded with the number during his childhood days at Auschwitz, bent his head to kiss it, a sign of respect.” Video clip from “Numbered.”

Horwitz, Gordon J. Ghettostadt: Łódź and the Making of a Nazi City. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2008. Print. “Gordon Horwitz’s unflinching and heartbreaking narrative of occupied Lodz juxtaposes the Nazi plans for its urban ‘cleansing’ and renewal with the inexorable destruction of its ghettoized Jewish community.”

“Huge Demonstration in New York Appeals to All Governments to Save Jews in Europe.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 2 Mar. 1943. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/03/02/2860034/huge-demonstration-in-new-york-appeals-to-all-governments-to-save-jews-in-europe>. “More than 20,000 people crowded Madison Square Garden here tonight in the largest demonstration ever held to protest the Nazi massacre of Jews. The meeting addressed an appeal to President Roosevelt and the Government of the United States – and through them to the United Nations and all neutral states – to save the Jews of Europe from extermination by the Nazis through “effective action.’”

Into That Dark Night: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1933-1939. By Drew University. Yad Vashem. CD for Computer. “Focuses on the first six years of the Nazi regime and the experiences of German Jewry during that period.” Uses a “combination of textual material and audio/visual media.” Also contains “annotated research article, a timeline, an illustrated lexicon, maps, diagrams, nearly 450 primary documents and over 400 original photographs.”

Jager, Elliot. “Rebranding Poland.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 27 Sept. 2010. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/725/features/rebranding-poland/>. ” [T]he time has come for Jews to recognize the plain truth: Poland is Israel’s best friend in the European Union. Moreover, they add, it is time to take a more nuanced view of Polish Jewish history altogether, to focus less single-mindedly on the killing fields implanted on Polish soil by Nazi Germany and more broadly on the preceding 1,000 years of Jewish civilization.”

“Jewish Aid and Rescue.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. Jewish Aid and Rescue. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005519>. “During the Holocaust, countless Jewish organizations and individuals worldwide did what they could to save their brethren. While these rescue efforts were initiated by Jews, most would have had little success without the assistance of numerous sympathetic non-Jews.”

“Jews Held Doomed under Nazi Regime.” New York Times 31 Oct. 1937: 18. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. “Dr. Joachim Prince says next ten years will see their extinction in Reich.”

“Jews Live in Fear in Europe,€™ European Parliament President Says.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Ideas Daily, 23 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/23/3117561/jews-live-in-fear-in-europe-european-parliament-president-says>.” Martin Schulz, the president of the European Parliament, said the continent’s Jews are living in fear. ‘Yes, Jews are living in fear in Europe. Yes, there are threats,’ Schulz said. ‘But, ladies and gentlemen — why are we not [living in 1929]? Because there is a European Parliament. Because there are common European Institutions. Because a consequence was taken after the Second World War — after its deepest point of civilization represented by Auschwitz.’”

Joffe, Alex. “Hollywood Goes to Auschwitz.” Jewish Ideas Daily. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 29 June 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jidaily.com/4630a>. “Hollywood’s first encounter with the Holocaust came decades before Schindler’s List or any such dramatizations. An exhibit called Filming the Camps, created by historian and film director Christian Delage for the Mémorial de la Shoah in Paris and now showing at New York’s Museum of Jewish Heritage, reveals how three iconic American directors, John Ford, George Stevens, and Samuel Fuller, translated the camps into films. Their footage of genocide and its perpetrators shaped not only how we perceive the Holocaust, but also the subsequent development of American cinema—and the directors themselves.”

Katz, Fred E. “Implementation of the Holocaust: The Behavior of Nazi Officials.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 24.03 (1982): 510-29. Print. “Holocaust research has supplied extensive information about the stark facts of the Holocaust. … To a great extent the existing administrative structure of the German nation was utilized to accomplish the genocide. … The administrative processes through which a nation enacts a program of genocide contain many sociological facets. Some of these are now beginning to be addressed.”

Kensky, Eitan. “Through Night and Fog.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 20 Aug. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/4804/features/through-night-and-fog/>. “My father and I visited Auschwitz for the first time this summer. It was toward the end of a long trip to Eastern Europe. We had already gone to the killing fields and forests of Lithuania, and to Warsaw, where my father broke down at the bunker—now mass grave—Ulica Miła 18. I wouldn’t say it was easier to visit Auschwitz after those experiences, only that it was different. But Auschwitz was also different because of how familiar it was from feature films and documentaries, and particularly because of Alain Resnais’s 1955 film Nuit et Brouillard (Night and Fog). Night and Fog has become the quintessential documentary of the concentration camps, extensively shown at synagogues and by Jewish groups—despite barely mentioning Jews.”

Kesting, Robert. “The Black Experience during the Holocaust.” The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1998. 358-65. Print. “Under the Nazis, there was no central plan to eliminate African Germans and other blacks from Germany and the occupied territories. Even though the 1935 Nuremberg racial laws declared them a minority with ‘alien blood,’ their small population, unlike Jews and Gypsies, was not perceived as an immediate threat.”

Kirsch, Adam. “The November Pogrom.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 10 Nov. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/4804/features/through-night-and-fog/>. “In our collective memory of the Holocaust, Kristallnacht occupies a central but ambiguous place. If you look simply at the statistics, there is little reason why the events of November 9-10, 1938, should loom so large. According to the Nazis themselves, 91 Jews were killed in the nationwide pogrom that became known as the ‘Night of Broken Glass.’ That figure, as Alan Steinweis points out in his illuminating new study Kristallnacht 1938, ‘included neither Jewish suicides nor the significantly larger number of Jews who were arrested in connection with the pogrom and would die in concentration camps in the following weeks and months.’ But even when we remember that 30,000 Jewish men were arrested—about 10 percent of the entire Jewish population of Germany—Kristallnacht pales in comparison with later Nazi crimes.”

Koen, Yehuda, and Eliat Negev. “How the Seven Dwarfs of Auschwitz Fell under the Spell of Dr Death: The Hideous Experiments Carried out by Nazi Josef Mengele on Seven Trusting Brothers and Sisters.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2279410/How-seven-dwarfs-Auschwitz-fell-spell-Dr-Death-The-hideous-experiments-carried-Nazi-Josef-Mengele-seven-trusting-brothers-sisters.html?printingPage=true>. “As powerful beams of light revealed the new arrivals at Auschwitz, the SS guards could scarcely believe their eyes. One by one, seven tiny people were lifted off the train. … Huddled together in a circle, the seven dwarfs made no attempt to join the teeming mass of passengers being herded up a ramp by soldiers with alsatians straining at the leash. … Like most of the Hungarian Jews on the train, which had taken three days to arrive at Auschwitz-Birkenau, the dwarfs had no idea they’d just been deposited in the Nazis’ most notorious extermination camp.”

Langer, Lawrence L. “Satan’s Biographers.” The Atlantic Online. The Atlantic, Feb. 1999. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/99feb/hitler.htm>. “The tangled skein of Nazi Germany’s murder of European Jewry continues to unravel in our imagination, even as we seek to weave its unruly strands into a tapestry of understanding. The magnitude of the crime, the tenacity of its architects, the cruelty of the criminals who carried it out, the cooperation of collaborators, foreign and domestic, during various steps in the killing process — all these have spurred countless inquiries into the motives and methods of those involved.”

Lichtblau, Eric. “The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking.” New York Times 1 Mar. 2013. New York Times. 1 Mar. 2013. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. [United States Holocaust Memorial Museum] researchers have cataloged some 42,500 Nazi ghettos and camps throughout Europe, spanning German-controlled areas from France to Russia and Germany itself, during Hitler’s reign of brutality from 1933-1945. … The documented camp include not only ‘killing centers’ but also thousands of forced labor camps, where prisoners manufactured war supplies; prisoner-of-war camps; sites euphemistically named ‘care’ centers. where pregnant women were forced to have abortions or their babies were killed after birth; and brothels, where women were coerced into having sex with German military personnel.”

Ludsin, Steven A., Henry Greenspan, Naomi W. Siegel, and Edward S. Hochman. “A Tattoo, to Remember the Holocaust.” Letter to Editor, Letters. 1 Oct. 2012. New York Times. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/09/opinion/a-tattoo-to-remember-the-holocaust.html>. “Proudly Bearing Elders’ Scars, Their Skin Says ‘Never Forget’ (front page, Oct. 1) is a vivid reminder that the eyewitnesses to the Holocaust will someday be gone. Although I am puzzled by the tattoo trend in general, I empathize with the children and grandchildren who decided to put numbers on their arms. The rolled-up sleeves with the numbers on the arms of the children in the concentration camps at liberation is a searing image.”

“Many Holocaust Survivors Living in Poverty, Report Says.” The New York Times. 16 Apr. 2007. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/world/africa/16iht-web-holocaust16.5309346.html?gwh=913B5D6884B92AD88CE6249C005AB4CD>. “Nearly one-third of the estimated 260,000 Holocaust survivors here [Israel] are now living in poverty. … thousands of people who escaped death camps are struggling to get services like medical care or sufficient pensions.”

Masters of Life and Death: Doctors in the Third Reich. Greek DDL – Documentaries. Liakman (G.N.R.), 20 Feb. 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=avydonqONwA>. Documentary film examines Nazi doctors who performed appalling experiments on humans. The medical profession was the first to heartily embrace the racial philosophy and laws of Hitler and the Nazis. The training of the medical profession, including nurses and midwives, is considered. The Nuremberg trials exposed this history. Karl Brandt, hitler’s private physician and the mastermind of the Nazi’s fanatic racial policies, is profiled. Over two 1/2 hours in three engrossing sections.

Meir, Golda. My Life. London: Futura Publications, 1976. Print. Golda Meir was the future prime minister of Israel during the Holocaust, she commented: “Although the question of immigration was quickly turning into a matter of life or death for the Jews of Europe, we seemed to be the only people in the world who understood this – and who was going to listen to us? What were we?”

Moore, Donald J. “The Whole World Is Against Us.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 22 July 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “The Holocaust Is Over, We Must Rise from Its Ashes” by Avraham Burg is reviewed. “The publication of this book in Hebrew prompted a tidal wave of criticism not only because of its content but equally because of the impeccable Zionist credentials of its author.”

Naar, Devin. “In Search of Uncle Salomon.” 16th Street. The Center for Jewish History, 28 Jan. 2013. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://16thstreet.tumblr.com/page/5>. “In this video, he [Dr. Devin Naar] explains the twist of fate that led him to piece together his own family’s experience in the Holocaust. His journey led him to the serious study of Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish) and a new perspective on the stories that Jewish historians need to tell.” Professor Naar’s great grandfather’s family was murdered in Auschwitz. He explains that fifty-thousand Sephardic Jews in Greece perished in the Holocaust, and their experiences almost forgotten.

“Nazi Drive on Jews Felt Beyond Reich.” New York Times 18 Apr. 1933: 10. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. ” “Reports indicate revival of anti-Semitism in lands of central Europe.” Many seek to migrate. Hitlerite ‘percentage’ rules tearing families apart and raising a crop of snoopers.”

“Nazi Persecution of Jews Described.” New York Times 19 June 1936: 44. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. “Chance for self-support is being narrowed constantly, distribution group hears.”

“On This Day: Himmler Orders the Deportation of the Roma.” TheJC.com. 16 Dec. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/42608>. “There were five million non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust, including up to 500,000 members of the Roma community. At Auschwitz alone, it is estimated that 19,000 of the 23,000 Roma sent there during the war died.”

“Patriotic German Jews Must Support Hitlerist Party in Germany’s Interests Even If It Is Antisemitic.” JTA Jewish News Arhive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 7 Jan. 1931. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1931/01/07/2789387/patriotic-german-jews-must-support-hitlerist-party-in-germanys-interests-even-if-it-is-antisemitic-says-organ-of-union-of-patriotic-german-jews>. “Patriotic German Jews must support any party which stands for German interests, even if it is antisemitic, says the “National-deutsche Jude”, the organ of the so-called National German-Jewish Party, … which in the Jewish communal elections of last month issued posters calling on the electors to ‘vote German’, that is, not for the East European Jews … ”

Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. “Holocaust Reparations: The Back Story.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/4734/features/holocaust-reparations-the-back-story/>. “On July 10th [2012], dignitaries from the U.S., German, and Israeli governments attended a curious ceremony at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. The gathering marked the 60th anniversary of the first agreement by the West German government with the Israeli government and the Jewish ‘Claims Conference’ to grant modest financial compensation for the Holocaust. Some of the Jews in the room had spent the years since the agreement in seemingly interminable haggling.” The author discusses the fairness of the agreement.

“POLIN Dziedzictwo Polskich Zydow.” POLIN €“. Fodz Kontakt. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. <http://polin.org.pl/>. “Polish Jewish Heritage Polin. A multimedia web portal that, among other things, provides information (in Polish) concerning towns where Jews lived before the Shoah.”

“Prosecutor Ends Presentation of Eichmann’s Crimes; Spectators Weep.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 19 Apr. 1961. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1961/04/19/3066122/prosecutor-ends-presentation-of-eichmanns-crimes-spectators-weep?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=f890cabffa-TWJH_2013_03_03&utm_medium=email>. “Attorney General Gideon Hausner, completing a nine-hour prosecution recital of the incredible Nazi atrocities against the Jews which left correspondents sickened and spectators weeping, told Adolf Eichmann today he would enjoy a privilege in his trial which he ‘did not accord to a single one of his victims’–the right to defend himself. Mr. Hausner did not ask the death penalty for Eichmann when he ended his stirring statement on the inhuman methods used by Eichmann’s organization to annihilate millions of Jews. However, the law under which Eichmann is being tried provides it automatically. The prosecutor described in tearful details the torture in camps, cannibalism, castration, surgical experiments on the living, the killing of infants before the eyes of their mothers, and other forms used by the Nazis to destroy the Jews.”

“Rescued from Kristallnacht, a Family Torah Reaches a New Generation.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/10/24/3110266/rescued-from-kristallnacht-a-family-torah-reaches-a-new-generation>. “It was the ‘Night of Broken Glass’ in Germany, Kristallnacht — a national pogrom of death and destruction of Jewish property and the rounding up of Jews — and Dietrich (David) Hamburger was in hiding.”

“Resources for Antisemitism.” Theology Library. Springhill College. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/antisem.htm>. Contains: Official Documents and Statements; Historical Events, Characters and Documents; Articles, Papers; Miscellaneous Websites.

Rising, David, and Randy Herschaft. “Documents Raise Doubts in Nazi Probe.” Statesman Journal. Gannett, 27 Dec. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.statesmanjournal.com/viewart/20121228/UPDATE/121228005/Documents-raise-doubts-Nazi-probe>. “The case of an 87-year-old Philadelphia man accused by Germany of serving as an SS guard at Auschwitz has largely centered on whether he was stationed at the part of the death camp used as a killing machine for Jews. Johann ‘Hans’ Breyer — while admitting he was an Auschwitz guard — insists he was never there. World-War II-era documents obtained by The Associated Press indicate otherwise. The files provided by the U.S. Department of Justice in response to an AP request are now in the hands of German authorities, …”

Robbins, Liz. “After Anti-Semitic Crimes, Revisiting the Nightmares Forever Within.” The New York Times. 19 Jan. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/20/nyregion/in-brooklyn-anti-semitic-crimes-bring-painful-memories.html?ref=todayspaper>. “They come to talk about their families, to laugh, to learn and to praise Hilda Weiss’s famous chocolate coffee cake. Other than Mrs. Weiss’s recipe from Hungary, they never liked to go on about the past — even if this was the reason that originally brought the women together in a weekly support group for Holocaust survivors. But in recent days, this fragile yet spirited community of elderly women in Borough Park, Brooklyn, found themselves revisiting details of that unspeakable horror, and haunted by events far too close to home.”

Rosenberg, David P. “On the 68th Anniversary of the Liberation of Auschwitz.” 16th Street. The Center for Jewish History, 8 Feb. 2013. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://16thstreet.tumblr.com/post/41620438352/on-the-68th-anniversary-of-the-liberation-of>. “On January 27th, 1945, Auschwitz was liberated by the Red Army. The desolate, disease-ridden and mosquito-infested complex comprised the largest of the Nazi concentration camps. Over a million people were murdered there. When the Nazis learned of the Red Army’s approach, they attempted to evacuate Auschwitz.

Rudin, Rabbi A. James. “A Jewish Perspective.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 18 Apr. 2005. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “Because Karol Joseph Wojtyla was Polish-born, his election as pope on Oct. 16, 1978, was met with widespread skepticism within the Jewish community. There was concern that the new pope would reflect the traditional anti-Semitism that marked much of Jewish history in Poland. But John Paul II proved the skeptics wrong.” Rudoren, Jodi. “Proudly Bearing Elders’ Scars, Their Skin Says ‘Never Forget’” The New York Times. The New York Times, 01 Oct. 2012. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/01/world/middleeast/with-tattoos-young-israelis-bear-holocaust-scars-of-relatives.html?pagewanted=all>. ” When Eli Sagir showed her grandfather, Yosef Diamant, the new tattoo on her left forearm, he bent his head to kiss it. Mr. Diamant had the same tattoo, the number 157622, permanently inked on his own arm by the Nazis at Auschwitz. … Mr. Diamant’s descendants are among a handful of children and grandchildren of Auschwitz survivors here who have taken the step of memorializing the darkest days of history on their own bodies.”

Samuels, Shimon. “In the Shadow of Wannsee.” The JC.com. 20 Jan. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/62369>. “The 70th anniversary of the Wannsee Conference provides a valuable opportunity to reengage the battle for memory, for – unlike any other genocide – it provides, in the Wannsee Protocol, a clear and horrifyingly dispassionate roadmap to mass murder. Albeit marked ‘Top Secret’, the 16th duplicate of 30 copies survived the war.”

Schwartz, Penny. “Acclaimed Filmmaker Turns Camera on His Own Holocaust Experience for “€˜Frontline”™.” JTA Jewish News. Jewish News & Israel News, 7 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/03/07/3121461/acclaimed-documentarian-and-holocaust-survivor-turns-camera-on-himself-for-frontline-production>. “When he was 5 years old, Marian Marzynski’s parents hatched a plan to smuggle him out of the Warsaw Ghetto. It was 1942, and Marzynski and his family were among the 400,000 Jews rounded up two years earlier by the Nazis, confined to the 1.3-sq.-mile ghetto in the heart of the city. To stay alive, Marzynski’s parents warned him, you must forget who you are. That lesson in survival shepherded the young boy over the next three years as he hid from his tormentors, separated from his parents.”

Scolof, Adam. “SS Struma: Tragic Shipwreck of the Holocaust.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 14 Apr. 2012. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. <http://blogs.jta.org/thearchiveblog/article/2012/04/14/3092801/ss-struma-tragic-shipwreck-of-the-holocaust?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=5b2c1e9d82-TWJH_2013_02_24&utm_medium=email>. “In December 1941, some 791 passengers crammed aboard the SS Struma, having paid for safe haven from Nazi-controlled Roumania. On February 24, 1942, having been denied entry by Turkish and British officials, all but ten were killed by a torpedo in the largest loss of life in the wartime immigration into Palestine.”

Shapiro, Paul A. “History Held Hostage.” Reform Judaism Online. Union for Reform Judaism, Winter 2009. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.reformjudaism.org/jewish-life/jewish-life-around-world/history-held-hostage>. This article recounts Mr. Shapiro’s fight to open the International Tracing Service’s massive archive of Holocaust-related documents in Bad Arolsen, Germany. “They told me that trying to open the largest archive of inaccessible Holocaust-related documents would be like tilting at windmills. … Too much resistance, too little compassion. … at least 50 million Holocaust-related documents dealing with the fates of more than 17 million people were still hidden away there, under lock and key. … How could ITS’s governing body-an International Commission of eleven democratic governments … justify keeping this documentation beyond the reach of scholars? Worse, how could they deprive aging survivors of their family records and the comfort of knowing that the documentary record of what had happened to them and their families would not be ‘swept under the rug,’ as one survivor expressed it to me, once the survivor generation was gone? … Do I consider the opening of ITS a ‘victory’? The battle was long and hard, so yes, it was a victory of sorts. But it was unnecessarily long in coming, and came too late for many survivors who died without receiving answers.”

Shook, Karen. “Landscapes of the Metropolis of Death.” Times Higher Education. 24 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/landscapes-of-the-metropolis-of-death/2001056.article>. “Memory struggles with history in an annal of life in Auschwitz and afterwards, finds Robert Eaglestone the author of this astonishing book sang the Ode to Joy in a children’s choir at Birkenau, ‘like little angels, our voices providing an accompaniment to the processions…into the crematoria’. All his life since then, he has asked himself what drove the conductor to choose that famous declaration of human dignity. … Otto Dov Kulka, a very eminent historian of the Holocaust, can find no answer. He chooses first one then the other, and each choice ‘is in fact the whole unfolding of my existence or of my confrontation both with the past and with the present from then until today’.”

“Stefan Terlezki.” Telegraph.com. Telegraphic Media Group, 27 Feb. 2006. Web. 2 Aug. 2012. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1511541/Stefan-Terlezki.html>. “Stefan Terlezki, who died on February, aged 78, endured an appalling youth as a slave of the Nazis during the Second World War, and even survived being rescued by the Russians …”

“Swiss Banks Settlement: In Re Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation – Overview.” Holocaust: Victims Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks). Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.swissbankclaims.com/overview.aspx>. “This is the official website of the “Swiss Banks Settlement: In re Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation” United States District Court for the Eastern District fo New York, Judge Edward R. Korman Presiding (CV-96-4849).”

Szapiro, Jerry. “NAZI GUNS FORCED JEWS INTO POLAND.” New York Times 1 Nov. 1938: 17. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 5 Mar. 2013. “This writer made the rounds today of provisional concentration points here of Jews expelled from Germany, of whom about 1,000 have thus far arrived in Warsaw. They are being accommodated in schools and various Jewish institutions.”

Tercatin, Rossella. “Italian Jewish Fury after Yad Vashem Changes Description of Wartime Pope.” TheJC.com. 19 July 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/70233>. “A furious debate has broken out in Italy after the decision of Israel’s Holocaust Museum, Yad Vashem, to change the captions under the museum’s display on the wartime pope, Pius XII.”

“Through Night and Fog.” Jewish Ideas Daily. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/4804/features/through-night-and-fog/>. “My father and I visited Auschwitz for the first time this summer. It was toward the end of a long trip to Eastern Europe. We had already gone to the killing fields and forests of Lithuania, and to Warsaw, where my father broke down at the bunker—now mass grave—Ulica Miła 18. I wouldn’t say it was easier to visit Auschwitz after those experiences, only that it was different. But Auschwitz was also different because of how familiar it was from feature films and documentaries, and particularly because of Alain Resnais’s 1955 film Nuit et Brouillard (Night and Fog).” Alain Resnais’s directing style is discussed.

“Tortured Jews in Poland Appeal for Retribution Against Germans in Allied Countries.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 14 Mar. 1943. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. “An appeal from the Jews of Nazi-held Poland to the Allied Nations urging them to take extraordinary steps against Germans residing in their countries in order to force the Nazis in Poland to discontinue their extermination of Jews was received here today by the Jewish Labor Committee.”

Tylbor, Henry. “Calibrating Darkness.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 2 May 2011. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/872/features/calibrating-darkness/>. “A child survivor of the Warsaw Ghetto and then of Auschwitz and Majdanek, Henry Tylbor (1929–2009) eventually settled in New York where he wrote and taught. A polymath, and fluent in several languages, he was especially interested in the fields of linguistics, neuropsychology, the sociology of culture, and their intersections. The present work of autobiographical fiction is among the manuscripts left at his death. In observance of Holocaust Remembrance Day, it appears here for the first time.”

“Unfinished Justice: A Conversation with Michael Bazyler.” Reform Judaism Online. Reform Judaism Magazine, Spring 2008. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://reformjudaismmag.org/Articles/index.cfm?id=1316>. Nine page article: The issue of restitution to Jewish Holocaust survivors and their heirs has not been fully resolved. What went wrong (and right), and what still needs to be done?”

“An Unwed Woman of Valor.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 11 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/podcasts/126377/an-unwed-woman-of-valor>. “In My Mother’s Wars, Lillian Faderman recalls her single mother’s frustrated efforts to save her family from the Holocaust. … Tablet Managing Editor Wayne Hoffman spoke with Faderman about her mother’s tragic yet heroic life story and how writing this biography helped her view her mother in a new light. [Running time: 15:30.]”

Vasagar, Jeevan. “Vienna Philharmonic Planned to Award Hitler a Gold Medal.” Telegraph. Telegraphic Media Group, 10 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/austria/9921423/Vienna-Philharmonic-planned-to-award-Hitler-a-gold-medal.html>. “The Vienna Philharmonic, one of the world’s leading orchestras, revealed the depth of its collusion with the Nazis last night, admitting that it planned to honour Adolf Hitler with a gold medal inscribed ‘for the Fuehrer’.”

“Vigilance against Anti-Jewish Ideas and Bias.” Jewish-Christian Relations. International Council of Christians and Jews, 5 July 2008. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jcrelations.net/Calling+for+Vigilance+Against+Anti-Jewish+Bias.3213.0.html?L=3>. “Since 2004, Presbyterians and Jews in many places across the United States have met to discuss reactions, concerns and differences regarding Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) General Assembly policy decisions on Israeli-Palestinian peace and related issues. These conversations have been sometimes confrontational and heated, almost always open and frank and often productive of a deeper understanding of each other and of our concerns and commitments. … One of the guideposts for Presbyterians in relation to Jews is a clear rejection of anti-Semitism and anti-Jewish teaching.”

Weinberg, Gerhard L. “The Allies and the Holocaust.” The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1998. 480-91. Print. “The exertions of the Allies in World War II saved not only themselves but also the majority of the world’s Jews. But the shadow of doubt whether enough was done will always remain, even if there really not many things that could have been done.”

White, Michael. “The Nazi Musicians Who Changed Their Tune.” Telegraph. Telegraphic Media Group, 11 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/music/classicalmusic/9922592/The-Nazi-musicians-who-changed-their-tune.html>. “Events in central Europe during the Thirties and Forties cast a long shadow, and hiding in it for a long time has been the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra – which has finally come clean about its over-friendly relationship with the Third Reich and revealed that almost half its players at the time were Nazi Party members; that 13 Jewish players were expelled, five of them to die in concentration camps; and that a lingering culture of sympathy to Nazism survived into the Sixties thanks to an SS-enrolled trumpeter who not only kept his job after the war but became the orchestra’s executive director.”

Wildman, Sarah. “The Other Kindertransport.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 19 Dec. 2012. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. <http://forward.com/articles/167599/the-other-kindertransport/?p=all>. “One hundred and fifty: a number simultaneously enormous and tiny. One hundred and fifty Czech Jewish teenagers left behind everything and everyone — the lives they’d known, their parents, their siblings, their grandparents and aunts and uncles.”

“Wise Criticizes Christian World for Failure to Rescue Jews in Nazi Europe.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 19 Feb. 1943. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/02/19/2859947/wise-criticizes-christian-world-for-failure-to-rescue-jews-in-nazi-europe>. “‘A Christian world that will permit millions of Jews to be slain without moving heaven by prayer and earth in every human way to save its Jews has lost its capacity for moral and spiritual survival,’ Dr. Wise declared.”