Germany, Nazis, War #2


 Of course the people don’t want war. But after all, it’s the leaders of the country who determine the policy, and it’s always a simple matter to drag the people along whether it’s a democracy, a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism, and exposing the country to greater danger. It works the same way in any country.

Herman Goering at the Nuremberg trials, 18 April 1946


“1941: Hitler Invades the Soviet Union.” BBC News. BBC, 22 June 1941. Web. 01 Aug. 2012. <>. “German forces have invaded the Soviet Union. In a pre-dawn offensive, German troops pushed into the USSR from the south and west, with a third force making their way from the north towards Leningrad.”

Ailsby, Christopher. Hitler’s Renegades: Foreign Nationals in the Service of the Third Reich. Dulles, VA: Brassey’s, 2004. Print. “In European warfare, the hiring of mercenaries was common practice even before the establishment of the nation state. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, foreigners fought to further political ends. But by by the beginning of the twentieth century, foreign mercenaries had disappeared from European armies. In World War II, ideological mercenaries would fight for Nazi Germany.”

Allan, Philip. “How Did Hitler Become Dictator of Germany in 1933-34.” Hindsight. Philip Allan Updates, Jan. 2008. General OneFile. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. “In January 1933 Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. The Nazis were on one party of many and Hitler was not firmly in control. However, by the end of 1934, Germany had become a one party state, with Hitler its dictator.” The article describes how it happened.

Allan, Philip. “How Did Hitler Keep Control of the Nazi State?” Hindsight. Philip Allan Updates, Jan. 2008. General OneFile. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. “In a totalitarian state, the government not only tries to control people’s lives but also watches them to make sure its hold on power is never threatened. Fear was used to maintain control.” The methods are listed.

Allan, Phillip. “Was It Possible to Have Fun in Nazi Germany?” Hindsight Jan. 2007: 4. General OneFile. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. “This article considers how much some people were able to enjoy their lives in Nazi Germany.”

Ayçoberry, Pierre. The Social History of the Third Reich: 1933-1945. New York: New, 1999. Print. “Now, Pierre Aycoberry, author of the highly praised ‘The Nazi Question’, combines an extraordinary mastery of German history with original research to give us a uniquely balanced account of all aspects of German life under Hitler.”

Berhahn, V. R. “The Big Lie.” New York Times: Books. New York Times, 10 Dec. 2000. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <>. “Since then [1960s] there have been any number of Hitler biographies and histories of the Third Reich. Now, with ‘The Third Reich: A New History,’ Michael Burleigh successfully adds another interpretation, one that, as he puts it, tells a very 20th-century story about the almost total, moral collapse of an advanced industrial society at the heart of Europe and about sections of the German elites and masses of ordinary people who chose to abdicate their individual critical faculties in favor of a politics based on faith, hope, hatred and sentimental collective self-regard for their own race and nation.”

Burleigh, Michael. “Euthanasia and the Third Reich.” History Today 40.2 (1990): 11–. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 July 2012. “Michael Burleigh describes how the traditional debate over euthanasia was given a perverted twist by the Nazi use of it for a campaign of mass extermination, and the films and actors they used to enlist support for it.”

Burleigh, Michael. The Third Reich: A New History. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001. Print. “The book [961 pages] deals with the progressive, and almost total, moral collapse of an advanced industrial society at the heart of Europe, many of whose citizens abandoned the burden of thinking for themselves … they put their faith in evil men promising a great leap into a heroic future, with violent solutions to Germany’s local, and modern society’s general problems.”

Burn, Jamie. “Was It Possible to Have Fun in Nazi Germany?” Hindsight June 2007: 4. General OneFile. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. “This article considers how much some people were able to enjoy their lives in Nazi Germany.”

Bytwerk, Randall. “German Propaganda Archive (Guide Page).” German Propaganda Archive (Guide Page). Calvin College. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <>. “Propaganda was central to Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The German Propaganda Archive includes both propaganda itself and material produced for the guidance of propagandists. The goal is to help people understand the two great totalitarian systems of the twentieth century by giving them access to the primary material.”

Carve Her Name with Pride. Dir. Lewis Gilbert. 1958. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “When her husband is killed in battle, brave patriot Violette Szabo (Virginia McKenna) joins the British secret service and agrees to spy on the enemy — even though it means being separated from her child. Eventually captured and tortured by the Nazis, the intrepid agent refuses to betray the Allies.”

Cesarani, David. “Hitler’s Empire, by Mark Mazower.” The Independent. Independent Digital News and Media, 30 May 2008. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. Review: Hitler’s Empire “Hitler’s Europe has been described as everything from the last European land-based empire to a forerunner of the EU. This variety reflects the protean nature and short duration of Nazi rule. The Greater German Reich didn’t last long enough to resolve the ambiguities that characterised Nazi hegemony. The confusion is exacerbated by the profusion of planning documents.”

Chandler, Adam. “Joseph Goebbels’€™s Violin.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc., 24 Sept. 2012. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <>. “One of those seemingly incomprehensible war stories came out over the weekend about a violin gifted to Japanese musician Nejiko Suwa by the infamous Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels. The central question is whether or not the priceless violin–reportedly a Stradivarius from 1722–was a treasure plundered by the Nazis.”

Delarue, Jacques. The History of the Gestapo: A History of Horror. Barnsley: Frontline, 2008. Print. “From 1933 to 1945, the Gestapo was Nazi Germany’s chief instrument of counter-espionage, political suppression, and terror. Jacques Delarue, a saboteur arrested by the Nazis in occupied France, chronicles how the land of Beethoven elevated sadism to a fine art.”

Donahue, Patrick. “German Diplomats Participated in Nazi Crimes, Minister Westerwelle Says.” Bloomberg. 28 Oct. 2010. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <>. “Germany’s foreign service played an active role in Nazi crimes under Adolf Hitler and continued to employ diplomats tied to the regime after World War II, Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle said today in Berlin.”

The Economy and War in the Third Reich, 1933–1944. Gale. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. <>. Source Library: Library of the London School of Economics and Political Science “This official statistical source provides rare, detailed data on the German economic situation during the Third Reich up to and throughout World War II. Consisting of Monatliche Nachweise–ber den Auswartigen Handel Deutschlands (January 1933-June 1939); Der Aussenhandel Deutschlands Monatliche Nachweise (July 1939); and Sondernachweis der Aussenhandel Deutschlands (August 1939-1944)”

Edwards, John Carver. Berlin Calling: American Broadcasters in Service to the Third Reich. New York: Praeger, 1991. Print. “Expatriates posing as detached yet patriotic American commentators, and using the news-of-the-day voice of the stereotypical radio announcer, sought to turn U.S. opinion against the British and achieve the political objectives of their media-savvy employer–master propagandist Paul Josef Goebbels.”

Ehrenreich, Eric. The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2007. Print. The author “traces the widespread acceptance of Nazi policies requiring German individuals to prove their Aryan ancestry to the popularity of ideas about eugenics and racial science that were advanced … ”

Enderis, Guido. “HITLER SOLIDIFIES HIS HOLD ON REICH.” New York Times 21 Oct. 1934: E3. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. “The constitutional physiognomy of the Third Reich is quietly but unerringly resolving into an image of Adolf Hitler set in the frame of a one-party totalitarian State.”

Enderis, Guido. “The New York Times.” The New York Times 22 June 1940. Web. 22 June 2012. <>. French Sign Reich Truce, Rome Pact Next; British Bomb Krupp Works and Bremen; House Quickly Passes 2-Ocean Navy Bill. Long article containing the above pieces.

Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich at War 1939-1945. London: Allen Lane, 2008. Print. “Adroitly blending narrative, description, and analysis, Richard J. Evans portrays a society rushing headlong to self-destruction and taking much of Europe with it. Interweaving a broad narrative of the war’s progress from a wide range of people, Evans reveals the dynamics of a society plunged into war at every level. The great battles and events of the conflict are here, but just as telling is Evans’s re-creation of the daily experience of ordinary Germans in wartime. At the center of the book is the Nazi extermi­nation of the Jews.”

“THE EVOLUTION, STRUCTURE, AND MEMBERSHIP OF THE RSHA HEART, 2007. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <>. Long article: “The creation of a Political Police force was an early objective of National Socialism. On 26 April 1933, Hermann Göring, initially acting as Prussian Minister of the Interior and then as Prussian Minister President, established the Secret State Police Office (Geheimes Staatspolizeiamt – Gestapa), which evolved into the Secret State Police (Geheime Staatspolizei – Gestapo). The Prussian police force had consisted of the uniformed or Order Police (Ordnungpolizei – Orpo) and the plain clothed Criminal Police (Kriminalpolizei – Kripo) which included the Political Police (Staatspolizei – Stapo). It was the political sections of the Kripo, together with the Stapo that were taken over and became the Gestapo, headed by Rudolf Diels.”

Fenyvesi, Charles. “The German Overture.” Reform Judaism Online. Union for Reform Judaism, Summer 2009. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <>. “The untold story of how in 1943 — a year before the Walkyrie plot to assassinate Hitler — the German High Command offered to turn Wehrmacht forces against the Waffen-SS Nazi troops and help America win the war. An RJ exclusive interview with Charles Fenyvesi.

Fritzsche, Peter. Life and Death in the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2008. Print. “In this masterful work, Peter Fritzsche deciphers the puzzle of Nazism’s ideological grip. … The goal was to create a new national and racial self-consciousness among Germans.”

Gedye, G.E.R. “EMIGRES IN PANIC OVER REICH RECALL.” New York Times 8 Oct. 1938. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. “Complete panic prevails among the refugees from the German-occupied areas tonight concerning the news that Germany has officially demanded the return of all German emigres, including Socialists and Communists, on the grounds that the Third Reich is ‘unwilling to part with a single German.’”

Geyer, Michael. “Life in the Third Reich: THE NAZI STATE: Machine or Morass?” History Today 36.1 (1986): 35-39. Ebsco Host. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. “Examines the political history of the Nationalist Socialist regime in Germany. Consequence of slash-and-burn approach to state activities; Description of the system of government in the Third Reich; Competition over domination in the Third Reich.” Excellent article.

Giles, Geoffrey J. “Legislating Homophobia in the Third Reich: The Radicalization of Prosecution Against Homosexuality by the Legal Profession.” German History 23.3 (2005) 339-354. Ebsco Host. Academic Search Premier, Aug. 2005. Web. 17 July 2012. In 1935 the German penal code to “close what state prosecutors had long regarded as an irritating loophole. Instead of requiring proof of penetrative sex acts for a conviction for homosexuality, court could henceforth apply much wider interpretations of a homosexual act.”

Gluck, Robert. “‘Fighting the Fires Of Hate’” 23 Jan. 2012. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <>. “Books can represent a love of life, of people, of God, and of the human spirit. Why did the Nazis burn books? What was America’s reaction to the Nazi bookburnings? Why did they burn the work of certain authors? Answers to these haunting questions are suggested in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s traveling exhibition ‘Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Book Burnings.’”

Gorin, Julian. “Mass Grave of History: Vatican’s WWII Identity Crisis.” 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “The controversy over the canonization of Pope Pius XII concerns whether he spoke out enough against the slaughter of Jews during World War II. But that question is a red herring when trying to grasp the big picture of the Vatican’s role during the war. The real question is whether the Vatican supported the world order, or at least aspects of it, that the Third Reich promised to bring, a world order in which dead Jews were collateral damage – which Pius indeed regretted. The answer can be found in a region of Europe that is generally ignored despite being the nexus of world wars: the Balkans. The Catholic Church was looking for a bulwark against expanding, ruthless, church-destroying communism, but in doing so it supported a Croatian movement called Ustasha, which rose to become the genocidal regime of Nazi satellite Croatia.”

Hall, Allan. “Revealed: The Lightweight Reading Choices of Leading Nazis Who Loved to Pose as Intellectuals.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 6 Sept. 2010. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. Review: “Reading under Hitler; Authors, Best-sellers and Readers in the Third Reich” “A new book … exposes the ‘literary-lite’ reading tastes of Hitler and his cronies during the Third Reich. While all pretended to be intellectuals consuming weighty tomes about race, culture and war, the hierarchy of Nazism were often the equivalent of today’s consumer of books with racy covers bought at airport shops.”

Hangmen Also Die. Dir. Fritz Lang. Perf. Anna Lee, Brian Donlevy. United Artists Corporation, 1943. DVD. Set in Czechoslovakia during the Nazi occupation. A Czech loyalist assassinates vicious Gestapo Leader Heydrich.

“Hitler’s Engineers: Fritz Todt and Albert Speer, Master Builders of the Third Reich.” Reference & Research Book News (Feb. 2011). General OneFile. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. “Hitler’s Engineers: Fritz Todt and Albert Speer, Master Builders of the Third Reich” by Blaine Taylor, who “uses many of the diaries and memoirs of Nazi leaders to tell the stories of two men charged with creating and maintain the infrastructure of the Third Reich.”

Joffe, Alex. “World War II and the Impossibility of Polish History.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 27 Feb. 2013. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <>. ” Halik Kochanski’s The Eagle Unbowed: Poland and the Poles in the Second World War offers important insights into the Polish experience of the war, but her treatment of the Jewish Question is less satisfying. Kochanski’s story of Poland in World War II blends betrayal, incompetence, uncommon bravery, and colossal failure against a backdrop of pervasive brutality.”

Jones, Nigel. “The Fuhrer Was Not Amused.” Spectator Blogs. The Spectator, 6 Nov. 2012. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <>. “‘The German sense of humour,’ Mark Twain famously observed, ‘Is no laughing matter.’ Although many Greeks, stretched on the Euro’s rack at Berlin’s behest, may be inclined to agree, Rudolph Herzog’s intriguing study of humour in and against Hitler’s Germany, ‘Dead Funny: Telling Jokes in Hitler’s Germany,’ proves conclusively that the Teutonic funny bone, while it may be difficult to locate, definitely exists.”

Karenberg, Axel. “Neurosciences and the Third Reich Introduction.” Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 15.3 (2006): 168-72. Print. “The article discusses the ethical issues concerning medicine and science development in Germany during the Third Reich, the dictatorship under Hitler.”

Kluckhohn, Frank. “U.S. Now at War with Germany and Italy.” On This Day. New York Times. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <>.

Klussman, Uwe. “The Ruthless Rise of the Nazis in Berlin.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 29 Nov. 2012. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <>. “In the mid-1920s, Joseph Goebbels was given the difficult task of fostering support for the growing Nazi Party in Berlin, ‘the reddest city in Europe besides Moscow.’ But, by 1933, a combination of street brutality and political smarts succeeded in catapulting the party past rival parties.”

Kohut, Thomas A. “The German Question: Where Did They Come from, Where Are They Going?” The Weekly Standard. 24 Dec. 2012. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <>. German History in Modern Times: Four Lives of the Nation by William W. Hagen is reviewed. “Because its unprecedented horror continues to escape our understanding, the Third Reich has colored how historians have looked at the entire history of modern Germany. The centuries before 1933 are seen—on some, often hidden, level—as paving the way to the Third Reich. The events of the decades since 1945 are seen, usually more explicitly, as somehow in reaction to the Third Reich. Indeed, after the mid-1960s, Germans themselves increasingly sought to come to terms with this horrific chapter in the history of their country and, in a great many cases, the history of their own families.”

Kuttler, Hillel. “JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 24 Oct. 2012. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <>. “Like many immigrants from Germany who fought in the U.S. military during World War II, Harry Ettlinger served his adopted country by translating captured materials and interpreting during interrogations of enemy prisoners. … But within that population of soldiers, Ettlinger played a unique role. He was assigned to a little-known department of the Allied forces that located and returned important documents and works of art that the Nazis had taken from public and private collections.”

Lied, Horst Wessel. “Encyclopedia: Songs of the Third Reich.” NationMaster. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. Includes “Horst Wessel’s Song.”

Lipman, Jennifer. “On This Day: Himmler Orders the Deportation of the Roma.” The Jewish Chronicle. 16 Dec. 2010. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “There were five million non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust, including up to 500,000 members of the Roma community. At Auschwitz alone, it is estimated that 19,000 of the 23,000 Roma sent there during the war died. … The worst came after December 1942, when Heinrich Himmler, Hitler’s right hand man and the architect of the Final Solution, ordered that all Roma be deported from the ‘Greater German Reich’.”

Lloyd, C. M. “Adolf Hitler Will Give You – ?” NewStatesman. 6 May 1933. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <>. “The First of May celebrations in 1933 were the last act of defiance by the German trade union movement against the Nazi dictatorship. The next day trade union offices were occupied by Storm Troopers and labour leaders arrested; many were sent to labour camps. The New Statesman correspondent C M Lloyd recognised the grim significance of the event, and warned that only the unlikely figure of Benito Mussolini blocked the road to European war.”

Lowenstein, Karl. “Law in the Third Reich.” The Yale Law Journal 45.5 (1936): 779-815. JSTOR. Web. 6 July 2012. “If we try to condense the verbosity of the basic concepts of National Socialism into a comprehensive formula we might say that the system recognizes six substantial values which are pillars upon which the whole edifice of the Third Reich, namely, state, race, soil, labor, honor, cultural and spiritual values, military power.”

May, Ernest R. Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000. Print. “Strange Victory, a riveting study not only of those crucial six weeks [Germany's conquest of France] but of the years and days leading up to the German invasion, makes it clear how Hitler, though a lazy, illformed psychopath, outguessed his own experts as to how French and British leaders would respond to german actions.”

Medoff, Rafael. “A World Series Warning About Hitler.” 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. “The 1936 Olympics, scheduled to be held in Nazi Germany, marked the first time basketball would be part of the competition. The Long Islanders stood a strong chance of being chosen to represent the U.S. in Berlin—until the players’ consciences got the better of them. In March 1936, on the eve of the qualifying tournament at Madison Square Garden, university president Tristram Metcalfe shocked the sports world with his announcement that the Blackbirds had decided to boycott Hitler’s Olympics. In view of Hitler’s anti-Jewish abuses, Metcalfe explained, the players decided ‘that the United States should not participate in Olympic Games since they are being held in Germany,’ and would ‘not compete [in the tryouts] because the university would not under any circumstances be represented in the Olympic Games held in Germany.’”

Mierzejewski, Alfred C. “Plundering Pensions: The Destruction of the German Pension System by the Third Reich.” The Historian 74.2 (2012): 286. General OneFile. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. “The following [14 page] essay is intended to fill a gap in the literature of the Third Reich’s financial history. It presents the first scholarly and focused analysis of the exploitation of the pension system’s reserves to fund the German war effort.”

Mullender, Richard. “Nazi Law and the Concept of Community.” The University of Toronto Law Journal 58.3 (2008): 377-88. JSTOR. Web. 28 July 2012. Review: “The Third Reich in Power: 1933-1939″ by Richard J. Evans and “The Coming of the Third Reich” by Richard J. Evans.

Muller, Rolf-Dieter. “The Unknown Eastern Front: The Wehrmacht and Hitler’s Foreign Soldiers.” Ibatauris: Eastern Europe. I. B. Tauris Publishers. Web. 9 Nov. 2012. <>. “When Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa with his attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Wehrmacht deployed 600,000 troops to the Eastern Front. Their numbers were later swelled by a range of foreign volunteers so that, at the height of World War II, astonishingly one in three men fighting for the Germans in the East was not a native German.”

Nagorski, Andrew. Hitlerland: American Eyewitnesses to the Nazis Rise to Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2012. Print. “Andrew Nagorski, a deft storyteller, has plumbed the dispatches, diaries, letters, and interviews of American journalists, diplomats, and others who were present in Berlin to write fascinating account of a fateful era.”

“National Socialist Principles of Education.” National Socialist Principles of Education. 1936/37. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <>. “Background: This article is titled “The Educational Principles of the New Germany,” and was published in the Nazi magazine for women. It explains how the Nazis wanted women to view education. It is a rather explicit summary of Nazi educational policy. The illustration is the cover of the issue in which this article appeared. The caption next to the young lad is: ‘Germany’s youth belong to the Führer!’”

The Nazis: A Warning from History. Dir. Samuel West. 1997. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Through archival footage and interviews with those who survived Adolph Hitler’s reign — including unrepentant Nazis — this comprehensive documentary series sheds new light on the rise of the Third Reich in Germany. Chapters reveal how the Nazi state compelled ordinary people to commit atrocities, the order and disorder within the German army, and Hitler’s propensity for getting his minions to do his work, among other enlightening facts.”

Newton, Gerald. “Radio Luxembourg in Peace and War.” German Life & Letters 66.1 (2013): 55-76. General OneFile. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. “The article traces the development of commercial broadcasting in the 1930s from Radio Luxembourg, the high-power commercial station located in Luxembourg and supposedly biased towards French propaganda, depicting how both the Third Reich and the BBC treated it with hostility.”

“The Occult History of the Third Reich: Himmler the Mystic (1991).” The New York Times: Movies. New York Times, 26 Nov. 2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <>. “The second in a three-part series of documentaries that explore the links between the Third Reich and its leaders and belief in occult powers and practices, this episode looks into the history of the SS. Originally organized as Hitler’s elite bodyguards, the SS became a sinister military/spiritual order under Heinrich Himmler; this film examines the roots in German mystic and occult teachings which inspired Himmler in the creation of this murderous gang.”

Oestreich, James R. “Vienna Philharmonic to Release Nazi Connections.” The New York Times Music. The New York Times, 01 Mar. 2013. Web. 01 Mar. 2013. <>. “The Vienna Philharmonic, which is often berated for its slowness to act, has reacted quickly to charges that it shields access to its archives to conceal the darker aspects of its Nazi past. In January, in response to criticism occasioned by the orchestra’s trademark New Year’s concerts, themselves born of the Nazi era, the Philharmonic promised a thorough review of its activities during World War II and shortly before and after. It appointed three historians said to be independent, with the results to be posted on the orchestra’s Web site.”

Overy, R. J. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Third Reich. London: Penguin, 1996. Print. “This atlas charts the rise and fall of Hitler’s Nazi state, from the first mass meeting of the NSDAP in Munich in 1920, through the relentless territorial aggression and anti-Jewish atrocities of World War II, to the execution of war criminals in Nuremburg in 1946.”

Plaut, Jams S. “Hitler’s Capital.” The Atlantic Online. The Atlantic, Oct. 1946. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <>. “After four years’ service In the Navy, James S. Plaut has resumed his duties as Director of the Institute of Modern Art, Boston. In 1943 he served as the Senior U.S. Naval Interrogation Officer in Northwest African waters, charged with the special interrogation of German U-boat crews. From November, 1944, to April, 1946, he was Director of the Art Looting Investigation Unit, OSS, and in this capacity he was directly responsible for recovering the works of art which had been looted by Rosenberg, Goring, and Hitler and hidden in Germany. The story of the retrieving and collecting of these masterpieces he will describe in this and the following issue. Twice decorated, he was retired to inactive duty as Lieutenant Commander in April, 1946.”

Prisoner of Paradise. Dir. Malcolm Clarke. 2002. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Malcolm Clarke (You Don’t Have to Die) and Stuart Sender directed this documentary feature about one of the leading theatrical figures in 1930s Berlin, Kurt Gerron. A popular actor, director and cabaret performer, Gerron, a German Jew, was later forced to write and direct a Nazi propaganda film while being held prisoner in a concentration camp. ”

The Ritchie Boys. Dir. Christian Bauer. 2004. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “This compelling documentary recounts the story of 10 Jewish intellectuals who were expelled from Nazi Germany, only to return during World War II to use their intimate knowledge of the country to wreak psychological havoc on Hitler’s Nazi forces.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Sterilization in Nazi Germany.” 20th Century History. Web. 02 July 2012. <>. “In the 1930′s, the Nazis introduced a massive, compulsory sterilization of a large segment of the German population. What could cause the Germans to do this after having already lost a large segment of their population during World War I? Why would the German people let this happen?”

Salem, Robert. “Who Benefited under the Nazis?” Hindsight Apr. 2009: 9. General OneFile. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. “There were many social, economic and political benefits to be had [under the Nazis] , but just how widespread were these?”

Selby, Scott Andrew. The Axmann Conspiracy: The Nazi Plan for a Fourth Reich and How the U.S. Army Defeated It. New York, NY: Berkley, 2012. Print. “A trusted member of Hitler’s inner circle, Artur Axmann, the head of the Hitler Youth, witnessed the Führer commit suicide in Berlin—but he would not let the Reich die with its leader. Evading capture, and with access to remnants of the regime’s wealth, Axmann had enough followers to reestablish the Nazi party in the very heart of Allied-occupied Germany—and position himself to become dictator of the Fourth Reich.”

Shapreau, Carla. “A Violin Once Owned by Goebbels Keeps Its Secrets.” The New York Times. 23 Sept. 2012. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <>. “Joseph Goebbels, in a pinstripe suit, his hair slicked back, gave a simple but philosophical speech about the importance of music. Then, smiling, he handed over the violin to a young woman. The passing was captured on film: the violin’s elegant outline, the figure on its flamed-maple back, the wear pattern of its varnish. Japan’s ambassador to Germany, Hiroshi Oshima, was on hand to witness the transfer. Nejiko Suwa, 23, played her new gift on the spot.”

Simon Wiesenthal Center. SWC’s Newly Aquired [sic] “Hitler” Letter: “One of the Most Important Documents in the History of the Third Reich” General OneFile. GALE, 7 June 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. “[T]he Simon Wiesenthal Center announced that it had acquired the most significant document in its 34-year history (see New York Times article). The document, a 4-page letter signed by Adolf Hitler, dated September 16, 1919, six years before the publication of Mein Kampf describes his hatred of Jews outlining his plans which call for, “The uncompromising removal of the Jews altogether. …”

Smith, S.E., and O. Wallace. “What Is the Difference between the German Army, Gestapo, Nazi Party, SA, SS, and Wehrmacht?” WiseGeek. Conjecture. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <>. “Students of European history often encounter discussions of the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo), Wehrmacht, Sturmabteilung (SA), Schutzstaffel (SS), and Nationalsozialisische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nazi Party) in books and commentaries about Germany in the first half of the 20th century. These organizations all had slightly different roles in Germany in the 1930s through 1940s, contributing to Hitler’s rise to power and the conflict of the Second World War. Understanding the precise role and function of each organization can be helpful to people who are trying to understand the military and political structure of Germany in the 1930s and 1940s.”

Snyder, Timothy. “How Hitler Could Have Won.” Rev. of The Storm of the Second World War: A New History of the Second World War. The New York Times 17 June 2011. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. <>. “How did the Wehrmacht, the best fighting force, lose World War II? The reader seeking the answer to this question, posed by Andrew Roberts in his splendid history, will be treated to a brilliantly clear and accessible account of the war in all of its theaters: Asian, African and European.”

Sonthoff, Herert G. “Last Hours in Germany.” The Atlantic. Nov. 1939. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <>. The author reflects on his last hours in Germany. “There was the ‘man in the street.’ To me he exemplified completely the effect of the Nazi propaganda machine. The way of thinking of the German people, based on their readiness to believe and trust their authorities, has been shrewdly utilized by their present rulers. … The people’s natural sense of justice, righteousness, and fairness was submerged in a wave of nationalism, gradually producing the readiness to distrust everything ‘foreign’ and believe what the Wilhelmstrasse chose to lay before the public.”

Stahl, André, and Jean-Baptiste Piggin. “Historians Uncover Evil of Third Reich Tax Authorities.” The America’s Intelligence Wire (2010). General OneFile. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. “Historians have uncovered evidence of how the Third Reich’s tax authorities ruined Jews and financed the Nazi invasion of Europe. …”

Strupp, Chrisoph. “Marking Eighty Years Since Hitler Took Power in Germany.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <>. “Along with other observers, diplomats in Berlin in 1933 did not immediately recognize that the appointment of the new government marked a historical turning point. At that early stage, no one predicted that the Nazi regime would last for 12 years and end with a disaster on the scale of World War II. Initially, Hitler’s cabinet was viewed as just another in a series of more or less short-lived German governments.”

Sumption, Jonathan. “Nothing Left to Lose: Jonathan Sumption of the Obduracy, Distrust and Inertia That Characterised the End of the Third Reich.” Spectator (2011): 30. General OneFile. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. “The End: Hitler’s Germany, 1944-45″ by Ian Kershaw is reviewed. “In this book, Ian Kershaw asks how Hitler was able to maintain control of Germany and its armed forces in the face of certain defeat. … Kershaw deploys a remarkable wide range of material , published and unpublished, famous, infamous or unknown.”

“THIRD GERMAN REICH FULLY ESTABLISHED.” New York Times 24 Apr. 1933: 5. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. “The first stage of the German overturn may now be said to have ended. The democratic republic has been overthrown, its Constitution has been abrogated and every possible relic of it — almost every memory-has been obliterated.”

Third Reich Berlin (Reichshauptstadt) 1936. 2013. YouTube. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <>. Historical Archive footage of Berlin, Nazi Germany 1936 in Colour.

“Third Reich Continues Its Program Of Eager Rearming and of Persecution.” New York Times 1 Jan. 1936. ProQuest. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. “Third Reich continues it program of eager rearming and of persecution.”

Tiley, Marc. “The Third Reich’s Bank of England.” History Today 57.8 (2007): 50-55. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. “The article discusses counterfeiting operations by the Nazis against the British economy during World War II.”

Tolischus, Otto D. “REICH UNREST RISES WITH PRICE OF FOOD.” New York Times 29 July 1935: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. “Despite the many blessings that the National Socialist leaders insist the Third Reich has brought to the German people, it is obvious to any discerning observer able to look below the cover of Nazi coordination that there remains a great deal of unrest among the masses, which seems to be increasing rather than decreasing.”

“Top 10 Little-Known Events in World War II.” Listverse. 2 Mar. 2011. Web. 04 July 2012. <>. A list of very interesting and unusual World War II events. The list contains paragraphs and photos for episodes such as Vichy France vs. the Allies.

“Tracking Hitler’€™s Rise.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. <>. “The question as to when and to what degree news media perceived Hitler as a threat is a common one. How did JTA track the early years of Hitler and the Nazi Party? Perhaps JTA’s earliest reference to the rise of the Nazi party was included in the October 11, 1921 ‘Daily Bulletins: Cable despatches from special correspondents in Europe and Palestine.’” Other bulletins are recounted.

Wallace, Max. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the Rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin’s, 2003. Print. “Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh have long been exalted as two of the greatest American icons of the twentieth century. From award-winning journalist Max Wallace comes groundbreaking and astonishing revelations about the poisonous effect these two so-called American heroes had on Western democracy. In his wide ranging investigation, Wallace goes further than any other historian to expose how Ford and Lindbergh-acting in league with the Nazis-almost brought democratic Europe to the verge of extinction.”

Welch, David. The Third Reich: Politics and Propaganda. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print. “The art of propaganda lies in understanding the emotional ideas of the great masses and finding, through a psychologically correct form, the way to the attention and thence to the heart of the broad masses.” Adolf Hitler

“Welcome to World War II News.” Hitler News. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <>. “Hitler’s Third Reich and World War II in the News is a daily edited review of WWII articles-including German WW2 militaria – providing thought-provoking collection of hand-picked WW2 information.”

Westermann, Stefanie. “Secret Suffering: The Victims of Compulsory Sterilization during National Socialsim.” History of Psychiatry 23.4 (2012): 483-87. Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. “[T]he victims of compulsory sterilization suffered physicall and psychologically throughout their lives. In particular, feelings of social inferiority, and of shame and suffering from compulsory childlessness and broken relationships, are found in many of the sources examined.”