Holocaust, Jews #3

“Miriam Rosenthal was four-months pregnant, starving, bone-tired, cold, filthy and afraid when an SS officer in big black boots and a crisp uniform appeared before the barracks in Auschwitz with a loudspeaker in hand. ‘All pregnant women line up,’ he barked. ‘Line up, line up — your food portions are being doubled.’ ‘Can you imagine?’ Miriam asks. ‘Even women who were not pregnant stepped forward. I was standing with my younger cousin, but I wouldn’t go.’ She [her cousin] says, ‘Miriam, what are you doing?’ ‘Something was holding me back. Someone was watching over me. … Two hundred women stepped forward and 200 women went to the gas chamber. And I don’t know why I didn’t step forward.’”

Joe O’Connor. “Pregnant in Auschwitz.” August 25, 2012


“1,000,000 Jews in Hungary Being Gradually Eliminated from Economic, Cultural Life.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 16 Dec. 1941. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1941/12/16/2856099/1000000-jews-in-hungary-being-gradually-eliminated-from-economic-cultural-life>. Twenty page article: “The more than 1,000,000 Jews in Hungary are slowly being eliminated from the economic, cultural and social life of the country, it was stated today by Premier Lazlo De Bardossy in a report reviewing the situation of Hungarian minorities in other countries and the condition of national minorities within Hungary.”

“200 Gestapo Men Killed by Jews During Battle in Polish Extermination Camp€.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 Feb. 1944. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1944/02/08/2863008/200-gestapo-men-killed-by-jews-during-battle-in-polish-extermination-camp>. “More than 200 Gestapo agents and Ukrainian guards in the ‘Jewish extermination camp’ of Sobibor, in occupied Poland, were killed during a revolt of the Jewish internees organized with the aid of the underground movement, the Polish Government-in-Exile reported today.”

“6,000 Danish Jews Reported Safe in Sweden; Two “prison Ships” Leave Denmark.” JTA Jewish News Archive. 13 Oct. 1943. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/13/2860952/6000-danish-jews-reported-safe-in-sweden-two-prison-ships-leave-denmark>. “Approximately 6,000 of the 8,000 native and refugee Jews of Denmark have succeeded in reaching Sweden, it is reported in the Swedish press today. Large numbers of Danish Jews have entered the country during the last two days.”

Aderet, Ofer. “Diary of a Love That Perished in Auschwitz.” Haaretz.com. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.haaretz.com/news/features/diary-of-a-love-that-perished-in-auschwitz.premium-1.468989>. “It took Alice Lehmann decades to dare to open the journals of her first love, Bernie Sapir, who was murdered in Auschwitz. Now the 88-year-old Jerusalemite has shared their tragic tale in a heartrending book.”

Alperin, Michele. “A Tale of Mutual Empathy: Jewish Refugee Scholars at Historically Black colleges – Latest News – JNS.org | News Service.” Jns.Org. 13 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2013/1/13/a-tale-of-mutual-empathy-jewish-refugee-scholars-at-historic.html>. “In Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love, an exhibition … will highlight a historical moment of mutual respect and cooperation between the African American and Jewish communities. Although their relationship has often been tense, especially after the rise of the black power movement and its expressions of anti-Semitism, the hiring of Jewish refugee scholars in the 1930s by historically black colleges stands as a beacon to the potential for common ground between the two groups.”

“Anti-jewish Terror Increasing Nazi-held Poland; Typhus Epidemic Raging.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 16 Dec. 1941. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1941/12/16/2856098/antijewish-terror-increasing-naziheld-poland-typhus-epidemic-raging>. “Anti-Jewish terror is increasing in the sections of Nazi-held Poland and Russia where Jews are concentrated, according to information reaching Polish Jewish circles here today.”

Applebaum, Stephen. “Meet the Catholic Priest with the Kippah.” The JC.com. 22 Mar. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/65503>. “What makes a Jew? This is the question at the heart of Israeli filmmaker Ronit Kerstner’s documentary ‘Torn’. The film … tells the story of Romuald-Jakub Weksler-Waszkinel (now known as Yaacov Weksler-Waszkinel), a Polish Catholic priest who discovered, 12 years after his ordination, that he was in fact the son of Jews killed in the Holocaust. To ensure his safety, his mother had given him up to be looked after by a Polish couple days after his birth.”

Aronson, Marc. Bomb: The Race to Build – and Steal – the Worlds Most Dangerous Weapon by SteveSheinkin; Beyond Courage:The Untold Story of Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust by Doreen Rappaport. Print. Review of two books for younger readers.

Baker, Leonard. Days of Sorrow and Pain: Leo Baeck and the Berlin Jews. New York: Macmillan, 1978. Print. “Leo Baeck has become a symbol, both of the Jews he had led in Berlin and of the Jews imprisoned at Theresienstadt.”

Berman, Aaron. “American Response to the Holocaust.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/65503>. “The systematic persecution of German Jewry began with Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in 1933. Facing economic, social, and political oppression, thousands of German Jews wanted to flee the Third Reich but found few countries willing to accept them. Eventually, under Hitler’s leadership, some 6 million Jews were murdered during World War II.”

Blessed Is the Match: The Life and Death of Hannah Senesh. Dir. Roberta Grossman. 2008. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. [R]iveting portrait of Hungarian poet Hannah who endured capture, torture, and death to rescue Jews.

Bonhoeffer. Dir. Martin Doblmeier. Released by Raymond/Taffner Co., 2003. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Based on actual events, this is the staggeringly powerful story of Auschwitz’s 12th Sonderkommando — one of 13 ‘special squads’ of Jewish prisoners forced by the Nazis to help exterminate fellow Jews in exchange for a few more months of life.”

Bonish, Georg. “Everyday Murder, Nazi Atrocities, Committed by Ordinary People.” Spiegel Online. SPIEGELnet GmbH, 18 Mar. 2008. Web. 07 Aug. 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/everyday-murder-nazi-atrocities-committed-by-ordinary-people-a-542245.html>. “From doctors to opera singers, teachers to truant schoolchildren, the extermination of European Jews was the work of roughly 200,000 ordinary Germans and their helpers. Years of research — not yet complete — reveal how sane members of a modern society committed murder for an evil regime.”

“British Spy Frank Foley Who Saved German Jews Honoured.” TheJC.com. 12 July 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/69876>. “A ‘true British hero’ of the Holocaust who risked his life to save 10,000 German Jews has had his bravery marked at a Jewish cemetery. The plaque honoring Major Frank Foley has been placed at the entrance to Hoop Lane cemetery in Golders Green..

(Bruno) Bar-On, D. “Holocaust Perpetrators and Their Children: A Paradoxical Morality.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 29.4 (1989): 424-43. Print. “Thru study attempts to trace evidence of a suppressed moral conflict in perpetrators of the extermination process during the Third Reich and in perpetrators’ children.”

Brzezinski, Matthew. “Isaac Zuckerman Unbound.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc., 19 Sept. 2012. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/111786/isaac-zuckerman-unbound>. “This is an excerpt from Isaac’s Army: A Story of Courage and Survival in Nazi-Occupied Poland by Matthew Brzezinski. In this section, Zivia Lubetkin, one of the leaders of the Jewish underground in Nazi-occupied Warsaw, and Isaac Zuckerman, the 24-year-old co-founder, along with Mark Edelman, of the Jewish Fighting Organization, first learn of the 1941 Vilna massacre , and consider the chances—and significance—of the violence coming to Warsaw.”

Caldwell, Simon. “Nun Back on Shoah Hero List.” The JC.com. 14 May 2009. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/14493>. “A Catholic nun who saved a family of French Jews from the Nazis has been added to a list of British heroes proposed for an honour by the government after initially being forgotten. Sister Agnes Walsh is one of just 13 Britons already honoured as Righteous Among Nations by Yad Vashem.”

The Children of Chabannes. Dir. Lisa Gossels. 1999. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “This uplifting documentary that premiered on HBO recounts a small miracle in the midst of sweeping tragedy. Between 1939 and ’42, more than 400 Jewish children were given sanctuary at Château de Chabannes, a school in an outlying region of France.”

Cottrell, Chris. “Memorial to Roma Victims of Holocaust Opens in Berlin.” Europe. The New York Times, 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/25/world/europe/memorial-to-romany-victims-of-holocaust-opens-in-berlin.html>. ” Germany paid tribute on Wednesday to the hundreds of thousands of Romany people killed in the Holocaust, opening a long-awaited place of remembrance for a minority still plagued by discrimination.”

“Could the BBC Have Done More to Help Hungarian Jews?” BBC News. BBC, 13 Nov. 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-20267659>. “Nearly half a million Hungarian Jews were killed in a matter of weeks in 1944 soon after German forces invaded their country. Mike Thomson reveals how the BBC’s Hungarian Service could have warned them of their likely fate in the event of such an invasion, but did not do so.”

Doino, William. “Yad Vashem Honors Cardinal Who Fought for Jewish Lives Comments.” First Things. 29 Dec. 2012. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/blogs/firstthoughts/2012/12/29/yad-vashem-honors-cardinal-for-sheltering-jews/> ”The recent news that Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa has been recognized as ‘Righteous Among the Nations’ by Israel’s Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial is a welcome, and a much-deserved, honor. Dalla Costa, the archbishop of Florence during World War II, ‘played a central role in the organization and operation of a widespread rescue network,’ said Yad Vashem in its November announcement. He ‘recruited rescuers from among the clergy, supplied letters to his activists so that they could go to heads of monasteries and convents entreating them to shelter Jews, and sheltered Jews in his own palace.’”

Dromi, Uri. “How It All Began.” Rev. of End of the Rope. Haaretz Daily Newspaper 31 July 2012. Israel News. 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. <http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/week-s-end/how-it-all-began-1.218551>. “Through the stories of seven families, intertwined with episodes of degradation and suffering as well as others of heroism and self-sacrifice, he traces the beginning of the process that led to German Jewry’s dehumanization, a process that ended in the gas chambers.”

Epstein, Angela. “‘I Broke into Auschwitz, I Had to See It for Myself’” The JC.com. 01 Sept. 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/lifestyle/lifestyle-features/53982/i-broke-auschwitz-i-had-see-it-myself> The view from Denis Avey’s hill-top Derbyshire cottage is spectacular. Little wonder the sprightly 92-year-old loves relaxing in his favourite armchair and looking out over the fields and hills surrounding his lovely home. But despite the tranquillity, nothing can stop the stream of barbaric snapshots flashing into the mind of this former prisoner of war as he recalls what he witnessed when he broke into Auschwitz. Yes, that is broke in, not broke out. For as a British soldier incarcerated at a nearby work camp, Avey had heard of the horrors taking place at the nearby Nazi death camp. And he wanted to see it for himself.”

“Experiments Begin on Homosexuals at Buchenwald.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, 1 Oct. 1944. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/experiments-begin-on-homosexuals-at-buchenwald>. “On this day [Oct. 1] in 1944, the first of two sets of medical experiments involving castration are performed on homosexuals at the Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany.”

Filipov, David. “One Last Journey into the Night.” Boston.com. The New York Times, 03 June 2012. Web. 08 June 2012. <http://articles.boston.com/2012-06-03/news/32009887_1_izzy-candlesticks-poland>. “Izzy has traveled more than 4,000 miles from his Newton home to get here. It is not his first trip back to the towns and fields where he and his family encountered a Nazi regime intent on wiping out Jewish life in Europe. But, at 87, he believes it will be his last.”

“Fishermen Establish Regular Ferry Service for Refugees Between Denmark and Sweden.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 11 Oct. 1943. Web. 09 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/11/2860931/fishermen-establish-regular-ferry-service-for-refugees-between-denmark-and-sweden>. “Eight hundred Danish Jews were landed in Sweden yesterday and another 800 reached here on Friday. German naval vessels continue to patrol Danish waters, however, and four of the ships carrying refugees have been sunk. Several Danish fishermen have also been arrested.”

Foer, Paul, and Chananette P. Cohen. “For Hispanic ‘Crypto-Jews,’ Lawsuits May Follow Religious Rediscovery.” JNS.org. 29 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/10/29/for-hispanic-crypto-jews-lawsuits-may-follow-religious-redis.html> ”The 2011 wedding of Sonya Loya in the Sephardic Education Center of Jerusalem’s Old City. Loya—a Hispanic-American woman raised as a Catholic in New Mexico—learned from her father at age 44 that his family swore him to secrecy about their Jewish roots. Sonya Loya’s path of rediscovery aligns with the journey potentially millions of other ‘Crypto-Jews’ take back to their Jewish roots. Her story, and the stories of others with similar backgrounds, is also still unfolding—with legal action against the Catholic Church as the possible next chapter.”

Friedman, Saul S. No Haven for the Oppressed; United States Policy toward Jewish Refugees, 1938-1945. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1973. Print. “Examines the United States government’s reaction to the Jewish refugee problem, underscoring its failure to act on behalf of these individuals. Portrays the American government and Jewish leaders as equally unwilling to advocate for European Jews. Begins with an introduction to the restrictive measures against immigrants originating from the nineteenth century. Includes extensive endnotes and an index.”

Gesin, Michael. “The Holocaust in Romania.” Rev. of The History of the Holocaust in Romania. H-Net Reviews Sept. 2012. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/967f7?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=8c7b2ca9bb-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “The deaths of millions of Jews at the hands of the Nazis have prompted much research and the publication of thousands of books. Despite it all, the Romanian Holocaust remains a somewhat obscure subject. In fact, little has been published concerning the tragic events that took place there during World War II. Few are aware that a country other than Nazi Germany devised and executed a different kind of Final Solution.”

Geyer, Michael. “Life in the Third Reich: The Nazi State: Machine or Morass?” History Today 36.1 (1986): 35. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 July 2012. “Examines the political history of the Nationalist Socialist regime in Germany. … Competing interests as much as ideology fuelled the functioning of the Third Reich, augmented by forced labour and the plunder of Occupied Europe.”

Giles, Geoffrey J. “Legislating Homophobia in the Third Reich: The Radicalization of Prosecution Against Homosexuality by the Legal Profession.” Ebsco Host. Academic Search Premier, Aug. 2005. Web. 17 July 2012. In 1935 the German penal code to “close what state prosecutors had long regarded as an irritating loophole. Instead of requiring proof of penetrative sex acts for a conviction for homosexuality, court could henceforth apply much wider interpretations of a homosexual act.”

Glasner, Chaya. “Not Ordinary at All.” Jewish Ideas Daily. Jewish Ideas Daily, 25 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/5821/features/not-ordinary-at-all/>. “United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon dedicated this year’s International Holocaust Remembrance Day to rescuers of Nazi victims who were not famous heroes but little-known people living ‘ordinary’ lives. Yet some of those little-known rescuers lived anything but ordinary lives, like the extraordinary Berta Davidovitz Rubinsztejn.”

Glasner, Chaya. “Righteous Among Our Nation.” Jewish Ideas Daily. Jewish Ideas Daily, 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/1113/features/righteous-among-our-nation/>. “Even before visitors walk through the door of Yad Vashem, Israel’s Holocaust Museum, they see a powerful tribute to Holocaust heroism. Along the Avenue of the Righteous leading to the museum, thousands of trees bloom in honor of the approximately 21,000 ‘Righteous Among the Nations,’ courageous Gentiles who defied the Nazis and risked their lives to save Jews from deportation. … Such tributes are manifestly appropriate, but Holocaust museums generally omit another important group of rescuers: the 200 Jewish organizations within and outside Nazi Europe that worked to rescue fellow Jews from the Nazis.”

Goeschel, Christian. “Suicides of German Jews in the Third Reich.” German History 25.1 (2007): 22-45. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 July 2012. “This 23-page article re-examines Jewish responses towards Nazi racism by studying German-Jewish suicides. … This article also takes up the question as to how far, if at all, German-Jewish suicides can be considered a form of resistance towards Nazism and to what extent they were an act of despair and hopelessness.”

Goldstein, David. “Portrait of Papa as a Young Man.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-life-and-religion/118979/portrait-of-papa-as-a-young-man>. “In my grandfather’s village, I found the man he’d been before memories of the Holocaust destroyed him. … I found the gorgeous pastoral village where he’d lived, where he’d been more than just a victim, where he’d been an actual three-dimensional person who played and loved and thrived, and perhaps this was a far richer, more valuable thing to discover.”

The Grey Zone. Dir. Tim Blake Nelson. 2001. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. This film is based on actual events. “[T]his is the staggeringly powerful story of Auschwitz’s 12th Sonderkommando — one of 13 “special squads” of Jewish prisoners forced by the Nazis to help exterminate fellow Jews in exchange for a few more months of life.”

Heschel, Susannah. “Jewish Studies in the Third Reich: A Brief Glance at Viktor Christian and Kurt Schubert.” Review of Rabbinic Judaism 13.2 (2010): 236-49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 July 2012.

Horn, Dara. “The Rescuer.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 17 Jan. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/88130/the-rescuer>. Book – “The Rescuer” “Between 1940 and 1941, working out of a hotel room and later a small office in the French port city of Marseille, Varian Fry rescued hundreds of artists, writers, musicians, composers, scientists, philosophers, intellectuals, and their families from the Nazis, taking enormous personal risks to bring them to the United States. Fry was one of the only American ‘righteous Gentiles,’ a man who voluntarily risked everything to save others, with no personal connection to those he saved.”

Horwitz, Gordon J. Ghettostadt: Łódź and the Making of a Nazi City. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2008. Print. “Gordon Horwitz’s unflinching and heartbreaking narrative of occupied Lodz juxtaposes the Nazi plans for its urban ‘cleansing’ and renewal with the inexorable destruction of its ghettoized Jewish community.”

“How America First Learned of The Holocaust.” JNS.org. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/6/11/how-america-first-learned-of-the-holocaust.html>. “Seventy years ago this month America learned, for the first time, about the systematic mass murder of Europe’s Jews—but Allied officials and some leading newspapers downplayed the news.”

“In Lithuania, $47 Million Lump Sum Payout for Jewish Property Gets Go-ahead.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 23 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/10/23/3110101/outgoing-lithuanian-official-okays-47m-compensation-for-jewish-property>. “Lithuania agreed in principle to a lump sum transfer of $47 million to its Jewish community as compensation for lost Holocaust-era property. Chancellor Deividas Matulionis, chief of staff for Prime Minister Andrius Kubilius, agreed to the transfer at a meeting last week with Gunther Saathoff, director of the German government’s EVZ Foundation for compensating victims of Nazi Germany, Faina Kukliansky, the vice president of Lithuania’s Jewish community, told JTA.”

Jackson, Harriet. “Point of View: The Teenager Who Arrested Himmler.” The Riverdale Press. 14 May 2009. Web. 1 Aug. 2012. <http://riverdalepress.com/stories/Point-of-view-The-teenager-who-arrested-Himmler,41053?sub_id=41053&print=1>. “Holocaust survivor Guy Bishop passed away on Holocaust Remembrance Day, April 21, 2008. Few people know that he arrested Heinrich Himmler, the Nazi responsible for the mass murder of 6 million Jews.”

“Jewish Suicides in Germany Still Go on Despite Jewish Community’s Incpeased [sic] Allocation for Relief Fu [sic].” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 11 Sept. 1931. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1931/09/11/2791827/jewish-suicides-in-germany-still-go-on-despite-jewish-communitys-incpeased-allocation-for-relief-funds-notwithstanding-its-bulget-difficulties>. “in spite of the fact that the relief office of the Berlin Jewish Community, notwithstanding the serious difficulties of the Community in covering its budget, has increased its relief allocations, because of the growing economic distress among the Jews of Berlin, the wave of Jewish suicides shows no sign of abatement, and to-day there were no less than four Jewish suicides in Berlin.”

“Jews Don’t Need Tutoring in Democracy.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 22 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/interview-with-jewish-german-leader-charlotte-knobloch-a-862650.html>. “Ahead of her 80th birthday, Charlotte Knobloch, one of Germany’s most prominent Jewish leaders, talks with SPIEGEL about her relationship with the country, her outrage over the recent circumcision debate and the former housemaid in Bavaria who saved her from the Nazis.”

“Jews in Denmark Committing Suicide; Germany Remains €œunmoved, Berlin Says.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 7 Oct. 1943. Web. 2 July 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/07/2860902/jews-in-denmark-committing-suicide-germany-remains-unmoved-berlin-says> ”A considerable number of Jews have committed suicide in Denmark as a result of the Gestapo manhunt, it was reported here today by Danish policemen who escaped to Sweden after being disarmed by the German military authorities in Copenhagen for refusing to cooperate in rounding up the Jews. Einar Dessau, noted Jewish philanthropist, is among those who took their life by poison, they said.”

Jud Suss. Dir. Veit Harlan. Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team, 1940. Holocaust Research Project. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/holoprelude/judsuss.html>. “Long recognized as history’s most incendiary film, Jud Süss was the cultural centerpiece in Joseph Goebbels’ campaign against the Jews. Released in 1940, it was a box office sensation across Germany and Europe; alongside the movie’s theatrical distribution, it became a staple of Nazi propaganda evenings organized by the Hitler Youth, SS and others.”

Kirsch, Adam. “The November Pogrom.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 10 Nov. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/20166/the-november-pogrom>. “In our collective memory of the Holocaust, Kristallnacht occupies a central but ambiguous place. If you look simply at the statistics, there is little reason why the events of November 9-10, 1938, should loom so large. … 91 Jews were killed in the nationwide pogrom that became known as the ‘Night of Broken Glass.’ ‘That figure, … included neither Jewish suicides nor the significantly larger number of Jews who were arrested in connection with the pogrom and would die in concentration camps in the following weeks and months.’ But even when we remember that 30,000 Jewish men were arrested—about 10 percent of the entire Jewish population of Germany—Kristallnacht pales in comparison with later Nazi crimes. Why do Jews—and … Germans—continue to remember Kristallnacht as a uniquely terrible event, even though the broken glass was followed, within a few years, by gas chambers and death camps?”

Langer, Lawrence L. “Satan’s Biographers.” The Atlantic Online. The Atlantic, Feb. 1999. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/99feb/hitler.htm>. “The tangled skein of Nazi Germany’s murder of European Jewry continues to unravel in our imagination, even as we seek to weave its unruly strands into a tapestry of understanding. The magnitude of the crime, the tenacity of its architects, the cruelty of the criminals who carried it out, the cooperation of collaborators, foreign and domestic, during various steps in the killing process — all these have spurred countless inquiries into the motives and methods of those involved. But more than fifty years after his death, more than sixty after his accession to power, more than a century after his birth, Adolf Hitler continues to intrigue the popular mind and the scholarly community as the sinister fabricator of the Holocaust. However contrary to reason and logic, to say nothing of the complexity of historical forces, the notion that finding the sources of Hitler’s anti-Semitism will somehow enable us to trace a clear path to its disastrous results continues to bewitch us.”

Lipman, Jennifer. “If You Couldn’t Walk, They Shot You.” The JC.com. The Jewish Chronicle Online, 26 Jan. 2013. Web. 06 Feb. 2013. <http://www.thejc.com/survivor-stories/62644/if-you-couldnt-walk-they-shot-you>. “As a child growing up in a Romanian village, Leslie Kleinman heard stories about the Nazis from Polish escapees. ‘One man said they were pulling children’s legs apart and killing them,’ recalled Mr Kleinman, who was 14 when the Nazis arrived in his village in the spring of 1944. ‘I thought it was just a story. When I got to Auschwitz, I realised it was true.’”

Lipman, Jennifer. “Nurses of Bergen Belsen Survivors Recognised in Research.” TheJC.com. 04 Oct. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/84665>. “The heroic efforts of nurses and other female aid workers in the immediate aftermath of the liberation of Bergen Belsen, including the aunt of broadcaster Esther Rantzen, have been highlighted in a new piece of research. Nearly 70 years after Allied troops entered the concentration camp to find 40,000 survivors on the brink of death, the true number of women who joined relief groups as nurses, social workers or cooks remains unclear.”

Lipman, Jennifer. “On This Day: The Wannsee Conference.” On This Day: The Wannsee Conference. 20 Jan. 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/43905>. “A peaceful lakeside spot in a sleepy suburb of Berlin, an uninformed visitor to Wannsee might be quite charmed by the place. But the villa there has a chilling history – it was there, 69 years ago, that 15 Nazi leaders coined the term ‘Final Solution’ and coordinated the genocidal campaign it would involve.”

Lipman, Jennifer. “On This Day: The Warsaw Ghetto Is Sealed.” The JC.com. 16 Nov. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/41267>. “In 1939 when the Nazis invaded Poland Warsaw’s Jewish community, which at the time made up about 30 per cent of the city’s population, was the second largest in the world. … But in October 1940 German governor Hans Frank decreed that all Jewish residents of the city would have to move to one specified area, separated from the rest of the population by barbed wire, armed guards and a ten feet wall. A month later, it was sealed off, with an estimated 400,000 Jews trapped in just 1.3 square miles. On average, 7.2 people lived in every room, and there were widespread food and medicine shortages. Meanwhile, hundreds of thousands were deported to death camps or killed in the ghetto.”

Lipman, Jennifer. “Palestinian Arab Leader Struck Wartime Deal with Nazis.” Palestinian Arab Leader Struck Wartime Deal with Nazis. 15 Dec. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/42607>. “The Nazis told the leader of the Palestinian Arabs that in return for his help during the Second World War he would have control of Palestine. According to a report released this week by the US National Archives, based on thousands of declassified documents, the Nazis planned to make the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, overall leader after the British were ousted and the 350,000-strong Jewish population was murdered.”

Medina, Jennifer. “Many Holocaust Survivors Living in Poverty, Report Says.” The New York Times. 16 Apr. 2007. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/world/africa/16iht-web-holocaust16.5309346.html>. “JERUSALEM — Every year here, Holocaust Memorial Day is marked with a solemn focus. The cafés close early. Air raid sirens are blasted throughout the country for two full minutes. Television stations devote hours of programs to commemorate the killing of six million Jews. But another number received a laser-sharp focus Monday: Nearly one-third of the estimated 260,000 Holocaust survivors here are now living in poverty.”

Medoff, Rafael. “How America First Learned of The Holocaust.” JNS.org. 11 June 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/6/11/how-america-first-learned-of-the-holocaust.html>. “Seventy years ago this month America learned, for the first time, about the systematic mass murder of Europe’s Jews—but Allied officials and some leading newspapers downplayed the news.”

Medoff, Rafeal. “Dr. Seuss and the Holocaust In France.” JNS.org. 15 July 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/7/15/dr-seuss-and-the-holocaust-in-france.html>. “The future creator of such beloved classics as The Cat in the Hat and Green Eggs and Ham employed stark and disturbing imagery in his July 20 cartoon. He drew a forest filled with corpses hanging from the trees, with a sign reading “Jew” pinned to each body. Adolf Hitler, with extra rope draped on his arm, and Vichy leader Pierre Laval were shown singing happily.”

Medoff, Rafel. “Tarzan and The Holocaust.” JNS.org. 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/9/10/tarzan-and-the-holocaust.html>. “In one of the Hebrew novellas, Tarzan helps smuggle Jewish refugees out of Europe and past the British naval blockade of Palestine. At one point in the story, Tarzan is captured by the British and imprisoned, although he later escapes. In real life, the Irgun Zvai Leumi underground militia in Palestine initiated the Aliyah Bet (unauthorized immigration) campaign in 1937. It brought an estimated 20,000 Jews to the Holy Land during the next four years. About 7,500 miles away, a handful of Jewish activists were looking for donors in Hollywood to help bankroll the Aliyah Bet operations. Hillel Kook (using the name Peter Bergson), Yitshaq Ben-Ami, Samuel Merlin, and Alex Rafaeli, followers of the Revisionist Zionist leader Ze’ev Jabotinsky and members of the Irgun, had been sent by Jabotinsky to the U.S. between 1938 and 1940 to seek financial and political support for Aliyah Bet and the creation of a Jewish state.”

Mikies, David. “The Diplomat of Shoah History.” Tablet. 26 July 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/107382/diplomat-of-shoah-history>. The dispute between Poles and Jews about the Nazi period can move in unsettling directions, ones that make an unhealed wound hurt even worse. … The Polish role in the Holocaust had other roots, darker ones: traditional anti-Semitism and the greedy desire for Jewish property.”

Morse, Arthur D. When Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy. Woodstock, NY: Overlook, 1998. Print. “Amasses and reveals evidence, including previously unavailable government documents, that characterizes the American government as apathetic towards the victims of Nazi atrocities. Discusses American involvement with and reaction to specific events such as the Evian Conference, Kristallnacht, and the voyage of the St. Louis. Includes notes, a bibliography, and an index.”

My Knees Were Jumping: Remembering the Kindertransport. Dir. Melissa Hacker. 1996. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Narrated by screen legend Joanne Woodward, this affecting documentary chronicles the story behind the Kindertransport, a British refugee program that saved more than 10,000 Jewish children during World War II.”

Nazi Concentration Camps (1945). Nazi Concentration Camps. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 04 July 2012. <http://archive.org/details/nazi_concentration_camps>. “Motion Picture Films Used as Exhibits and Evidence at World War Crimes.”

“Nazis Expel 600 Jews to €˜no-man’€™s-land,€™ Shoot Poles Who Feed Them; 8 Children Die.” Jewish News Archive 9 Nov. 1939. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1939/11/10/2848471/nazis-expel-600-jews-to-nomansland-shoot-poles-who-feed-them-8-children-die>. “The Gestapo has expelled 600 Polish Jews into the ‘no-man’s land’ on the Lithuanian frontier, fatally injuring four of them, in addition to eight children who died of exposure, and shooting several Polish farmers who attempted to provide the refugees with food, it was learned here today.”

Niewyk, Donald L., and Francis R. Nicosia. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. New York: Columbia UP, 2000. Print. “Offers a general history of the Holocaust and addresses many of the core issues and debates surrounding it.”

O’Connor, Joe. “Pregnant in Auschwitz: Toronto Holocaust Survivor Recalls Split-second Decision That Saved Her and Unborn son.” National Post News. 25 Aug. 2012. Web. 08 Feb. 2013. <http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/08/25/pregnant-in-auschwitz-toronto-holocaust-survivor-recalls-split-second-decision-that-saved-her-and-unborn-son/>. “Miriam Rosenthal was four-months pregnant, starving, bone-tired, cold, filthy and afraid when an SS officer in big black boots and a crisp uniform appeared before the barracks in Auschwitz with a loudspeaker in hand. ‘All pregnant women line up,’ he barked. ‘Line up, line up — your food portions are being doubled.’ ‘Can you imagine?’ Miriam asks. ‘Even women who were not pregnant stepped forward. I was standing with my younger cousin, but I wouldn’t go.’ She says, ‘Miriam, what are you doing?’ ‘Something was holding me back. Someone was watching over me. I feel maybe my mother, maybe God. Two hundred women stepped forward and 200 women went to the gas chamber. And I don’t know why I didn’t step forward.’”

“On This Day: Himmler Orders the Deportation of the Roma.” On This Day: Himmler Orders the Deportation of the Roma. 16 Dec. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/42608>. “There were five million non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust, including up to 500,000 members of the Roma community. At Auschwitz alone, it is estimated that 19,000 of the 23,000 Roma sent there during the war died.”

O’Rourke, John. “How Bulgaria Saved Its Jews.” BU Today. Jewish Ideas Daily, 26 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/c158f?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=a83976c75e-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “While the Holocaust claimed the lives of six million Jews living across Europe, one country was able to shield nearly all of its Jewish citizens from deportation and death. That newly revealed godsend is the subject of a provocative exhibition at BU’s Florence and Chafetz Hillel House Rubin-Frankel Gallery. The Power of Civil Society: The Fate of Jews in Bulgaria During the Holocaust, 1940–1944 chronicles the courageous refusal of that country’s citizenry to comply with government plans to surrender its Jews to Germany.”

“Patriotic German Jews Must Support Hitlerist Party in Germany’s Interests Even If It Is Antisemitic.” JTA Jewish News Arhive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 7 Jan. 1931. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1931/01/07/2789387/patriotic-german-jews-must-support-hitlerist-party-in-germanys-interests-even-if-it-is-antisemitic-says-organ-of-union-of-patriotic-german-jews>. “Patriotic German Jews must support any party which stands for German interests, even if it is antisemitic, says the ‘National-deutsche Jude’, the organ of the so-called National German-Jewish Party, headed by Dr. Max Naumann, which in the Jewish communal elections of last month issued posters calling on the electors to ‘vote German’, that is, not for the East European Jews …”

Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. “The Holocaust: Excusing the Inexcusable.” Standpoint. July-Aug. 2011. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://standpointmag.co.uk/features-julyaugust11-the-holocaust-excusing-the-inexcusable-michael-pinto-duschinsky-holocaust-toepfer-richard-evans>. “During the years after the Second World War, the nations of the victors and the vanquished concentrated on rebuilding their economic and political infrastructures. They did too little to bring the Nazi perpetrators of the Holocaust and their accomplices to account. In large part, regrets for the murder of some six million Jews were crocodile tears. Europe continues to suffer today from this failure to rebuild the moral foundations of our civilisation.”

Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. “Holocaust Reparations: The Back Story.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/4734/features/holocaust-reparations-the-back-story/>. “On July 10th [2012], dignitaries from the U.S., German, and Israeli governments attended a curious ceremony at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. The gathering marked the 60th anniversary of the first agreement by the West German government with the Israeli government and the Jewish ‘Claims Conference’ to grant modest financial compensation for the Holocaust. Some of the Jews in the room had spent the years since the agreement in seemingly interminable haggling.”

“Rescued from Kristallnacht, a Family Torah Reaches a New Generation.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/10/24/3110266/rescued-from-kristallnacht-a-family-torah-reaches-a-new-generation>. “It was the ‘Night of Broken Glass’ in Germany, Kristallnacht — a national pogrom of death and destruction of Jewish property and the rounding up of Jews — and Dietrich (David) Hamburger was in hiding.”

Rising, David, and Randy Herschaft. “Johann Breyer Probe: Documents Raise Doubts in Nazi Probe.” Huffingtonpost, 28 Dec. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/28/johann-breyer-probe_n_2374740.html?view=print>. “The case of an 87-year-old Philadelphia man accused by Germany of serving as an SS guard at Auschwitz has largely centered on whether he was stationed at the part of the death camp used as a killing machine for Jews. Johann ‘Hans’ Breyer — while admitting he was an Auschwitz guard — insists he was never there. World-War II-era documents obtained by The Associated Press indicate otherwise. The files provided by the U.S. Department of Justice in response to an AP request are now in the hands of German authorities, and could provide the legal basis for charging him as an accessory to the murder of hundreds of thousands of Jews in the Nazi death camp.”

Robbins, Liz. “After Anti-Semitic Crimes, Revisiting the Nightmares Forever Within.” The New York Times. 19 Jan. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://travel.nytimes.com/2012/01/20/nyregion/in-brooklyn-anti-semitic-crimes-bring-painful-memories.html>. “They come to talk about their families, to laugh, to learn and to praise Hilda Weiss’s famous chocolate coffee cake. Other than Mrs. Weiss’s recipe from Hungary, they never liked to go on about the past — even if this was the reason that originally brought the women together in a weekly support group for Holocaust survivors. But in recent days, this fragile yet spirited community of elderly women in Borough Park, Brooklyn, found themselves revisiting details of that unspeakable horror, and haunted by events far too close to home.”

Rockoff, Stuart. “Denouncing Germany’s Haman from Harlan, Kentucky.” Southern and Jewish. My Jewish Learning, 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 6 Feb. 2013. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/blog/southern-and-jewish/2013/01/30/denouncing-germanys-haman-from-harlan-kentucky/?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=81255dc512-JTA_Daily_Briefing_02_04_2013&utm_medium=email>. “While Harlan [Kentucky in Appalachia] Jews established a congregation, B’nai Sholom, in 1931, the community never had more than 30 or so families, including members from surrounding towns like Pineville, Middlesboro and Evarts. … In 1933, the congregation held a Purim event which drew over 100 people. During the program, the congregation adopted a motion ‘protesting against the Haman-like designs of the German Hitler.’ The congregation sent a copy of the resolution to President Franklin Roosevelt and the U.S. Ambassador to Germany.”

Rosenfarb, Chava. “The Last Poet of Lodz.” Tablet Magazine. 13 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/111880/the-last-poet-of-lodz>. “This essay, by the Yiddish author Chava Rosenfarb, appeared in Yiddish in 1991 in Di goldene keyt. This is the first publication of the English version—which was translated by Rosenfarb, who died last year. … Simkha-Bunim Shayevitch’s name is known only to a very few people. He would have joined the mass of nameless ghetto Jews who perished without a trace had it not been for the fact that during his time in the ghetto Shayevitch found himself in extremely difficult circumstances.”

Rothstein, Edward. “Resisting The Nazis Despite The Odds.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Apr. 2007. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/arts/16resi.html?_r=0>. “The discipline and determination are half-brilliant, half-mad: in 1940, in Warsaw, the Polish-Jewish historian Emanuel Ringelblum decided that the entire experience of Jewry under Nazi rule should be thoroughly documented. The internment of Jews within the Warsaw ghetto, he wrote (with chilly irony), ‘provided even greater opportunity for development of the archive.’”

Round, Simon. “Revealed: The British Troops Imprisoned at Auschwitz.” TheJC.com. 14 Jan. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/26001>. “Amid all the testimonies about Auschwitz and the Final Solution which have been published since the end of the Second World War, one small group has remained silent. Alongside the main Auschwitz complex was a prisoner-of-war camp known as Auschwitz E715, where the inmates included several hundred British soldiers.”

Rupnow, Dirk. “Racializing Historiography: Anti-Jewish Scholarship in the Third Reich.” Patterns of Prejudice 42.1 (2008): 27-59. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 July 2012. “Despite continued debates about the role of German historians in the Third Reich, current scholarship views the work that was conducted under National Socialism under the rubric of Judenforschung (research on Jews) as a marginal and pseudo-scientific phenomenon.”

Samuels, Shimon. “In the Shadow of Wannsee.” The JC.com. 20 Jan. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/62369>. “The 70th anniversary of the Wannsee Conference provides a valuable opportunity to reengage the battle for memory, for – unlike any other genocide – it provides, in the Wannsee Protocol, a clear and horrifyingly dispassionate roadmap to mass murder. Albeit marked ‘Top Secret’, the 16th duplicate of 30 copies survived the war.”

Schtuter, Hans H. “Danish Resistance during the Holocaust Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org.” Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org. HEART, 2007. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/revolt/danishresistance.html>. “At the beginning of World War II, the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden and Norway declared their neutrality. That means they would not take sides in the conflict. With memories of the devastation of World War I still fresh in the memories of many Danes, the governments thought that by being neutral their citizens would be spared the horrors of this new crisis.”

Shangai Ghetto. 2002. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Actor Martin Landau narrates this riveting documentary about Shanghai’s little-known Jewish ghetto, settled in the 1930s by Jews who fled Nazi Germany. The filmmakers head to Shanghai with two ex-residents, who relate tales of life in the squalid enclave.”

Shook, Karen. “Landscapes of the Metropolis of Death.” Times Higher Education. 24 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=422433>. “Memory struggles with history in an annal of life in Auschwitz and afterwards, finds Robert Eaglestone the author of this astonishing book sang the Ode to Joy in a children’s choir at Birkenau, ‘like little angels, our voices providing an accompaniment to the processions…into the crematoria’. All his life since then, he has asked himself what drove the conductor to choose that famous declaration of human dignity. Was it a protest, ‘as long as man breathes he breathes freedom, something like that?’ or was it ‘an act of extreme sarcasm ‘… ‘of self amusement, of a person in control of naive beings and implanting in them naive values, sublime and wonderful values, all the while knowing that there is no point or purpose and no meaning to those values’?”

Shriver Jr., Donald W. “Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust.” Rev. of Bystanders. Christian Century 2 Aug. 2000: 812. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Aug. 2012. “Bystanders is a powerful argument against such moral-empirical flippancy. Victoria Barnett, a consultant for the Department of Church Relations of the Holocaust Museum, explores an area that has received relatively scant attention in Holocaust studies. Her thesis matches Bauer’s: ‘In the long term, Nazism was powerful not just because of the numbers of party stalwarts, but because millions of Germans were prepared to inform on one another, obey orders, and remain passive while others became victims.’”

“Sketching the SS St. Louis.” JNS.org. 1 June 2012. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/6/1/sketching-the-ss-st-louis.html>. “Seventy-three years ago this week (June 4, 1939), the SS St. Louis, the infamous ‘Voyage of the Damned,’ hovered off the coast of Florida, hoping to be granted permission to land. In a telegram to the White House, the Jewish refugees begged: ‘Help [us], Mr. President, the 900 passengers, of which more than 400 are women and children.’ There was no reply. Meanwhile, a handful of editorial cartoonists tried to rally American public opinion in support of the refugees.”

Snyder, Don. “Nazi-Era Case Reopens Old Polish Wounds.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 13 July 2012. Web. 6 July 2012. <http://forward.com/articles/158846/nazi-era-case-reopens-old-polish-wounds/?p=all>. “Poland has just reopened a 71-year-old case involving the rape and murder of 20 Jewish women. In the 1941 case — in the midst of World II, and two years after the Nazi invasion of Poland — six Poles allegedly beat the Jewish women to death with metal-tipped clubs outside the hamlet of Bzury, in northeastern Poland. Government prosecutor Radoslaw Ignatiew hopes to prosecute the killers, if they are still alive. He also hopes to discover the identities of the women and the location of their graves.”

Soclof, Adam. “From the Beginning, It Was Clear Kristallnacht Was Different.” JTA. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 1 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2011/11/01/3090068/from-the-beginning-it-was-clear-kristallnacht-was-different>. “Before it was called Kristallnacht, it was known simply as ‘the pogrom.’ Designated ‘the night of broken glass,’ the 14-hour wave of Nazi violence on Nov. 9-10, 1938 left hundreds of Jewish storefronts and synagogues across Germany and parts of Austria in shards and splinters, and many Jews dead. Tens of thousands of Jews were arrested over the next few days, among them a number of prominent Jewish communal leaders. … In hindsight, Kristallnacht was not merely a horrific event; it was a harbinger of horrors to come. The violence accelerated events that already were familiar to Jews living under the Third Reich. Eleven months later, as described in JTA reports, the Nazis began the mass deportation of 100,000 Jews from Vienna to camps in Poland.”

Steal a Pencil for Me. Dir. Michele Ohayon. 2007. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Director Michèle Ohayon’s moving documentary chronicles the unshakeable romance between Jack Polak and Ina Soep of Amsterdam, who met and fell in love despite their deportation to Nazi concentration camps during the war. As they corresponded with love letters composed on any scrap of paper they could find, the couple’s blossoming relationship coincided with the horrors of the Holocaust and their internment in Westerbork and Bergen-Belsen.”

“Stefan Terlezki.” Telegraph.com. Telegraphic Media Group, 27 Feb. 2006. Web. 2 Aug. 2012. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1511541/Stefan-Terlezki.html>. “Stefan Terlezki, who died on February, aged 78, endured an appalling youth as a slave of the Nazis during the Second World War, and even survived being rescued by the Russians …”

“Synagogue Reopens in Polish Town without Jews.” The JC.com. 04 Apr. 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/47478>. “A Polish town where the Jewish population was almost entirely wiped out by the Nazis 72 years ago is to be home to a synagogue once again.”

“Texts of Nazi Degrees Isolating All Jews in Poland Received in London.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Jan. 14, 1943. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/01/14/2859638/texts-of-nazi-degrees-isolating-all-jews-in-poland-received-in-london>. “The Polish Government-in-Exile today received the texts of two Nazi decrees ordering all Jews in the hundreds of cities and townships in Poland to move to 42 small townships designated as ‘Jewish residential localities’ and to 13 ghettos in the districts of Warsaw, Radom, Lublin and Galicia. The exodus of all Jews from other places in occupied Poland to the restricted areas was to be completed by December 1, 1942, the Nazi decrees provided.”

Todorov, Tzvetan. Facing the Extreme: Moral Life in the Concentration Camps. New York: Metropolitan, 1996. Print. “An examination of the human capacity for moral life; reconstructs a vivid portrait of those who ran the camps and those who suffered their outrages. Also offers an elequent plea for the recognition of everyday virtues as a basis for contemporary morality.”

“Tortured Jews in Poland Appeal for Retribution Against Germans in Allied Countries.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 14 Mar. 1943. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/03/14/2860131/tortured-jews-in-poland-appeal-for-retribution-against-germans-in-allied-countries>. ”An appeal from the Jews of Nazi-held Poland to the Allied Nations urging them to take extraordinary steps against Germans residing in their countries in order to force the Nazis in Poland to discontinue their extermination of Jews was received here today by the Jewish Labor Committee.”

“Train Carrying 20,000 Jews Deported from France Arrives in Bessarabia; Many Dead.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 16 Oct. 1942. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/10/16/2857600/train-carrying-20000-jews-deported-from-france-arrives-in-bessarabia-many-dead>. “Twenty thousand Jews who were deported from France in filthy, sealed cattle cars without adequate supplies of food and water, have arrived in Rumania, according to a reliable report received here today from Bucharest.”

“Treblinka Death Camp Revolt Summary & Testimonies Us Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org.” Treblinka Death Camp Revolt Summary & Testimonies Us Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org. Holocaust Research Project, 2008. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/ar/treblinka/revolt.html>. “Jewish inmates organized a resistance group in Treblinka in early 1943. When camp operations neared completion, the prisoners feared they would be killed and the camp dismantled. During the late spring and summer of 1943, the resistance leaders decided to revolt.”

Tzur, Nissan. “Poles Finally Learn about Their Holocaust Whistleblower.” The JC.com. 12 May 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/news/world-news/48808/poles-finally-learn-about-their-holocaust-whistleblower>. ”The late Jan Karski is a national hero in Poland for his role as a resistance fighter during the Second World War. Few, however, knew that he was also one of the first eyewitnesses of the Holocaust and documented the horrors of the Warsaw Ghetto – despite having been recognised as ‘Righteous Among the Nations’ by Yad Vashem in 1982.”

“The United States and the Holocaust.” Bibliographies. The United States and the Holocaust. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/ar/treblinka/revolt.html>. “Despite a history of providing sanctuary to persecuted peoples, the United States grappled with many issues during the 1930s that made staying true to this legacy difficult, among them wide-spread antisemitism, xenophobia, isolationism, and a sustained economic depression. Unfortunate for those fleeing from Nazi persecution, these issues greatly impacted this nation’s refugee policy, resulting in tighter restrictions and limited quotas at a time when open doors might have saved lives.”

“Von Prittwitz Says Anti-semitism Temporary Phase; Hitler Not Voice of Germany.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 27 Oct. 1930. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/10/27/2787917/von-prittwitz-says-antisemitism-temporary-phase-hitler-not-voice-of-germany>.  “A very young looking man for an ambassador, with a polite worldly manner, offered a statement to America, on his arrival to resume his duties as Ambassador, reassuring the citizens of the United States that any seeming disturbances in Germany were due only to the lack of economic stability and not to any untoward tendencies of the German public.”

“Warsaw Uprising Ends.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/warsaw-uprising-ends>. “The Warsaw Uprising ends with the surrender of the surviving Polish rebels to German forces.”

Wildman, Sarah. “The Other Kindertransport.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 19 Dec. 2012. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. <http://forward.com/articles/167599/the-other-kindertransport/?p=all>. “One hundred and fifty: a number simultaneously enormous and tiny. One hundred and fifty Czech Jewish teenagers left behind everything and everyone — the lives they’d known, their parents, their siblings, their grandparents and aunts and uncles.”

“World War II-era Archbishop of Florence Recognized as Righteous Gentile.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article-print/2012/11/26/3112831/wwiii-era-archbishop-of-florence-recognized-as-righteous-gentile>. “Cardinal Ella Angelo Dalla Costa, the World War II-era Archbishop of Florence, has been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.”

Yahil, Leni. The Holocaust, the Fate of European Jewry. New York: Oxford Universtiy, 1987. Print. “A solid, thoroughly documented and well-written history of the tragedy that befell European Jewry during the Second World War. … Bound to emerge as one of the major standard texts on the Holocaust.”