Holocaust, Jews #2

“A Christian world that will permit millions of Jews to be slain without moving heaven by prayer and earth in every human way to save it Jews has lost its capacity for moral and spiritual survival.” Dr. Stephen S. Wise, 1943  <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/02/19/2859947/wise-criticizes-christian-world-for-failure-to-rescue-jews-in-nazi-europe>


“Is the world really unable to save us?” asks a pathetic message, in code, from Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland.  <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/02/11/2859871/is-the-world-really-unable-to-save-us-asks-message-from-jews-in-nazi-poland>


The world was not unable, it was unwilling. “During World War II, rescue of Jews and others targeted by Nazi Germany was not a priority for the United States government. … In August 1942, the State Department received a report sent by Gerhart Riegner, the Geneva-based representative of the World Jewish Congress (WJC). The report revealed that the Germans were implementing a policy to physically annihilate the Jews of Europe. Department officials declined to pass on the report to its intended recipient, American Jewish leader Stephen Wise, who was President of the World Jewish Congress.” <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php? ModuleId=10005182>

During the era of the Holocaust, the American press did not always publicize reports of Nazi atrocities in full or with prominent placement.”


 “There is really no way out of this for us.” Dawid Sierakowiak [Died, Lodz Ghetto August 8th, 1943] He was 19 years old.


Allen, Ann Taylor. “The Holocaust and the Modernization of Gender: A Historiographical Essay.” Central European History 30.03 (1997): 349-64. Print. The author uses the “absence and presence of gender in Bauman’s text [Modernity and the Holocaust] as a starting point for an examination of the historiography of women and gender and its relevance for our understanding of the Holocaust.”

Altschuler, Glenn C. “Motivations for Murder.” JPost.com. Jerusalem Post, 15 Dec. 2011. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Magazine/Books/Article.aspx?id=249630>. “Motivations for Murder” by Ribert Gewarth. “A new biography of Reinhard Heydrich argues that decisions to exterminate the Jews were not made in the 1930s but developed in stages, often in response to changing political and military circumstances.”

Anderson, Mark M. Hitler’s Exiles: Personal Stories of the Flight from Nazi Germany to America. New York: New, 1998. Print. “Between 1933 and 1945, roughly 130,000 German-speaking refugees fled Hitler’s persecution to resettle in America. ‘Hitler’s Exiles’ is a composite first-hand account of this historic migration, focusing on the ordinary people who took this extraordinary voyage.”

Axelrod, Toby. “60 Years After Liberation German Leader Admits to Shame As He Speaks to Holocaust Survivors.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 26 Jan. 2005. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/2005/01/26/2924658/60-years-after-liberation-german-leader-admits-to-shame-as-he-speaks-to-holocaust-survivors>. “German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder spoke of his shame about the Holocaust — and survivor Kurt Julius Goldstein spoke of his anger. Before a crowd Tuesday that included elderly survivors as well as German high school students, Schroeder declared his “shame before those who were murdered — and to you, who survived the hell of the concentration camps,” adding, ‘We carry this burden in mourning, but also with a serious sense of responsibility.’”

Barschak, Fred. “The Children Doomed by British Inaction.” TheJC.com. The Jewish Chronicle Online, 11 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.thejc.com/comment-and-debate/comment/97512/the-children-doomed-british-inaction>. “‘The greatest tragedies are those that were wholly avoidable.’ In an era replete with events that fall within those parameters, none fits the above definition more than the fate of the children of Pithiviers and Beaune-La-Rolande in the summer of 1942. To understand the context in which this tragedy played out, one must briefly describe the situation in France in July 1942. The Vichy Government was, perhaps, the most assiduous of all administrations in Western Europe in co-operating with Nazi Germany with regard to its Jewish community.”

Bartov, Omer. “Defining Enemies, Making Victims: Germans, Jews, and the Holocaust.” The American Historical Review 103.3 (1998): 771-816. Print. In this essay the author will “focus on two related issues: German self-perceptions and attitudes toward Jews, especially in the Third Reich and the Federal Republic; and Jewish self-perception and attitudes toward real and perceived enemies in the past and in the present, …”

Bauer, Yehuda, and Nili Keren. A History of the Holocaust. New York: Franklin Watts, 2001. Print. While this is considered a juvenile book, any adult would find it an interesting read. “Recent history has rendered the word ‘holocaust’ — strictly defined as wholesale destruction and loss of life, especially the willful devastation of the Jewish people by the most inhuman methods ever devised.”

Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale UP, 2001. Print. “In this authoritative survey, the Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer reflects upon why the Holocaust has become a world issue and how to make sense of it.”

Benigno, Nena C. “Jews Honor Manuel L. Quezon on His 134th Birthday.” Inquirer Global Nation. 19 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://globalnation.inquirer.net/47492/jews-honor-manuel-l-quezon-on-his-134th-birthday>. “As the country commemorates the 134th birthday today, August 19, of Manuel L. Quezon, he is also honored by thousands of Jewish families who have survived and prospered because they found a home in Manila at the darkest time in their history as a race. It was a point of no return.”

Bonisch, Georg. “Everyday Murder: Nazi Atrocities, Committed by Ordinary People.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 18 Mar. 2008. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/everyday-murder-nazi-atrocities-committed-by-ordinary-people-a-542245.html>. “From doctors to opera singers, teachers to truant schoolchildren, the extermination of European Jews was the work of roughly 200,000 ordinary Germans and their helpers. Years of research — not yet complete — reveal how sane members of a modern society committed murder for an evil regime.”

Breitman, Richard. Official Secrets: What the Nazis Planned, What the British and Americans Knew. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998. Print. “When did Great Britain and the United States learn of the monstrous events that we today call the Holocaust? When and how did Nazi leaders plan to destroy the Jewish people?”

“British Parliamentarians Want Vatican to Act to Save Jews from Nazis.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 21 Jan. 1943. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/01/21/2860223/british-parliamentarians-want-vatican-to-act-to-save-jews-from-nazis>. “The question of whether there is any possibility that the Vatican will take concrete action to attempt to halt the Nazi extermination of Jews was raised in Parliament today when a number of members pressed the Government to undertake steps to save as many Jews as possible.”

Carmel, Philip. “60 Years After World War Ii, Survivors Fete the French Town That Saved Them.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 22 Nov. 2004. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/2004/11/22/2923715/60-years-after-world-war-ii-survivors-fete-the-french-town-that-saved-them>. “When Ida Rozenberg-Apeloig received a book about the activities of the French Resistance in wartime France, her childhood memories of Chateaumeillant came flooding back. Rozenberg-Apeloig was given the book by one of her son’s friends in the summer of 2003 and soon recognized that many of the people cited in the work were associates of her father, fellow members of the resistance who were active in the Cher region of central France during the Nazi occupation. The book, ‘Avant l’oublie, Resistance,’ or ‘Before We Forget, Resistance,’ led to the formation of a group of survivors who decided that the time had come to honor the village of Chateaumeillant, where more than 100 Jews lived throughout World War II.”

Cole, Tim. A Gendered Holocaust? The Experiences of “Jewish” 2 Men and Women in Hungary, 1944. Women and the Third Reich. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theverylongview.com/WATH/essays/gendered.htm>. “Over the last couple of decades, a growing number of writers have stressed the significance of gender in understanding the experiences of Holocaust victims. Beginning with the seminal conference on ‘Women Surviving the Holocaust’ organized in 1983 by Joan Ringelheim and Esther Katz, the suggestion that ‘Jewish’ men and ‘Jewish’ women experienced the Holocaust differently has, by and large, been accepted within the academy, if not always outside of it.”

Confino, Alon. “Fantasies about the Jews: Cultural Reflections on the Holocaust.” History and Memory 17.1 (2005): 296-322. JSTOR. Web. 13 Aug. 2012.

Connolly, Kate. “The Saga of Gretel Bergmann, Jewish High Jumper.” Los Angeles Times Article Collections. Los Angeles, 11 Nov. 2009. Web. 27 July 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/49d23?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=ddeca110c0-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “Hitler blocked Jewish high-jumper Gretel Bergmann’s participation in the 1936 Berlin Olympics. She was replaced on the team by an athlete of ambiguous gender—and the gold went to a Hungarian Jew.”

“Czech Policemen Accused of Torturing, Robbing Jews Sentenced to Prison Terms.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 14 Apr. 1946. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1946/04/14/2744718/czech-policemen-accused-of-torturing-robbing-jews-sentenced-to-prison-terms>. “At the conclusion of a long trial marked by a number of exciting incidents including the surprise defense testimony of several Jews, former Czech policemen J. Hosek and M. Drahnovsky were today sentenced to eight to ten years imprisonment on charges of having tortured, robbed, and denounced Jews at the Theresienstadt concentration camp.”

“Czech Workers Strike Against Return to Jew of Property Confiscated by R[sic]azis.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 9 Mar. 1947. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1947/03/09/3008863/czech-workers-strike-against-return-to-jew-of-property-confishcattd-by-razis>. “All workers in the Warnsdorf district of Board want on strike yesterday in protest against the return to Emil Bear, 70-year-old Jewish industrialist, of a factory confiscated during the German occupation.”

“Danish King Threatens to Quit If Nazis Insist on Nuremberg Laws in Denmark.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 7 Jan. 1942. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/01/07/2856292/danish-king-threatens-to-quit-if-nazis-insist-on-nuremberg-laws-in-denmark>. “King Christian X of Denmark has threatened to abdicate if the Nazi occupation authorities insist on the introduction of the Nuremberg laws in his country, it is learned here today from reliable neutral sources. According to these sources, three pro-Nazi members of the Danish government some time ago prepared anti-Jewish legislation for Denmark.”

Darring, Gerald. “Righteous Gentiles.” Spring Hill College. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/10Righteous.htm>. “The term ‘Righteous Gentile’ or ‘Righteous among the Nations’ is used to name those non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust. The title is used informally as referring to anyone considered by the speaker or writer to be a savior of Jews, but it has an official role in the Israeli program of Holocaust remembrance administered by Yad Vashem. The criteria established by Yad Vashem include the following: — The rescuer ensured the survival of a Jew or Jews by extending aid to them when they were in danger of being killed or sent to a concentration camp; — The rescuer knew that he was risking his own life, freedom, and safety by acting to save the Jewish life; — The rescuer did not receive and did not expect any compensation for the aid he was giving; — The rescuer acted on his own initiative, and was directly involved and personally responsible for what he did; — The rescuer’s aid can be authenticated by eyewitness evidence and, whenever possible, by relevant documentation.”

Fackenheim, Emil. “The Spectrum Of Resistance During The Holocaust: An Essay In Description And Definition.” Modern Judaism 2.2 (1982): 113-30. JSTOR. Web. 06 May 2012. There were two forms of resistance, at “opposite ends of a spectrum. … On occasion the two extremes of the spectrum of resistance were to meet, and when this happened the meeting changed the very lives os those those experience it.”

“Foundations of Holocaust: Corporate America and the Fuhrer, a Love Story.” Jerusalem Post. 11 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://blogs.jpost.com/content/foundations-holocaust-corporate-america-and-fuhrer-love-story>. “A clique of U.S. industrialists is hell-bent to bring a fascist state to supplant our democratic government and is working closely with the fascist regime in Germany and Italy.” (William Dodd, U.S. Ambassador to Germany, in a 1936 letter to President Roosevelt) ” But IBM stands out, was a major player in all aspects of the unfolding Holocaust, from identifying Jews to recording their murder.”

“Foundations of Holocaust: Corporate America, Camp Inmates and Slave Labor.” Jerusalem Post. 18 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://blogs.jpost.com/content/foundations-holocaust-corporate-america-camp-inmates-and-slave-labor>. “When the issue of the Forced and Slave Labor Negotiations was raised in by the US Treasury Department in 1999 Ford and GM and most American corporations that had supported Hitler’s war effort at first denied, then accepted the ‘possibility’ that their German ‘subsidiaries’ may have been guilty of working extermination camp inmates to death as slaves. Through the thinly-veiled lie of Germany having taken control of their subsidiaries leaving them powerless to influence and so not responsible Corporate America described itself righteously vindicated. Unfortunately their own records proved the lie; Ford opened its records to the public and it was clear that Detroit maintained control over FordWerke policy. GM refused to subject their records to public scrutiny so the thin veil of deniability, at least in their eyes, remains intact. In the end GM and Ford, et al, were forced to pay if, for no other reason, than to allow the media to focus on a different issue.”

Freilich, Rabbi David. “Kristallnacht Memorial Service 2007.” Speech. Commemoration of Kristallnacht 2007. Council of Christians and Jews Western Australia Inc. 2007. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ccjwa.org/Documents/Articles/Kristallnacht_2007_Freilich.pdf>. “Sixty-nine years ago tomorrow, on November 9th 1938, the so-called Kristallnacht occurred — the beginning of an historical tragedy with a fatal ending. November 9th 1938, was a night of unbelievable barbarism, which was the prelude to the Holocaust. This ominous night was indeed a last great warning of the coming final extermination of European Jewry and of many others. None of us really knows why this night should be called Kristallnacht (Crystal Night — the Night of the Broken Glass). It is true that during that night hundreds of businesses were ransacked and the glass of Jewish shop windows littered the streets. But that is a most unimportant detail of the whole horrific story, compared to the scores of innocent people who were massacred, thousands of others arrested, humiliated and sent to concentration camps. Hundreds of synagogues in Germany and Austria were burned and bulldozed, as well as the hundreds of holy biblical scrolls and religious artifacts, which were put to the torch. By comparison, it is a singularly unimportant matter that there was some broken glass in the street the next morning in front of the Jewish stores. The fact that this was just plain broken window glass, which was cleaned away the next morning and by no means precious crystal, points even more to the inappropriate name of Kristallnacht. Yet, by calling this night Kristallnacht, we have perhaps unknowingly expressed a very profound truth. Crystal as we know it resembles the glittering glass, which we use today for fancy vases, chandeliers and sparkling ornaments. What we mean by using that term Kristallnacht is a reference to a period in history, which was similar to crystal — a glassy material, which appears pure and glittering like precious jewels, but in reality is only an illusion. Crystal is most vulnerable and when not handled carefully will shatter in a thousand pieces. German society was indeed like crystal.”

Friedman, Daniel. Don’t Ever Get Old. New York: Minotaur, 2012. Print. “Baruch ‘Buck’ Schatz is an eighty-seven-year-old, cigarette-smoking, foul mouth, very funny Jewish former homicide detective who is on the trail of an equally ancient Nazi war criminal.”

Gallant, Mary. Rev. of Hidden Children of the Holocaust: Belgian Nuns and Their Daring Rescue of Young Jews from the Nazis. Catholic Historical Review 97.3 (2011): 603-04. Project MUSE. Web. 24 June 2012.

Gerlach, Christian. “The Wannsee Conference, the Fate of German Jews, and Hitler’s Decision in Principle to Exterminate All European Jews.” Rutgers University. 1998. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~jewishnb/hrc/mti/wannsee.pdf>. “The most remarkable thing about the meeting at Wannsee (which was not called the ‘Wannsee Conference’ until after the war) is that we do not know why it took place.” So wrote the celebrated German historian Eberhard Ja ̈ckel in 1992. Many historians share this view. They find themselves somewhat puzzled with respect to the meeting at Wannsee. On the one hand, the historical significance of the event is largely uncontested. The minutes prepared by Adolf Eichmann constitute a document of central importance. ‘No other document from the National Socialist regime,’ writes Wolfgang Scheffler, ‘sets out so clearly the complete plan for the extermination of European Jewry.’ On the other hand, this uniqueness is itself problematic. Since we still know too little about the central planning for the extermination of the Jews, the relative significance of the Wannsee meeting is difficult to gauge. Nevertheless, some recent regional studies of the executions of Jews have shed new light on the protracted and complicated decision-making processes that went on within the German leadership. … Most significantly, however, documents connected with the Wannsee Conference itself have been uncovered, documents that provide us with important clues for interpreting previously known and published sources. What emerges is a new perspective on the course of events. In the following essay I will attempt to show that, despite all the attention paid to it, the significance of the Wannsee Conference of January 20, 1942, has not been fully appreciated.”

Gerlach, Wolfgang, and Victoria Barnett. And the Witnesses Were Silent: The Confessing Church and the Persecution of the Jews. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 2000. Print. “Gerlach tenaciously pursues evidence of anti-Jewish attitudes among Confessing Church leaders, and he ties these attitudes to their Christian suppositions.”

“German Data Reveals 1,071,600 Polish Jews Transported to Extermination Camps.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Jan. 6, 1944. Web. 16 July 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1944/01/06/2862729/german-data-reveals-1071600-polish-jews-transported-to-extermination-camps>. “Official statistics of the German Railways operating in occupied Poland reveal that 1,071,600 doomed Jews were transported to Treblinka, Belzetz and other “extermination camps” during the year beginning April 1, 1942 and ending March 31, 1943 … ”

“Germany Earns Millions on Deported Jews in Trading Arrangement with Slovakia.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 1 July 1942. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/07/01/2858099/germany-earns-millions-on-deported-jews-in-trading-arrangement-with-slovakia>. “Jews in Slovakia have become a commodity on which Nazi Germany is making millions of marks, it was learned here today from a reliable source which stated that for each Jew deported from Slovakia to Nazi-occupied eastern territory the German Government is charging Slovakia 4,000 marks.”

“God on Trial.” Masterpiece. PBS, 9 Nov. 2008. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/masterpiece/godontrial/index.html>. “God on Trial” was aired on PBS on November 9, 2008 and is available on DVD on the PBS website. “Why is there so much suffering in the world and what kind of God would allow it to happen? Universal questions about faith and philosophy are at the heart of God on Trial, which was inspired by the legend that a group of concentration camp prisoners conducted a mock trial against the Almighty God. From all walks of life, a physicist, a glove maker, rabbis, a law professor and at least one criminal weigh the evidence and offer thoughtful arguments taken from history, science, theology and personal experience. ,,, God on Trial explores unfathomable loss and unshakable faith.”

Goldstein, Anna. “Recovered Archive Shows Jewish Life and Death in the Warsaw Ghetto.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 21 Apr. 2005. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/2005/04/21/2926240/recovered-archive-shows-jewish-life-and-death-in-the-warsaw-ghetto>. “As the revered Jewish historian Simon Dubnov went to his death at the hands of the Nazis in 1941 — crying out in Yiddish, ‘Jews, write it down!’ — his disciple and colleague, the historian Emanuel Ringelblum, was organizing the largest underground archive in Europe to record the Jewish experience in the Shoah. The Ringelblum Archive swelled into a ‘massive pillar of Jewish civil resistance,’ Ringelblum’s biographer, Samuel Kassow, said at the San Francisco opening of an exhibition, ‘Scream the Truth at the World: Emanuel Ringelblum and the Hidden Archive of the Warsaw Ghetto.’”

Gutman, Israel, ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. New York: Macmillan Pub., 1990. Print. A comprehensive encyclopedia of the holocaust. Contains articles by leading scholars.

“Hakenkreuzler Planned to Wreak Vengeance on Jews on Election Day.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 23 Oct. 1923. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1923/10/23/2754683/hakenkreuzler-planned-to-wreak-vengeance-on-jews-on-election-day>. “Secret orders addressed to 13 district commanders of Hakenkreuzler organizations calling on them to wreak vengeance on the Austrian Jews on election day.”

Heschel, Susannah. “Jewish Studies in the Third Reich: A Brief Glance at Viktor Christian D. Kurt Schubert.” Review of Rabbinic Judaism 13.2 (2010): 236-49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. “The article focuses on the state of Jewish education in Germany under Adolf Hitler. It notes that while Nazis did not come in 1933 with clear plans in relation to the universities, taking control over education was high on its agenda.”

“Hitler’s Aide Attacks Him for Preaching Racial Anti-semitism.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 15 Dec. 1930. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/12/15/2788988/hitlers-aide-attacks-him-for-preaching-racial-antisemitism>. “An attack on Adolf Hitler, National Socialist party leader, by Captain Ehrhardt, one of his chief lieutenants, in today’s Boersen Zeitung, created a sensation here. Ehrhardt’s vigorous attack on the Fascist chieftain has aroused particular interest not only because he was the military leader of the abortive Munich putsch but because his anti-Hitler stand marks a further split in the Nazis’ ranks and indicates that Hitler is losing some of his effective military support.”

Holden, Stephen. “Facing Pain in a Father’s Footsteps.” Rev. of Six Million and One. The New York Times 27 Sept. 2012. 27 Sept. 2012. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://movies.nytimes.com/2012/09/28/movies/six-million-and-one-from-the-documentarian-david-fisher.html?gwh=7BF5655260E962DB469C0C4D2B688C56>. “In ‘Six Million and One,’ the Israeli documentarian David Fisher’s third film in a family trilogy … he and his three siblings retrace the steps of their Hungarian Jewish father, Joseph, a Holocaust survivor.”

“Holocaust History.” The United States and the Holocaust. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005182>. “During the era of the Holocaust, the American press did not always publicize reports of Nazi atrocities in full or with prominent placement. For example, the New York Times, the nation’s leading newspaper, generally deemphasized the murder of the Jews in its news coverage.”

“J.D.C. Will Accept Messages for Delivery to Displaced Jews in Camps in Germany.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 5 Oct. 1945. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/10/05/2868329/jdc-will-accept-messages-for-delivery-to-displaced-jews-in-camps-in-germany>. “The Joint Distribution Committee today announced the establishment of a department which will deliver messages from American relatives to displaced Jews in the American and British zones in Germany and will also accept messages from Jews in the camps for delivery to their relatives abroad, thus establishment direct contact for the first time between the liberated Jews and their friends in the United States and in other countries.”

“Jewish Guerilla Unit Led by Jewish General Under Jewish Flag in Occupied Poland.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 28 Dec. 1943. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/12/28/2862641/jewish-guerilla-unit-led-by-jewish-general-under-jewish-flag-in-occupied-poland>. “The London press reports today that a Jewish General named Gutt, who was formerly an officer in the Polish army, is now leading a well-equipped Jewish guerilla unit of 3,000 men which is fighting in the rear of the German army in occupied Poland.”

“Jewish Men and Women Sent to Forced Labor in Coal Mines in Czech Protectorate.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 9 Aug. 1942. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/08/09/2858444/jewish-men-and-women-sent-to-forced-labor-in-coal-mines-in-czech-protectorate>. “Twelve hundred Jews, including young girls and married women, have been sent to forced labor in the coal mines at Moravska-Ostrava and Karvin, in the Czech Protectorate, it was reported here today.”

“The Jews of Chelm and the Escape from the Borek Forest – Revolt & Resistance Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org.” Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. 2008. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/revolt/chelmborek.html>.

“Jews Shun City Streets As Month-long Terror Reign Continues in Slovakia.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 Aug. 1943. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1939/08/28/2845793/jews-shun-city-streets-as-monthlong-terror-reign-continues-in-slovakia>. “Terror stalks through the streets of the Jewish quarters of Bratislava and other Slovakian towns swept by a wave of violence against the Jewish population which began early this month, was climaxed on Friday, Aug. 11, with six hours of systematic destruction in Bratislava and is continuing throughout the ‘protectorate’ in the form of personal assaults on Jewish pedestrians and sporadic attacks on Jewish shops. The violence, by all accounts, appears to be organized and conducted by the German Slovak Party–the F.S.Men–with little participation by Slovaks. The attacks coincide with the rapid identification of Slovakia with direct German influence.”

Jick, Leon A. “Method in Madness: An Examination of the Motivations for Nazi Mass Murder.” Modern Judaism 18.2 (1998): 153-72. JSTOR. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. “To the very end, the Nazi policy toward the Jews was determined by expediency and utilitarianism.”

“JTA Archive.” Aged Jewish General Who Defied the Nazis in Vienna Returns Home from Theresienstadt. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/08/08/2867852/aged-jewish-general-who-defied-the-nazis-in-vienna-returns-home-from-theresienstadt>. “Major Gen. Emil von Sommer, a famous Jewish general of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire, who for long was believed to have been executed by the Nazis, has reappeared in Vienna to take up his life again. The general and his wife returned to Vienna from the former concentration camp at Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia.”

“JTA Archive.” German Deportation Ships Sabotaged in Denmark; Mass-arrests of Jews Continue. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 Oct. 1943. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/03/27/2860884/german-deportation-ships-ships-sabotaged-in-denmark>. “Two large German vessels were damaged last night in Copenhagen harbor while they were being prepared to transport Danish Jews to Germany, it was reported by the Swedish radio today.”

Katz, Steven T. “The “Unique” Intentionality Of The Holocaust.” Modern Judaism 1.2 (1981): 161-83. JSTOR. Web. 06 May 2012. “[D]oes the very ‘uniqueness’ of Nazism lie in it genocidal intent against the Jewish people?”

Kershaw, Ian. “‘Working towards the Fuhrer’ Reflections on the Nature of the Hitler Dictatorship.” Contemporary European History 2.2 (1993): 103-18. JSTOR. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. “There can be no principled objection to comparing the forms of dictatorship in Germany under Hitler and in the Soviet Union under Stalin and, however unedifying the subject matter, the nature and extent of their inhumanity.”

Kirsch, Adam. “Devastated.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc., 30 Nov. 2010. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-cultured/books/51671/devestated>. Review of “Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin” by Timothy Snyder. “Each change of regime, each military campaign, brought death on a massive scale–from combat, but still more imprisonment, massacre, deportation, and deliberate starvation.Between 1933 and 1945, 14 million civilians and prisoners of war were killed in this region.”

“Last Jews Deported from Amsterdam, Including All Jewish Leaders, Dutch Premier Says.” JTA Archives. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 21 Oct. 1943. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/22/2860341/last-jews-deported-from-amsterdam-including-all-jewish-leaders-dutch-premier-says>. “The last Jews remaining in Amsterdam, including the members of the Jewish Council, which was the central Jewish body in occupied Holland has been deported by the Gestapo from the Westerbork concentration camp to an unknown destination, Premier Peter Gerbrandy of the Netherlands Government-in-Exile, announced today.”

“Letter Shows First-known Desire by Hitler to Remove Jews.” Jerusalem Post. 8 June 2011. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/JewishWorld/JewishNews/Article.aspx?id=224117>. “The Los Angeles-based Simon Wiesenthal Center unveiled on Tuesday a signed letter by Adolf Hitler that contains what is believed to be his earliest transcribed calls for the removal of Jews from Germany. … The letter’s importance stems from the fact that Hitler, on assignment to assess the German Jewish situation, expressed that the final solution for the German government would be a ‘removal of Jews’ (German: ‘Entfernung der Juden’).”

Lipstadt, Deborah E. “Witness To The Persecution: The Allies And The Holocaust: A Review Essay.” Modern Judaism 3.3 (1983): 319-38. Print. “The Allies’ role in the rescue of European Jews has become a point of particular interest in recent years. … Pointed questions have been raised: What was done? What could have been done? What difference might it have made?”

“Many Jews Can Yet Be Rescued from Nazi Europe, Expert Asserts.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 11 Aug. 1943. Web. 05 Aug. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/08/11/2860326/many-jews-can-yet-be-rescued-from-nazi-europe-expert-asserts>. “The opinion that ‘many more Jews could be rescued even at this late day if the British and American officials entrusted with framing the refugee policy had a better understanding of the problems confronting the Jewish people, and more concern with them,’ is expressed in an analysis of the British and American official documents of the Bermuda Conference, prepared by Ilja Dijouri for the Jewish Scientific Institute.”

“Massacres of Jews in Poland Continue; Non-jews Executed for Sheltering Jews.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 20 May 1943. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/05/20/2860873/massacres-of-jews-in-poland-continue-nonjews-executed-for-sheltering-jews>. “Executions of non-Jews in occupied Poland for giving shelter to Jews fleeing the ghettos, where men, women and children are now being slaughtered in accordance with Goebbels’ recent order: “No Mercy for Jews,” are reported here today.”

Mikies, David. “The Diplomat of Shoah History.” Tablet. 26 July 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/107382/diplomat-of-shoah-history>. “The dispute between Poles and Jews about the Nazi period can move in unsettling directions, ones that make an unhealed wound hurt even worse. … The Polish role in the Holocaust had other roots, darker ones: traditional anti-Semitism and the greedy desire for Jewish property.”

Morrus, M. R. “Jewish Resistance to the Holocaust.” Journal of Contemporary History 30.1 (1995): 83-110. JSTOR. Web. 24 July 2012. The historiography of Jewish resistance to the Holocaust is discussed.

“Nazis Begin Mass-deportation of Jews from Paris; Will Intern Those Permitted to Remain.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Web. 16 July 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/07/19/2858250/nazis-begin-massdeportation-of-jews-from-paris-will-intern-those-permitted-to-remain>. “Mass-deportation of Jews from Paris to Nazi-occupied territory in Eastern Europe started this week, following the drastic anti-Jewish orders issued by the Gestapo there, the correspondent of the Swedish newspaper Stockholm Tidningen reported today.”

“Nearly 1,000,000 Volumes from Looted Jewish Libraries Found in Rosenberg’s Storehouses.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 10 July 1945. Web. 10 July 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/07/10/2867614/nearly-1000000-volumes-from-looted-jewish-libraries-found-in-rosenbergs-storehouses>. “Three-quarters of a million volumes looted from Jewish rabbinical libraries in Vilna, Paris and Amsterdam have been discovered, so far, in the small town of Hungen, north of here, and 100,000 have been found in the ‘Institute for Research Into the Jewish Question’ in Frankfurt.”

Neuhaus, Richard J. “Understanding the Third Reich and Other Great Evils.” First Things. 30 June 2008. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/onthesquare/2008/06/understanding-the-third-reich->. “Of the writing of books about the Holocaust it seems there is no end. And it is, all in all, a good thing that that is the case. There are other candidates for the dreadful distinction, but it happens that the Holocaust is the only universally agreed upon icon of absolute evil in the modern world.” The author discusses “Hitler’s Willing Executioners,” “Life and Death in the Third Reich,” and “Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution.”

Parker, Kevin. “Address for the Commemoration of Kristallnacht 2012.” Speech. Commemoration of Kristallnacht 2012. 8 Nov. 2012. Council of Christians and Jews Western Australia Inc. 8 Nov. 2002. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ccjwa.org/Documents/Articles/Kristallnacht_Kevin_Parker_address_081112.pdf>. “We have come together this afternoon to commemorate the tragic events of Kristallnacht in Germany 74 years ago. It was 1938. The second World War was nearly a year away. The Nazi Party governed Germany, led by Adolf Hitler — the Führer. The events in November 1938 did much to reveal the true intentions and nature of Hitler’s regime. … History now tells us that, emboldened by the events of Kristallnacht, the Nazi machine went much further, gravely so, in the months and years that followed. No summary can remind us adequately of the horror and heartache experienced by those who were there. The full force of the wrong that was done to those who suffered cannot be truly appreciated from any outline of the events of that dark time. We should not pass quickly over all that hurt and loss.”

Pilecki, Witold, and Jarek Garlinski. The Auschwitz Volunteer: Beyond Bravery. Los Angeles, CA: Aquila Polonica, 2012. Print. “Captain Witold Pilecki [Auschitz Prisoner No.4859] The only man who volunteered to be captured and imprisoned in Auschwitz to bring out the story of the camp.”

“Polish Anti-semitic Students Delivered Jews to Gestapo During Occupation of Poland.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 18 June 1945. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/06/18/2867426/polish-antisemitic-students-delivered-jews-to-gestapo-during-occupation-of-poland>. “Capt. Leon Peretz, a Jewish captain in the Polish Army who was liberated by American troops from a camp in Bavaria, today charged that Polish anti-Semitic students, members of the Nara Party, cooperated with the Germans during the occupation of Poland and delivered many Jews to the Gestapo.”

Prisoner of Paradise. Dir. Malcolm Clarke and Stuart Sender. Alliance Atlantis, 2002. DVD. “The first half of the film follows Gerron’s odyssey to this final directing job — from the beginning of his success as a performer . to his showbiz heyday . to his flight to France and then to Holland following the Nazi clampdown on Jews . to his capture following the German occupation of Holland . and finally, to his arrival at Theresienstadt. (A journey that included two missed opportunities to join friends like Marlene Dietrich and Peter Lorre, who’d successfully relocated to Hollywood.) The second half of the film deals with the situation at Theresienstadt, and features many interviews with survivors.” After Kurt Gerron made a propaganda film for the Nazis, he was murdered at Auschwitz.

Rothschild, Brad. “The Man Who Saved 900 Jewish Boys INSIDE a Death Camp.” Jewish Ideas Daily. The Times of Israel, 11 Aug. 2012. Web. 14 Aug. 2012. <http://www.timesofisrael.com/the-righteous-gentile-who-saved-900-jewish-boys-inside-a-death-camp-buchenwald-antonin-kalina/>. “Antonin Kalina was a communist imprisoned by the Nazis in Buchenwald. There, he kept the youngsters of his Block 66 alive. He never discussed this after the war, and died 20 years ago. Only now has his heroism been recognized.”

Rozswv, Suzanne. “A Polish Village’s Secret.” Tablet Magazine. 21 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/107970/polish-village-secret?all=1>. “A farming town hid a Jewish-born teacher during the Holocaust. I went to dig up what it had buried.” This long article is a very interesting piece of the author’s search for information about the Jewish teacher Wladyslaw Gugla who was saved by a whole town from the Germans.

“Rumania Reaches Agreement with Germany to Deport 60,000 Jews to Nazi-Polandjj.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 23 Feb. 1943. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/02/23/2859964/rumania-reaches-agreement-with-germany-to-deport-60000-jews-to-nazipoland>. “The Swedish press today reported that Rumanian Premier Antonescue has reached an agreement with the Nazi authorities to send 60,000 Rumanian Jews to Nazi-held Poland to construct fortifications. About 20,000 Jews will be sent from Bucharest and 40,000 will be taken from other cities in Old Rumania, the report stated.”

“Russian and Polish Newspapers in Moscow Laud Activity of Jewish Guerilla Fighters.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 28 Mar. 1944. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1944/03/28/2863580/russian-and-polish-newspapers-in-moscow-laud-activity-of-jewish-guerilla-fighters>. “The role of Jewish partisans operating behind the German lines is emphasized today in Moscow newspapers, including the Polish newspaper Wolna Polska issued by the League of Polish Patriots in Russia. Wolna Polska carries a report by Dr. Josef Parnas, a prominent leader of the Polish partisan movement who has just arrived in Moscow after many months of guerilla warfare in occupied Poland. The report describes how partisan units of Jews and Poles took revenge on German soldiers and officers for the execution of the entire Jewish population of the town of Wysock, in the western Ukraine.”

Salter, Michael, and Suzanne Ost. “War Crimes and Legal Immunities: The Complicities of Waffen-SS General Karl Wolff in Nazi Medical Experiments.” Law and Religion. Rutgers School of Law, 2002. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://org.law.rutgers.edu/publications/law-religion/articles/RJLR_4_1_4.pdf>. 4 Rutgers J. L. & Religion 4 (2002) War Crimes and Legal Immunities: The Complicities of Waffen-SS General Karl Wolff in Nazi medical experiments Salter, Michael; Ost, Suzanne “[1] There is a considerable amount of academic and popular literature on Nazi medical experimentation within concentration camps, however, the existing research largely focuses on the doctors and the details of their experiments and has neglected two interesting themes. The first neglected theme is the potential legal liabilities and defense strategies of those among the SS leadership, such as SS General Karl Wolff. Wolff facilitated these experiments in a purely administrative capacity, but without his contribution this type of war crime would not have been possible. Secondly, the research has neglected the extent to which Wolff was able to avoid legal accountability for these and other war crimes, as a result of his wartime cooperation with a U.S. intelligence agency and his post-war assistance to interrogators within the Allied Military Intelligence as well as the Nuremberg prosecutors. [2] The present article, which is the first in a series of related studies, focuses largely on the first theme. This article gives particular attention to Wolff’s attempts to avoid prosecution by insisting that the experiments were of a voluntary nature, based on the consent of the research subject, and were, therefore, not criminal acts. Additionally, the article focuses on Wolff’s claim that he did not possess the requisite mens rea or intent necessary to secure a criminal conviction.”

Schanzer, Jonathan. “Hitler’s ‘Grossmufti Von Jerusalem’” Www.JPost.com. Jerusalem Post, 29 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/ArtsAndCulture/Books/Article.aspx?id=113375>. “For the better part of a century, violence against Jews has arguably been the top export of the Palestinian people. True, they have olives and citrus, but ask any man on the street what the Palestinians are best known for, and you are likely to hear ‘suicide bombings’ or ‘rockets.’ While most Palestinians would claim that the violence is simply a means to ‘liberate’ their homeland, another plausible explanation may lie in the fact that early Palestinian nationalism was influenced heavily by Nazism. While other nations have disavowed fascism (Germany and Italy, for example) and have since developed into thriving democracies, the Palestinians have never reconciled with their past. The most influential leader of the Palestinians during the British mandate, the grand mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, was a Nazi collaborator. Husseini’s relationship with the Nazis is incontrovertible.”

Schwartz, Bajim. “Hitler’s Co-Conspirators.” The Atlantic. May 2009. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/05/hitlers-co-conspirators/307369/>. “New histories reveal that the Nazi Regime deliberately insinuated knowledge of the Final Solution, devilishly making Germans complicit in the crime and binding them, with guilt and dread, to their leaders. THE PAST TWO years have seen a flood of major works on Nazi Germany, books that include Life and Death in the Third Reich, Peter Fritzsche’s analysis of everyday life; Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution, a collection of essays focusing on social history, by Ian Kershaw, the author of the definitive biography of Hitler; Germany and the Second World War: German Wartime Society, the multiauthored, 1,000-plus-page English translation of the ninth volume of the gargantuan, quasi-official chronicle of the war issued by Germany’s Research Institute for Military History; and, just published in March, The Third Reich at War, by Richard J. Evans, the third and concluding volume of a work that will almost certainly be for a generation the authoritative general history of Nazi Germany in English.”

Sedan, Gil, and Hugh Orgel. “Former Mossad Chief Discloses That Its Agents Almost Captured Mengele on Three Occasions Since 1960.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 7 Feb. 1985. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1985/02/07/3000563/former-mossad-chief-discloses-that-its-agents-almost-captured-mengele-on-three-occasions-since-1960>. “The former chief of Mossad, Israel’s secret service, disclosed here yesterday that its agents almost captured Auschwitz death camp doctor Josef Mengele on three occasions since 1960, but narrowly missed him each time. Issar Harel, who masterminded the kidnapping of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires in 1960, also disclosed that Mossad agents had tracked down and assassinated known Nazi war criminals who could not be brought to Israel for trial — as Eichmann was — and that in 1959, with the government’s approval, it foiled a large scale neo-Nazi organization. He did not say where.”

Shriver Jr., Donald W. “Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust.” Christian Century 117.22 (2000): 812. Ebsco. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. Review of “Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust” by Victoria J. Barnett.

Snyder, Timothy. “In Defense of Bloodlands.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc., 3 Aug. 2012. Web. 04 Aug. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/108229/in-defense-of-bloodlands/2>. “Bloodlands is a history of the greatest moral and demographic calamity in modern Western history, the deliberate mass murder of 14 million human beings between Berlin and Moscow by the Nazi and Soviet regimes between 1933 and 1945, from the deliberate famine in Soviet Ukraine through the Holocaust of the European Jews.”

Soclof, Adam. “Jewish Woman, 98, Recalls Being Pulled from 1936 Berlin Olympics.” The Archive Blog. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 31 July 2012. Web. 05 Aug. 2012. <http://blogs.jta.org/thearchiveblog/article/2012/07/31/3102321/jewish-woman-98-recalls-being-pulled-from-1936-berlin-olympics>. “Unofficially, JTA is keeping an eye on the progress of some 44 Jewish and Israeli athletes competing at the 2012 London Olympic Games. In 1936, athletes from both the U.S. and Nazi Germany were excluded from competition in the Nazi-held Olympics in Berlin because they were Jewish. One of them is still alive today.

“South Africa Bars Hitlerism; Expels Leader.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 13 July 1934. Web. 10 July 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1934/07/13/2816314/south-africa-bars-hitlerism-expels-leader>. “The South African government today prohibited the Nazi movement and the Nazi Hitler youth groups in the Union of South Africa and in Southwest Africa, formerly a German colony. Herr von Losnitzer, German imported leader of the Nazi movement in South Africa, was ordered to leave the country when authorities discovered subversive documents in his possession.”

Staff, CNN Wire. “Report: Hitler Ordered Reprieve to Jewish Man – CNN.com.” CNN. Cable News Network, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 12 July 2012. <http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/07/world/europe/germany-hitler-reprieve/index.html>. “Ernst Hess, who was a decorated World War I soldier, former judge and, despite being raised a Protestant and marrying someone of that faith, [was considered] a ‘full-blooded Jew’ in the eyes of the Nazi regime. … Hess was granted a reprieve despite this designation thanks to none other than Adolf Hitler.”

Stow, Kenneth R. “The Popes against the Jews: The Vatican’s Rome in the Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism.” Rev. of The Popes against the Jews: The Vatican’s Rome in the Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism. Jewish History 17.3 (2003): 343-48. JSTOR. Web. 06 May 2012.

“Survey of Situation of Jews in Balkans and Occupied Territory Made by JDC Director.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 10 Jan. 1945. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/01/10/2865847/survey-of-situation-of-jews-in-balkans-and-occupied-territory-made-by-jdc-director>. “An over-all report on the situation of the Jews in the Balkans, Hungary, Austria and Italy was given here by Dr. Joseph Schwartz, European director of the Joint Distribution Committee, who has just returned from Switzerland. … Dr. Schwartz said in an interview that working directly or through the International Red Cross, his organization is bringing relief and assisting in the rescue of Jews in Bulgaria, Rumania, Yugoslavia and Italy, as well as Nazi-occupied Hungary, Slovakia, Austria and parts of Croatia.”

Tec, Nechama. Resilience and Courage: Women, Men, and the Holocaust. New Haven, Conn. ; London: Yale UP, 2003. Print. In this book “Nechama Tec expands her pathbreaking research research to probe broad question of gender differences and the Holocaust.”

“Tomb of Courageous Polish Non-Jew Is Rededicated.” JTA. Jewish Telegraphic, 19 June 2012. Web. 19 June 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/06/19/3098381/tomb-of-courageous-polish-non-jew-is-rededicated>. “The tombstone of a Polish woman who saved a Jewish woman by hiding her in the roof of her barn for two years during the Holocaust was rededicated with a Talmudic inscription. Maria Jalowiec, who died in 1979, hid her neighbor Regina (Rivka) Wallach, who had managed to jump off a wagon after being rounded up by the Nazis, from 1942 to 1944.”

“Top Egyptian Official Calls Holocaust a ‘myth’.” JTA Jews. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/30/3118271/top-egyptian-official-calls-holocaust-a-myth>. A top Egyptian official close to President Mohamed Morsi called the Holocaust a myth. “The myth of the Holocaust is an industry that America invented,” Fathi Shihab Eddim reportedly claimed in recent days. Shihab Eddim reportedly is responsible for appointing the editors of all state-run Egyptian newspapers.

White, Jim. “London 2012 Olympics: British Holocaust Survivor Ben Helfgott’s Story Inspires Medal Hopeful Zoe Smith.” Jewish Ideas Daily. Telegraph Co. UK, 27 Jan. 2012. Web. 27 July 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/ad685?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=ddeca110c0-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “Found weighing barely 80 pounds in Theresienstadt, Ben Helfgott went on to become an Olympic weightlifter for Great Britain: ‘I so wanted to win a medal to say thank you to the country that saved me.’”

“Wiesenthal Center’s Most Wanted Nazi Located in Budapest by Tabloid.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Web. 16 July 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/07/15/3100776/wiesenthal-centers-most-wanted-nazi-located-in-budapest-by-tabloid>. “A fugitive Nazi war criminal who helped send 15,700 Jews to their deaths was tracked down in Budapest by a British tabloid newspaper. The Sun newspaper on Sunday reported that it had found Ladislaus Csizsik-Csatary, 97, with the help of information supplied by the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Israel. Csizsik-Csatary had been No. 1 on the center’s Most Wanted list of Nazi criminals.”

Zieve, Tamara. “This Week in History: ‘St. Louis’ Forced to Europe.” The Jerusalem Post. 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Features/InThespotlight/Article.aspx?id=272493>. “On June 6 1939, a German transatlantic liner carrying over 900 Jewish refugees fleeing the Third Reich was forced to turn back to Europe after having been turned away from the shores of Cuba, the United States and Canada. 936 people had set off on the SS St. Louis from Hamburg, Germany on May 15 of that year, holding permits to enter Havana. Most were Jews seeking to escape the clutches of Nazi Germany, however, their fate seemed ominous as ever as they were sent back where they came from.”