After the Third Reich #1


Polish WWII refugees.

View over the Prinzipalmarkt of the city of Münster (Westphalia), Germany, after end of WW II. 


“Austrian [sic] Can Prepare to Close Its Fund for Victims of the Nazis.” JTA – Jewish & Israel News. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, Web. 02 July 2012. <>. “The president of the Austrian parliament announced that the country can prepare to close its General Settle Fund for Victims of Nazi Socialism.”

Axelrod, Toby. “As Nazis Die Out, Historians Push to Collect Their Stories.” Jthe Jewish News Weekly of Northern California. 2 May 2008. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. “It was the spring of 1943 when Otto Ernst Duscheleit, a Hitler Youth leader, received the call: Join the Waffen-SS or be sent to a penal battalion. … Duscheleit, who lives in Berlin, is among a growing number of former Nazis relating their stories. Their stories are a reminder of the fast-disappearing opportunity to record the history of the Holocaust before the last surviving Nazis die.”

Beardsley, Eleanor. “WWII Survivor Stirs Literary World With ‘Outrage’” NPR : National Public Radio : News & Analysis, World, US, Music & Arts : NPR. 22 Sept. 2011. Web. 07 July 2012. <>. Stephane Hessel is “a World War II concentration camp survivor and fighter in the French resistance [who] argues that people should fight to reclaim the right of life and liberty, which have been eroded by governments since the end of World War II.”

Berendt, Joanna. “Restoring the Walls, and History, at a Hitler Command Post.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 18 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <>. “For nearly three years, Hitler commanded the Third Reich from a vast network of bunkers and buildings hidden in the forest here, guiding his genocidal war effort from an encampment called the Wolf’s Lair. But while Poland went to great lengths to preserve the memory of Nazi death camps like Birkenau, the significance of this historic outpost was largely lost. … Now, however, the Polish government has decided that the Wolf’s Lair holds valuable history lessons that need to be preserved, especially amid signs that right-wing ideologies of hate and blame are taking root in corners of Europe.”

“Berlin Airlift Turns 60: A Firsthand Account of Post-War Berlin.” Spiegel Online. SPIEGELnet GmbH, 26 June 2008. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. <>. “Traute Grier was 16 years old when the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world. Here, she recounts her desperate struggle for survival, her terror of the Russians and how friendships developed between the Americans and occupied Germans.”

Bowlby, Chris. “Austria Still Haunted by Nazi Past.” BBC News. BBC, 03 July 2008. Web. 05 July 2012. <>. The guilty past in Austria “was either ignored, or proved too painful to face.”

Buse, Dieter K. “The ‘Going’ of the Third Reich: Recivilizing Germans through Political Education.” German Politics & Society 26.1 (2008): 29-56. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 July 2012. “This article argues that the national and regional Offices for Political Education have contributed significantly to the recivilizing process.”

Cacciottolo, Mario. “The Race to Bring Nazis to Justice.” BBC News. BBC, 23 Mar. 2009. Web. 03 July 2012. <>. “The US has deported to Austria a former Nazi death camp guard, Josias Kumpf. The move sheds light on the continuing search – in some countries at least – for World War II war criminals.”

“Children of the Reich Tell of Shame at Being Related to Hitler’s Men.” N.p., 19 Feb. 2010. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. Documentary film review: Hitler’s Children “THEY are the forgotten children of the Third Reich, whose parents and uncles were responsible for some of the worst atrocities in history. In Hitler’s Children, a documentary about the children of leading Nazis, they speak publicly about living with the memory of their relatives’ crimes.

“Claims Conference Triples Aid to Greek Holocaust Survivors.” The Times of Israel.  27 June 2012. Web. 3 July 2012. <>. “Group cites economic crisis and need for education to counter anti-Semitism education in wake of neo-Nazi political gains.”

Doerries, Reinhard R. “Recently Declassified American Records of the Third Reich and Its Aftermath.” Diplomatic History 30.2 (2006): 301-05. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 July 2012. “Book reviewed: Richard Breitman, Norman J. W. Goda, Timothy Naftali, and Robert Wolfe. U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis.”

Eder, Marton. “Hungarian Far-Right Lawmaker Meets Rabbi After Discovering Jewish Roots.” The Wall Street Journal 6 Aug. 2012. Wall Street Journal (blog). Wall Street Journal, 6 Aug. 2012. Web. 19 Aug. 2012. <>. “A Hungarian politician formerly from a far-right party seen as xenophobic has met Hungary’s chief orthodox rabbi after going public with his Jewish roots.”

Eichner, Itamar. “More Germans Leave Their Estates to Israel.” Y  Web. 31 July 2012. <,2506,L-4259707,00.html>. “2012 sees peak in number of aging Germans, who driven by guilty conscience, leave their money to State of Israel.”

Esman, Abagail. “New Web Sites Help Track Nazi Plunder. The Timing Couldn’t Be More Urgent.” Forbes 8 May 2011: n. pag. Web. 14 Nov. 2011. <>. “New online databases, along with recently-discovered photographs, may help resolve one of the most controversial unresolved legacies of the Holocaust – locating and returning the art, jewels, and other assets stolen and seized by the Nazis from European Jews.”

“The European Atrocity You Never Heard About.” The Chronicle Review. The Chronical of Higher Education, 11 June 2012. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <>. “Between 1945 and 1950, Europe witnessed the largest episode of forced migration, and perhaps the single greatest movement of population, in human history. Between 12 million and 14 million German-speaking civilians—the overwhelming majority of whom were women, old people, and children under 16—were forcibly ejected from their places of birth in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, and what are today the western districts of Poland.”

“For a National Archives Exhibit, Michael Pupa Finally Reveals His Harrowing Holocaust Journey.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 21 June 2012. Web. 29 June 2012. <>. “Pupa, who grew up in the Polish town of Manyevitch, escaped from the Nazis into the Polish forests in 1942. After spending years in displaced persons camps in Germany, he came to the U.S. in 1951 as a 12-year-old orphan to live with a foster family in the Cleveland area.”

Friedman, Jan. “New Third Reich Monument in Berlin: Revealing the Young Bureaucrats Behind the Nazi Terror.” Spiegel Online. N.p., 5 June 2010. Web. 03 July 2012. <>. “The new ‘Topography of Terror’ documentation center opened on Thursday in Berlin at the site of the former Gestapo and SS headquarters. It reveals the faces of the almost unknown perpetrators of the Holocaust.”

Friedman, Matti. “The Stubborn Embodiment of Jewish Self-reliance.” The Times of Israel. N.p., 1 July 2012. Web. 03 July 2012. <>. “His family’s fate in Poland taught him [Yithak Shamir] that Jews can depend only on themselves. Nothing he led or lived through in Israel clouded that belief.”

Furst, Alan. Dark Star: A Novel. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2002. Print. “Paris, Moscow, Berlin, and Prague, 1937. In the back alleys of nighttime Europe, war is already under way. André Szara, survivor of the Polish pogroms and the Russian civil wars and a foreign correspondent for Pravda, is co-opted by the NKVD, the Soviet secret intelligence service, and becomes a full-time spymaster in Paris.”

Furst, Alan. The Foreign Correspondent: A Novel. New York: Random House, 2006. Print. “From Alan Furst, whom The New York Times calls “America’s preeminent spy novelist,” comes an epic story of romantic love, love of country, and love of freedom-the story of a secret war fought in elegant hotel bars and first-class railway cars, in the mountains of Spain and the backstreets of Berlin. It is an inspiring, thrilling saga of everyday people forced by their hearts’ passion to fight in the war against tyranny.”

Furst, Alan. Kingdom of Shadows: A Novel. New York: Random House, 2001. Print. “In spymaster Alan Furst’s most electrifying thriller to date, Hungarian aristocrat Nicholas Morath–a hugely charismatic hero–becomes embroiled in a daring and perilous effort to halt the Nazi war machine in eastern Europe.”

Furst, Alan. Night Soldiers: A Novel. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1988. Print. “Night Soldiers masterfully re-creates the European world of 1934-45: the struggle between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia for Eastern Europe, the last desperate gaiety of the beau monde in 1937 Paris, and guerrilla operations with the French underground in 1944. Night Soldiers is a scrupulously researched panoramic novel, a work on a grand scale. From the Trade Paperback edition.”

Furst, Alan. The Polish Officer: A Novel. New York: Random House, 1995. Print. “Capt. Alexander de Milja is a chameleon. A cartographer by profession, de Milja works as an intelligence officer in the Polish underground at the outset of World War II. When the Germans discover de Milja’s identity in Poland, he goes to France and later Russia to continue his work.”

Furst, Alan. Red Gold: A Novel. New York: Random House, 1999. Print. ” In World War II, a French film director working for the Vichy resistance has to smuggle a large shipment of arms under the nose of the Nazis. The guns are the price the Communists demand for cooperation with the resistance.”

Furst, Alan. Spies of the Balkans: A Novel. New York: Random House, 2010. Print. “As war approaches northern Greece, the spies begin to circle–from the Turkish legation to the German secret service. In the ancient port of Salonika, Costa Zannis, a senior police official, head of an office that handles special “political” cases, risks everything to secure an escape route for those hunted by the Gestapo.”

Furst, Alan. The Spies of Warsaw: A Novel. New York: Random House, 2008. Print. “In 1937 Warsaw, on the eve of World War II, intelligence operatives on both sides of the forthcoming struggle wage their own espionage battle in a world of betrayal, intrigue, and abduction.”

Gapay, Les. “The Holocaust and the Sins of the Father.” Los Angeles Times Article Collections. Los Angeles Times, 06 May 2012. Web. 29 June 2012. <>. “… I began talking to Hungarian Holocaust survivors in New York and Europe who remembered my father [Laslo Gyapay]. One told me about an exhibit mentioning my father in a Jewish museum in Budapest. A couple said conditions in the ghetto had a reputation as being the worst in Hungary. Others blamed my father personally for what happened to them in the ghetto and at Auschwitz.”

“Germany Agrees to $300 Million More in Restitution, Claims Conf. Says.” Global News Service of the Jewish People. JTA: The Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 9 July 2012. Web. 12 July 2012. <>. “Germany has agreed to provide restitution payments to an additional 80,000 Jews in what Claims Conference officials are describing as a historic breakthrough.”

Grossmann, Atina. “Victims, Villains, and Survivors: Gendered Perceptions and Self-Perceptions of Jewish Displaced Persons in Occupied Postwar Germany.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11.1 (2002): 291-318. JSTOR. Web. 24 July 2012. “[I]n the immediate postwar period occupied Germany was the unlikely, unloved, and reluctant host to hundreds of thousands of its former victims, housed in refugee camps in the U.S. and British zones and in the American sector of Berlin.”

Hall, Allan. “Germany: Book Reveals Third Reich Was Undone by Its Own Propaganda.” 1 June 2012. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. “THE wave of suicides among Nazi party leaders and army generals at the end of the Second World War was triggered by fear of Soviet reprisals which the regime’s propaganda stoked to fever pitch, according a new study. Allied to this paranoia of revenge was the prospect of chaos across the country which “ordered German minds” feared following the days of revolution and poverty at the end of the First World War, it says.”

Hall, Casey. “Jewish Life in Shanghai’s Ghetto.” - 19 June 2012. Web. 02 July 2012. <>. “While much of the city’s Jewish Quarter has disappeared in the years since the end of World War II, the Ohel Moshe Synagogue is a constant reminder of how this Chinese city saved tens of thousands of Jews fleeing the Holocaust.”

Harding, Luke. “Germany to Release Archive Files on Millions of Nazi Victims.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 19 Apr. 2006. Web. 01 Aug. 2012. <>. Germany bowed to decades of pressure from the US and Britain yesterday and announced that it would open a vast trove of Nazi-era papers detailing the fate of millions of Holocaust victims.”

Herschaft, Randy, and Verena Dobnik. “Excruciating Details Emerge on 1,100-plus Jewish Ghettos Detailed by US Researchers.” Yahoo! News Canada. Web. 03 July 2012. <>.

Hockenos, Matthew D. A Church Divided: German Protestants Confront the Nazi past. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2004. Print. “In post-Holocaust Germany, the Protestant Church confronts its complicity with the Nazi regime.”

Horovitz, David. “In Frankfurt, Grappling with Traces of My Family’s Nazi-shattered World.” Times of Israel. 21 June 2012. Web. 3 July 2012. <>. “Over Shavuot, in the city where my father was born, I scratched the surface of the new Germany.”

“Hungary Claims Conference Exchange Harsh Words over Holocaust Money.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 29 Aug. 2012. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <>. The Claims Conference accused Hungary’s government of “depriving” Holocaust survivors through “disgraceful” and “deceitful tactics.”The allegations came after Budapest demanded … that the Claims Conference, an organization representing world Jewry in compensation talks on Holocaust-era crimes,” should return $12.6 million to Hungary’s treasury.

“Israel Salutes Non-jewish Poles for Heroism and Preserving Jewish Memory.” JTA News. Jewish Telegraphi Agency, 10 July 2012. Web. 12 July 2012. <>. “Israel in twin ceremonies honored non-Jewish Poles who rescued Jews during the Holocaust and those who have preserved Jewish memory since World War II.”

Joffe, Alex. “Hollywood Goes to Auschwitz.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 29 June 2012. Web. 03 July 2012. <>. “Hollywood’s first encounter with the Holocaust came decades before Schindler’s List or any such dramatizations. An exhibit called Filming the Camps, created by historian and film director Christian Delage for the Mémorial de la Shoah in Paris and now showing at New York’s Museum of Jewish Heritage, reveals how three iconic American directors, John Ford, George Stevens, and Samuel Fuller, translated the camps into films. Their footage of genocide and its perpetrators shaped not only how we perceive the Holocaust, but also the subsequent development of American cinema—and the directors themselves.”

“JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People.” Australian Jewish Leader Says Officials Complicit in Sheltering Nazi War Criminals. 21 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <>. “Jeremy Jones, a former president of the Executive Council of Australian Jewry, said Aug. 19 at the launch of a new book about Nazi war criminals: ‘Australian governments, through commission and omission, had been complicit in allowing torturers, murderers and architects of the most gross inhumanity to come and live in peace and without fear of consequences in Australia.’”

“JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People.” Nazi Guard May Be Tried in Germany. 21 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <>. “Prosecutors in the Bavarian city of Weiden think they have a good chance of bringing an 87-year-old former Auschwitz guard to trial. An investigation of the man — whose name has not yet been released by the Central Office of the State Justice Administrations for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes — shows that he volunteered for the Waffen SS in 1942 and was trained as a guard, according to the German news agency DPA”

Kensky, Eitan. “Through Night and Fog.” Jewish Ideas Daily. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <>. After a visit to Auschwitz with his father, the author reviews the film “Night and Fog.” “Night and Fog has become the quintessential documentary of the concentration camps, extensively shown at synagogues and by Jewish groups—despite barely mentioning Jews.”

Kucharz, Christel. “Beware of Nazi Words.” ABC News. ABC News Network, 01 Feb. 2008. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. ” Dozens of German words have for decades been taboo for native speakers because of the way those words were used by the Nazis. Now, an 800-page dictionary has been published to serve as a guide to avoiding linguistic traps into which Germans can easily fall.”

Lampert, Simi. “Rethinking Holocaust Education.” The Jewish Daily Forward, 29 Aug. 2012. Web. 30 Aug. 2012. <>. “A Call To Move Beyond the Horror for a Future Generation”

Lukacs, John. “Seventy Years Later: The Second World War Destroyed Adolf Hitler and His Third Reich, but His Legacy Is Showing Disturbing Signs of Life.” American Scholar 79.1 (2010): 50-58. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 July 2012. “This article discusses World War II and German leader Adolph Hitler and considers how Hitler changed the political landscape of the world. The author considers the 20th century to be a “short” century dating from 1914 to 1989—from World War I to the fall of communism and the collapse of the Soviet Union.”

MacMillan, Margaret. “Rebuilding the World after the Second World War.” The Guardian. 10 Sept. 2009. Web. 3 July 2012. <>. “As many as 60 million dead, great cities reduced to rubble, families torn apart … The second world war caused unprecedented hardship, but it also accelerated change.”

Margalit, Gilad. Germany and Its Gypsies: A Post-Auschwitz Ordeal. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin, 2002. Print. There were two German conflicting viewpoints of the Gypsies in the aftermath of Auschwitz. “the question is which of them more truly represents the German attitude’ toward this Nazi persecuted and despised minority–the conservative bigot or the enlightened liberal?”

Marrus, Michael R. “The History of the Holocaust: A Survey of Recent Literature.” The Journal of Modern History 59.1 (1987): 114-60. JSTOR. Web. 28 July 2012. One-hundred-thirty-three footnotes include recent (up to 1986) entries of Holocaust history literature.

“May 7, 1945 | Nazi Germany Surrenders in World War II.” The Learning Network Blog. New York Times, 7 May 2012. Web. 06 July 2012. <>.

Mazower, Mark. “Being German in 1945.” Rev. of Exorcising Hitler: The Occupation and Denazification of Germany. The New York Times 29 July 2011. 29 July 2011. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. <>. “The story of the denazification of Germany after 1945 comes in two versions. The one we know best allows us to congratulate ourselves on a job well done. … But there is also a much less self-congratulatory version of denazification

McKale, Donald M. Nazis after Hitler: How Perpetrators of the Holocaust Cheated Justice and Truth. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012. Print. “The author shows how immediately after the war’s end in 1945. Hitler’s minions, whether the few placed on trial or the many living in freedom, carried on what amounted to a massive postwar ideological campaign against Jews.”

“More than 150,000 Holocaust Restitution Claims Submitted.” JTA. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 23 Aug. 2012. Web. 25 Aug. 2012. <>. ” More than 150,000 applications have been submitted for restitution of Jewish owned property lost during the Holocaust.”

Moreno, Juan. “Nazi Tours in Munich: ‘Turn Left at Gestapo Headquarters’” Spiegel Online. 9 Apr. 2009. Web. 03 July 2012. <>. “Foreign tourists flock to the Third Reich walking tours in Munich. … The country’s image seems to be changing far more slowly than it would prefer.”

“New Bill Would Press Countries Harboring War Criminals.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 13 Sept. 2012. Web. <>. “Washington (JTA) – Two U.S. congressmen have introduced legislation aimed at pressuring any country harboring Nazi war criminals. Reps. Steve Israel (D-N.Y.) and Howard Berman (D-Calif.) proposed legislation in the House of Representatives on Wednesday that would prohibit defense sales to any country offering safe harbor to Nazis or any modern-day war criminals.”

“Norway Offers Long-delayed Holocaust Apology.” 31 July 2012. Web. 31 July 2012. <,2506,L-4181702,00.html>. “Norway apologized for the first time on Friday for the country’s complicity in the deportation and deaths of Jews during the Nazi occupation in World War II.”

Norwood, Stephen H. “In Denial: American Universities’ Response To The Third Reich, Past And Present.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 46.4 (2011): 501-09. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 July 2012. “The article discusses the relationship between American universities and the Nazi regime in Germany. Particular focus is given to the role of Harvard University and Columbia University in participating in academic dialogues and exchanges with German universities and hosting Nazi officials on visits to the U.S. Details on American universities’ 21st-century responses to scholarship on these relationships, including Harvard University’s decision to cancel a conference on American responses to the Holocaust, are presented. Other topics include student opposition to U.S.-German academic cooperation in the 1930s and Columbia University’s 2007 decision to host Iranian President and Holocaust denier Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.”

Nugent, John. “The Great Patents Heist.” Wintersonnenwende. Web. 02 July 2012. <>. While this article provides valuable information on German patents, the author’s anti-semitism is conspicuous.

Nuutinen, Joni. “Welcome to World War II News!” Hitler’s Third Reich and World War II in the News. Web. 28 July 2012. <>. “Hitler’s Third Reich and World War II in the News is a daily edited review of WWII articles – including German WW2 militaria – providing thought-provoking collection of hand-picked WW2 information.”

O’Connor, Joe. “Pregnant in Auschwitz: Toronto Holocaust Survivor Recalls Split-second Decision That Saved Her and Unborn Son.” National Post. 25 Aug. 2012. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <>. “Miriam Rosenthal was four-months pregnant, starving, bone-tired, cold, filthy and afraid when an SS officer in big black boots and a crisp uniform appeared before the barracks in Auschwitz with a loudspeaker in hand. All pregnant women line up, he barked. Line up, line up — your food portions are being doubled.” The 200 women who stepped forward died in the gas chamber.

Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. “Holocaust Reparations: The Back Story.” Jewish Ideas » Daily Features ». 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <>. “On July 10th, dignitaries from the U.S., German, and Israeli governments attended a curious ceremony at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. The gathering marked the 60th anniversary of the first agreement by the West German government with the Israeli government and the Jewish “Claims Conference” to grant modest financial compensation for the Holocaust. Some of the Jews in the room had spent the years since the agreement in seemingly interminable haggling.”

Remmert, Volker R. “What’s Nazi about Nazi Science? Recent Trends in the History of Science in Nazi Germany.” Perspectives on Science 12.4 (2004): 454-75. Ebsco Host. Academic Search Premier, Winter 2004. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. Reviews several books about the history of Science during the Nazi period in Germany.

Reporting, Michael Slackman; Stefan Pauly Contributed. “Hitler Exhibition Explores a Wider Circle of Guilt.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Oct. 2010. Web. 03 July 2012. <>. “[T]he exhibits … at the German Historical Museum are intentionally prosaic: they emphasize the everyday way that ordinary Germans once accepted, and often celebrated, Hitler.”

Rising, David. “Hundreds of Nazi Probes Reopened in Germany.” Msnbc Digital Network, 05 Oct. 2011. Web. 05 July 2012. <>. In a final quest to bring Holocaust participants to justice, German authorities have reopened hundreds of dormant investigations of Nazi death camp guards — men who are now so old that time has become ‘the enemy’ for prosecutors hurrying to prepare cases.”

Salazar, Cristian, and Randy Herschaft. “Report: U.S. Officials Protected Gestapo Agents.” Msnbc Digital Network, 10 Dec. 2010. Web. 02 July 2012. <>. “A report to Congress reveals details on how U.S. intelligence officials used and protected some Nazi Gestapo agents after World War II and tracked Holocaust administrator Adolf Eichmann.”

Sandbrook, Dominic. “The Year of Vengeance: How Neighbours Turned on Each Other and Anarchy Erupted in the Aftermath of WWII.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 12 Mar. 2012. Web. 03 July 2012. <>. “For hundreds of millions of Europeans, many of them now gentle, respectable pensioners, this was the daily reality [anarchy] in the desperate months after the end of World War II.”

Sayare, Scott. “France Reflects on Its Role in Wartime Fate of Jews.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 29 July 2012. Web. 29 July 2012. <>. “Early on a Thursday morning in July 1942, more than 4,000 police officers set out in pairs through the streets of occupied Paris, carrying arrest orders for scores of Jewish men, women and children. Within days, 13,152 people had been rounded up for deportation to death camps. No more than 100 would survive. The mass arrests, the largest in wartime France, were planned and carried out not by the Nazi occupiers but by the French. That difficult reality, for years denied, obscured, willfully ignored or forgotten, is now increasingly accepted here, historians and French officials say, part of a broader reckoning with France’s uncomfortable wartime past.”

“Shoah Memorial Plan Deepens Rift among Belgium’s Jews.” The Times of Israel. 2 July 2012. Web. 03 July 2012. <>. “Claims that commemoration is noninclusive and too expensive made by Flemish leaders.”

Silberman, Zach. “For a National Archives Exhibit, Michael Pupa Finally Reveals His Harrowing Holocaust Journey.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 21 June 2012. Web. 03 July 2012. <>. “While preparing for a new National Archives exhibit that he is curating, Bruce Bustard showed some documents to his colleague, Miriam Kleiman. She was stunned to see the name Michael Pupa, father of her friend Jill Pupa, as he had never spoken to his family about his harrowing past.”

“Survey Finds Young Frenchman Unfamiliar with WWII Jewish Roundup.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 17 July 2012. Web. 18 July 2012. <>. “Sixty percent of respondents aged 18 to 24 said they never heard of the Vel d’Hiv Roundup of July 16-17, 1942, when French police rounded up some 13,000 Jews in and around Paris. They were held near the Eiffel Tower before being shipped for extermination to Auschwitz.”

Taylor, Alan. “World War II: After the War: World War II in Photos.” In Focus. The Atlantic, 30 Oct. 2011. Web. 06 July 2012. <>. “At the end of World War II, huge swaths of Europe and Asia had been reduced to ruins. Borders were redrawn and homecomings, expulsions, and burials were under way. But the massive efforts to rebuild had just begun.”

Taylor, Fred. Exorcising Hitler: The Occupation and Denazification of Germany. New York: Bloomsbury, 2011. Print. The author “describes the bitter endgame of war, the murderous Nazi resistance, the vast displacement of people in Central and Eastern Europe. …”

Trevor-Roper, H. R. “The Germans Reappraise the War.” Foreign Affairs 31.2 (1953): 226-37. JSTOR. Foreign Affairs. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. In 1953 the author examines literature concerning Nazi Germany and looks for “the evidence which it supplies of the changing political climate of Germany since Hitler’s death.”

Tugend, Tom. “Six Decades Later, Fibbing Ex-flying Ace Really Sees the London Olympics.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 3 Aug. 2012. Web. 12 Aug. 2012. <>. “After a 64-year detour, Mitchell Flint, a former fighter pilot for the United States and Israel, has finally landed for the London Olympic Games.”

“US ‘hushed Up’ Soviet Guilt over Katyn | The Agonist.” BBC News Europe. BBC, 11 Sept. 2012. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. < >. New evidence appears to back up the idea that the Roosevelt administration. Helped cover up Soviet guilt for the 1940 Katyn massacre of Polish soldiers.”

Walden, Geoff. “Third Reich in Ruins.” Third Reich in Ruins. 20 July 2000. Web. 15 July 2012. <>. “This page presents photos of historical sites associated with Germany’s Third Reich (1933-1945), both as they appeared while in use, and as the remains appear today. These photos give a “then and now” perspective, in many cases, a virtual tour of the sites.” “All photos taken by or from the collection of Geoffrey R. Walden, except where specifically noted. Please respect my property rights, and the rights of others who have graciously allowed me to use their photos on this page, and do not copy these photos or reproduce them in any other way.”

“The War in Europe Is Ended! Surrender Is Unconditional; V-E Will Be Proclaimed Today.” The New York Times. The New York Times, Web. 03 July 2012. <>.

“What’s the True Story on South American Nazis?” The Straight Dope. N.p., 30 Jan. 2004. Web. 12 Aug. 2012. <>. “What’s the true story on South American Nazis? After World War II why would countries like Argentina and Paraguay want them?”

“Wiesenthal Center’s Most Wanted Nazi Located in Budapest by Tabloid.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, Web. 16 July 2012. <>. “A fugitive Nazi war criminal who helped send 15,700 Jews to their deaths was tracked down in Budapest by a British tabloid newspaper. The Sun newspaper on Sunday reported that it had found Ladislaus Csizsik-Csatary, 97, with the help of information supplied by the Simon