Women in the Third Reich


“Jewish women during the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto, Poland, 1943. The Jews who didn’t die from starvation or disease were killed in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. 360,000 Jews died in the ghetto.” 

“Women camp guards Bergen-Belsen April 19, 1945. SS women camp guards are paraded for work in clearing the dead.”

“The greater the man, the more insignificant should be the woman.” Adolf Hitler

“The fate of Jewish women and the problems they had to face have just barely been touched upon in the Holocaust.” Yehuda Bauer. Rethinking the Holocaust, 2001.

 

Ackerman, Diane. The Zookeeper’s Wife: A War Story. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2007. Print. “Jan and Antonina Zabinski were Polish Christian zookeepers horrified by Nazi racism, who managed to save over three hundred people. Yet their story has fallen between the seams of history.”

Barclay, Shelly. “How Irena Sendler Saved 2,500 Children from the Nazis.” Helium – Where Knowledge Rules. Helium Inc., 8 Jan. 2010. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://www.helium.com/items/1704954-irena-sendler>. Irene Sandler “saved more than two thousand children and infants from certain death in the Warsaw Ghetto in Poland” at great personal risk.

Binney, Marcus. The Women Who Lived for Danger: The Agents of the Special Operations Executive. New York: William Morrow, 2002. Print. In this book the author “recounts the story of ten remarkable women who were dropped in occupied territories [in WW II] work as secret agents.” Ten stories of courageous, unknown women are presented.

Block, Gay, and Malka Drucker. Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1992. Print. Narratives of the rescuers, the men and women who risked everything to save Jews marked for death during the Holocaust.

Brysac, Shareen B. “Cast of Characters.” Traces.org Website. 2000. Web. 09 May 2011. <http://www.traces.org/castofcharacters.html>. Members of the resistance group the “Red Orchestra” included Mildred Harnack-Fish, an American who was executed on Hitler’s orders.

Collins, Glenn. “Women in Nazi Germany: Paradoxes.” The New York Times. N.p., 02 Mar. 1987. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/1987/03/02/style/women-in-nazi-germany-paradoxes.html>. “Time and again during the decade she spent researching the history of the forgotten women of the Third Reich, Claudia Koonz was struck by a paradox: the very women who were so protective of their children, so warm, nurturing and giving to their families, could at the same time display extraordinary cruelty.”

David, Henry P., Jochen Fleischhacker, and Charlotte Hohn. “Abortion and Eugenics in Nazi Germany.” Population and Development Review 14.1 (1988): 81-112. JSTOR. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. “In view of the often acrimonious debates surrounding many discussions of abortion, and the occasional references to the Holocaust, it seems appropriate to review the abortion experience in Germany during the Hitler years (1933-45).”

Dumbach, Annette E., and Jud Newborn. Sophie Scholl and the White Rose. Oxford: Oneworld Pub., 2006. Dr. Jud Newborn. Web. 9 May 2011. < www.judnewborn.com/jud-whiterose.html>. Description of the book, Sophie Scholl and the White Rose.

Erpel, S. “Struggle and Survival: Jewish Women in the Anti-Fascist Resistance in Germany.” The Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 37.1 (1992): 397-414. Print. “This essay is based upon the lives of four German-Jewish women who fought against National Socialism. All of them were involved in a Jewish resistance group as active Communists or, at least were Communist in orientation.”

“The Execution of Women by the Nazis during World War II.” Capital Punishment U.K. 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/nazi.html>. “This is a tribute to the amazing courage of so many young women during World War II who were put to death for plotting and fighting against the Nazis, as resistance fighters, partisans and activists in towns and concentration camps. It is estimated that more than 4,000 women of various ages were hanged by Nazi forces between 1939 and 1945. Many more were shot or guillotined and many were tortured before minimal or non-existent trials.”

“German Women and 3 K’s.” German Culture.  Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm>. “The Nazis had very firm ideas about the role of women in Germany. Hitler thought that the population of Germany had to increase for the country to become more powerful. Therefore women were forced to give up work and have children. Hitler reduced women’s social activity to a purely biological purpose.”

Guba, David A. “Women in Nazi Germany: Victims, Perpetrators, and the Abandonment of a Paradigm.” Concept Journals. Villanova.edu, 2010. Web. 7 Jan. 2012. <http://concept.journals.villanova.edu/article/view/327/290>. “[T]he issue of women’s complex experiences in the Third Reich to the forefront of historical discourse on Nazi Germany” is discussed.

Gupta, Charu. “Politics of Gender: Women in Nazi Germany.” Economic and Political Weekly 26.17 (1991): WS40-S48. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. With the rise of National Socialism, in whose ideology the degradation and depersonalisation of women was implicit, the process of women’s emancipation in Germany suffered a setback.”

Hall, Allan. “Historian Tracks down Evil Erna the Nazi Killer – a ‘harmless’ Granny in Vienna.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 22 Oct. 2007. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-489028/Historian-tracks-evil-Erna-Nazi-killer–harmless-granny-Vienna.html>. “Erna Wallisch, an 85-year-old grandmother, rarely ventures out, spending her days drinking coffee and being cared for by her family. But the image she presents belies a dark past which has put her seventh on the Simon Wiesenthal Centre’s list of most-wanted Nazi war criminals still at large.”

Hall, Allan. “Nazi Women Exposed as Every Bit as Bad as Hitler’s Deranged Male Followers.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 11 Feb. 2009. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1142824/Nazi-women-exposed-bit-bad-Hitlers-deranged-male-followers.html>. “Until recently, the role of the Nazi woman in the construction of the brutal state machinery of the Reich has never been truly revealed. Now a new book in Germany called Perpetrators: Women Under National Socialism explodes the myth behind the propaganda.”

Herring, Debra. “Biography: Anne Frank.” Helium.com. Helium Inc, 01 Aug. 2008. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.helium.com/items/1134345-anne-frank-diary-world-war-ii-holocost>. Anne Frank’s family hid from the Nazis in a secret space converted by her father in the annex portion of his offiice building. The family lived there for 2 1/2 years. She died at the Belgen-Belsen camp.

Hickman, Kennedy. “World War II: The White Rose.” About.com Military History. About.com. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http:://militaryhistory.about.com/od/socialeffectsofwar/p/whiterose.htm>. The resistance group, White Rose, was led by Hans and Sophie Scholl, who were captured and beheaded.

“Hitler’s Hausfrauen: Examining the Way the Fuhrer Exerted Influence on Germany’s Women.” The Telegraph. N.p., 31 Mar. 2001. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/4722563/Hitlers-Hausfrauen.html>. “‘The Greater the man, the more insignificant should be the woman’, was how Adolf Hitler summed up his view of the opposite sex. He idealised the meek, faithful Hausfrau. He was ill-at-ease with tough women, who could hold their own in argument. Unfortunate, perhaps, that Neville Chamberlain and not Margaret Thatcher flew to confront Hitler at Munich.”

Humbert, Agnès, and Barbara Mellor. Résistance: A Woman’s Journal of Struggle and Defiance in Occupied France. New York: Bloomsbury, 2008. Print. The author “offers a uniquely personal and recklessly candid perspective on this dark and dramatic period.”

“Jewish Resistance in Poland; Women Trample Nazi Soldiers; Men Kill Gendarmes.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 8 Jan. 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/01/08/2859583/jewish-resistance-in-poland-women-trample-nazi-soldiers-men-kill-gendarmes>. “Reliable reports of Jewish resistance to Nazis in the smaller townships in occupied Poland where the Nazi garrisons are usually limited to a small number of reserves reached Soviet authorities here today. One report tells how Jewish women in the small town of Lublinetz attacked German soldiers who plundered their property, forcing them to flee the town panic stricken.”

Kaplan, Marion A. “Jewish Women in Nazi Germany: Daily Life, Daily Struggles, 1933-1838.” Feminist Studies 16.3 (1990): 579-606. JSTOR. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. “This essay explores the increasingly difficult daily lives of Jewish middle-class women and the work of their main organization, The League of Jewish Women, Juedischer Frauenbund (JFB) in prewar Nazi Germany.”

Koonz, Claudia. Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, the Family, and Nazi Politics. New York: St. Martin’s, 1987. Print. The author explores “the paradoxes of social policies designed to produce ‘more masculine men’ and ‘more feminine women’.”

Lagerwey, Mary Deane. “The Third Reich & Nursing AJN.” American Journal of Nursing 109.8 (2009): 44-49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. “The article reports on the failure of the ‘American Journal of Nursing’ to report on the role that German nurses played in the Holocaust.”

Lowen, Mark BBC. “Last Survivors of the Holocaust Keep Memories Alive.” BBC News. BBC, 20 Nov. 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-15877299>. “Two remarkable women [Natalia Karp and Jamilia Kolonomos] living hundreds of miles apart were fortunate enough to survive the Holocaust – one became a famous pianist, the other fought with Tito’s Partisans.”

“The Maid Who Became a Rescuer: Erzsebet Fajo.” The Righteous Among the Nations. Yad Vashem, 2011. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. <http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/stories/fajo.asp>. “This is the story of Erzsebet Fajo who worked as a nursemaid for a Jewish family … decided to fight for the survival of her employers, and demonstrated enormous courage and resourcefulness.”

“Maria Terwiel.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, 28 Apr. 2011. Web. 9 May 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Terwiel>. Maria Terwiel was a member of the Red Orchestra resistance group.

Martin, Douglas. “Freya Von Molte, Part of a Core of Nazi Resistance, Is Dead at 98.” The New York Times 10 Jan. 2010. The New York Times. 10 Jan. 2010. Web. 9 May 2011. < http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/world/europe/10moltke.html?pagewanted=all>. Obituary.

Meding, Dorothee Von. Courageous Hearts: Women and the Anti-Hitler Plot of 1944. Providence, RI: Berghahn, 1997. Print. “This collection of interviews, conducted by the author, reveals that it was the women’s courage that sustained their husbands both before the plot and later, in the face of certain violent death”

Moorehead, Caroline. A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France. New York: HarperCollins, 2011. Print. This book “chronicles what happened to 230 women from all over the country [France] who did not accept the [Nazi] occupation quietly.”

Moorehead, Caroline. “The French Women Who Defied the Nazis and Survived Auschwitz.” BBC News Magazine. BBC, 11 Jan. 2012. Web. 12 Jan. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16523432>. “Caroline Moorehead’s book, A Train in Winter, takes a different approach to the Nazi occupation of France during the Second World War. In it she tells the story of a group of 230 French women deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau together in January 1943. …  [T]he book celebrates the spirit of resistance and friendship that persisted, despite the hardship, among these heroines of World War II.”

“Mothers in the Fatherland, Interview with Author Claudia Koonz on Women in Nazi Germany.” Interview by Fed Pelka. On the Issues Magazine Fall 1990. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.ontheissuesmagazine.com/1990fall/pelka_fall1990.php>. Review of “Mothers in the Fatherland.”

“The Nanny That Kept Her Promise: Gertruda Bablinska.” The Righteous Among The Nations – Yad Vashem. Yad Vashem, 2011. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/stories/babilinska.asp>. This is the story of a World War II-era Catholic nanny who found herself the guardian of a three-year-old Jewish child.

“Nazi Camps Forced Women into Prostitution.” The News. N.p., 2 Mar. 2009. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.instantnews.net/nazi-camps-forced-women-into-prostitution.aspx>. “An exhibition at Revensbrueck, the site of the largest German concentration camp for women in the ’40s, will showcase the fate of women forced into prostitution between 1942 and 1945. Rather than servicing soldiers, the camp prostitutes were dreamed up by SS chief Heinrich Himmler to increase productivity among forced labourers and to keep homosexuality from “breaking out” among their ranks.”

Oren, Ram. Gertruda’s Oath: A Child, a Promise, and a Heroic Escape during World War II. New York: Doubleday, 2009. Print. During WWII Gertruda, a Catholic nanny, promises a dying Jewish woman that she will take the mother’s son to Palestine and raise him as her own Jewish son. This book is “a story of extraordinary courage and moral strength in the face of horrific events.”

Pelka, Fred. “Mothers in the Fatherland, Interview with Author Claudia Koonz on Women in Nazi Germany by Fred Pelka.” On The Issues Magazine. Fall 1990. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.ontheissuesmagazine.com/1990fall/pelka_fall1990.php>. Review of “Mothers in the Fatherland.”

Propp, Karen. “Swimmers Against the Tide.” Lilith Summer 2011: 24-28. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. The “Hakoah Vienna women’s swim team, a group of athletes whose sports prowess was equaled by their political courage.” The Jewish swim team was chosen to represent Austria at the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, but refused because they didn’t want to support Hitler’s Germany.

Sanderson, Lisa. “Lise Villameur, A French Resistance Heroine.” Suite101.com. Suite 101.com Media Inc., 2 Aug. 2010. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://lisa-sanderson.suite101.com/lise-villameur-a-french-resistance-heroine-a269398>. “Lise Villameur, born Lise de Baissac, was a major heroine of the French Resistance. She was an agent of the SOE and won many awards for her achievements.”

Schwartz, Terese P. “Courageous Women and Children of the Holocaust / The Children – Their Power Underestimated / The Women – Their Capabilities Underestimated.” Holocaust – Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust – Pictures – Stories. Holocaust Forgotten, 2008. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. <http://holocaustforgotten.com/realcourage.htm>. “The truly courageous [of the Holocaust] are the rescuers – the ones who risked their own lives …”

Sanderson, Lisa. “Lise Villameur, A French Resistance Heroine.” Suite101.com. Suite 101.com Media Inc., 2 Aug. 2010. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://lisa-sanderson.suite101.com/lise-villameur-a-french-resistance-heroine-a269398>. “Lise Villameur, born Lise de Baissac, was a major heroine of the French Resistance. She was an agent of the SOE and won many awards for her achievements.”

Savill, Richard. “Lulu, the Belgian Teen Who Took on the Gestapo.” Telegraph.co.uk – Telegraph Online, Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph. 24 Feb. 2007. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1543698/Lulu-the-Belgian-teen-who-took-on-the-Gestapo.html>. “A little-known Second World War heroine who joined the Belgian resistance at 15, and was later tortured by the Gestapo, was buried near her home in Dorset yesterday. Code named Lulu, Lucie Bruce, a Belgian national who moved to Britain in 1946, spied on Nazi troops and ammunition dumps, after joining the resistance in 1940 following Belgium’s capitulation to German occupation.”

Senesh, Hannah. Hanna Senesh: Her Life and Diary. New York: Schocken, 1972. Print. “Israel’s national heroine, Senesh returned to her native Hungary in 1943 to help rescue Jews. She was captured by the Nazi’s and executed at the age of 23.”

Sigmund, Anna Maria. Women of the Third Reich. Richmond Hill, Ont.: NDE Pub., 2000. Print. Hitler’s women: Carin Goering, Emmy Goering, Magda Goebbels, Leni Riefenstahl, Gertrud Scholtz-Kink, Geli Raubal, Eva Braun, Henriette von Schirach.

Savill, Richard. “Lulu, the Belgian Teen Who Took on the Gestapo.” Telegraph.co.uk – Telegraph Online, Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph. 24 Feb. 2007. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1543698/Lulu-the-Belgian-teen-who-took-on-the-Gestapo.html>. “A little-known Second World War heroine who joined the Belgian resistance at 15, and was later tortured by the Gestapo, was buried near her home in Dorset yesterday. Code named Lulu, Lucie Bruce, a Belgian national who moved to Britain in 1946, spied on Nazi troops and ammunition dumps, after joining the resistance in 1940 following Belgium’s capitulation to German occupation.”

Thomas, Theodore N. Women against Hitler: Christian Resistance in the Third Reich. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995. Print. In Nazi Germany “pastors’ wives replaced their absent husbands in the pulpits, … women preached and assumed administration of the orphaned parishes. Women fought to save their civil rights, and freedoms of speech, assembly, press, and religion. Some went to jail. Some died.”

Thorpe, Vanessa. “The Schoolgirl Who Survived the Holocaust by Fooling the Nazis.” The Guardian [London] 15 Oct. 2011. Guardian.co.uk. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/16/schoolgirl-who-fooled-the-nazis/>. “On an Auschwitz station platform in 1944, Helga Weiss and her mother fooled one of the most reviled men in modern history, Josef Mengele, and managed to save their lives. Not long into her teens, Weiss lied about her age, claiming she was old enough to work for her keep. Her mother persuaded the Nazis under Mengele’s command that Helga was in fact her daughter’s older sister, and she was sent to the forced labour barracks and not the gas chamber.”

“Twin Holocaust Survivors Describe Arriving at Auschwitz.”  Yadvashem. Web. 8 Apr. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MWJyjAYyF8E&feature=endscreen&NR=1>. “Identical twin sisters Iudit Barnea and Lia Huber (nées Tchengar) were born in 1937 in the town of Şimleul Silvaniei (Szilagysomlyo), Transylvania. … At Auschwitz, Iudit and Lia suffered the infamous medical experiments of Josef Mengele. The twins always stayed close together. Every night, their mother would sneak into their block and give them her meager portion of bread.”

Weitz, Margaret Collins. Sisters in the Resistance: How Women Fought to Free France, 1940-1945. New York: J. Wiley, 1995. Print. Contains first-person interviews with French women who fought in the resistance.

“Winton’s Children: Vera Gissing.” BBC – News -UK. 3 Sept. 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8227334.stm>. “Vera Gissing is in no doubt that she owes her life to Nicholas Winton. She was put on a train out of German-occupied Prague in June 1939, shortly before her 11th birthday, and never saw her parents again.”

“Women during the Holocaust.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 5 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005176>.

“Women and the Holocaust.” Jewish Virtual Library. Web. 9 Aug. 2012. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/bibwomenholo.html>. Extensive Women and the Holocaust bibliography.

YadVashem. “Twin Holocaust Survivors Describe Arriving at Auschwitz.” YouTube.  21 Apr. 2009. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MWJyjAYyF8E>. “Identical twin sisters Iudit Barnea and Lia Huber (nées Tchengar) were born in 1937 in the town of Şimleul Silvaniei (Szilagysomlyo), Transylvania. … At Auschwitz, Iudit and Lia suffered the infamous medical experiments of Josef Mengele. The twins always stayed close together. Every night, their mother would sneak into their block and give them her meager portion of bread.”