Germany, Nazis, War #1

800px-Flag_of_the_NSDAP_(1920–1945).svg

“Flag of German Reich (1935-1945)”

“Demoralize  the enemy from within by surprise, terror, sabotage, assassination. This is the war of the future.” Adolf Hitler

 

Third Reich is “The official Nazi designation for the regime in power in Germany from January 1933 to May 1945. Hitler regarded his government as a logical extension of two previous German empires.” The Holy Roman Empire was the First Reich. Otto Bismarck established the Second Reich in 1871. Hitler adopted the term because he planned a new empire, the greatest empire of all, the Third Reich, which was  to last for a thousand years.      

 

What is the Difference between the German Army, Gestapo, Nazi Party, SA, SS, and Wehrmacht?

 

Ailsby, Christopher. Hitler’s Renegades: Foreign Nationals in the Service of the Third Reich. Dulles, VA: Brassey’s, 2004. Print. “This book is about foreign volunteers in the service of the German armed forces in World War II.”

Allan, Phillip. “Nazi Ideas in Action (Germany, 1918-1945).” Hindsight 18.2th ser. (2008): S52-53. General OneFile. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. Covers the Nazis’ first steps: the Nuremberg Laws, Kristallnacht, the Final Solution, and opposition to the Nazi rule.

Ascherson, Neal. “Hitler’s Revenge on Germany.” Rev. of Inside Hitler’s Bunker: The Last Days of the Third Reich. 11 Apr. 2004. Guardian/co.uk/The Observer. Guardian, 2001. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://guardian.co.uk/books/2004/apr/11/historybooks.features/>. Review of Inside Hitler’s Bunker: The Last Days of the Third Reich by Joachim Fest.

Bartov, Omer. “Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich.” The Journal of Modern History 63.1 (1991): 44. Print. “From its very inception until the present day the Wehrmacht has presented admirers … with a series of conflicting images … to what extent did the Wehrmacht constitute an Integral part of the Nazi state.’

Beall, Lewis L. “Academic Freedom and the Third Reich: Can It Happen Here?” The Clearing House 43.8 (1969): 483-87. JSTOR. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. “Germany has provided us with a stark example that academic freedom is not an inalienable right.”

Beck, Ludwig, and Carl F. Goerdeler. “Plans for a Government: Governmental Declaration” by Beck/Goerdeler Draft, Summer 1944. Rep. German Resistance Center. Print. “The original is missing: the present version was reconstructed from the documents of the Special Commission for Investigating the Assassination Attempt against Hitler of July 20, 1944.”

Benz, Wolfgang, and Thomas Dunlap. A Concise History of the Third Reich. Berkeley: University of California, 2006. Print. “A compact yet comprehensive and authoritative history of the twelve years of the Third Reich.”

Bytwerk, Randall. “Nazi and East German Propaganda Guide Page.” Calvin College – Minds In The Making. German Propaganda Archive. Web. 31 Dec. 2011. <http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/>. “Propaganda was central to Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The German Propaganda Archive includes both propaganda itself and material produced for the guidance of propagandists. The goal is to help people understand the two great totalitarian systems of the twentieth century by giving them access to the primary material.”

Collins, Glenn. “Women In Nazi Germany: Paradoxes.” NY Times. The New York Times, 2 Mar. 1987. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/1987/03/02/style/women-in-nazi-germany-paradoxes.html?scp=1>. “Time and again during the decade she spent researching the history of the forgotten women of the Third Reich, Claudia Koonz was struck by a paradox: the very women who were so protective of their children, so warm, nurturing and giving to their families, could at the same time display extraordinary cruelty.”

Darby, Graham. “Hitler’s Rise and Weimar’s Demise.” History Reviews 67 (Sep 2010). MasterFILE Premier. Web. 30 May 2011.

Davidson, Martin P. The Perfect Nazi: Uncovering My Grandfather’s Secret Past. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2011. Print. “Searching for the truth about his German grandfather, Martin Davidson discovered Hitler’s Everyman: the enthusiastic fascist functionary, unquestioning, unrepentant, chillingly ordinary.”

Dempsey, Judy. “Reich Bureaucrats Seen in a New Light – NYTimes.com.” Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. The New York Times, 26 Dec. 2010. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/27/world/europe/27iht-berlin27.html?ref=adolfhitler>. The Nazis used the Reich’s Finance Ministry to plunder the assets of the Jews: savings, assets, anything with a financial or material value. “Plundering Jewish assets could not have been possible without an efficient civil service.”

“Denmark Apologizes for Aiding Nazis.” Home | Deutsche Welle. DW-WORLD.DE, 5 May 2005. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. <http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,1573618,00.html>. I am puzzled by this article since the Denmark people saved over 7,000 Jews during the Holocaust.

Dombrowski, John. “The Greatest War Crimes: How Elitist Intervention Prolonged World War II and Perpetuated Nazi Horrors.” Culture Wars Magazine and Fidelity Press, Dec. 1997. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.culturewars.com/CultureWars/Archives/cw_recent/warcrime.html>. “Historical documents … make clear that there was a serious effort, from many points at the highest level … to surrender Germany’s armed forces to the Western Allies.”

Gajewski, Jarek. “Ravensbruck Concentration Camp: Medical Experiments.” UTORweb. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <http://individual.utoronto.ca/jarekg/Ravensbruck/>. “After reading the book A Wartime Memoir by Karolina Lanckorońska a former prisoner in the Ravensbrück Concentration Camp, I decided to learn more about circumstances surrounding the inhuman medical experiments conducted on 74 polish women, who were the political prisoners in the camp. I was particularly moved by the heroic stance of the survivors of the experiments and incredible support they received from all Ravensbrück’s inmates.”

Gates, David. “Monsters on the Couch: Interviews with the Nazi Defendants.” Newsweek International 25 Oct. 2004. General OneFile. Web. 1 June 2011. “Prevarication and rationalization” were heard by U.S. Army psychiatrist Leon Goldensohn when he interviewed defendants at the Nuremberg war-crimes trial in 1946.

Gellately, Robert. Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001. Print. The author “reveals the astonishing truth that the Nazi terror was not hidden from the German people but carried out openly, with their consent, and even their active participation.”

“Germany Under the Nazis – World War II Multimedia Database.” 30 Sept. 2011. Web. 2012. <http://www.worldwar2database.com/html/nazis.htm>. After German President Paul von Hindenburg died “Hitler folded the powers of the Presidency into his own. He became Führer, or leader, of all of Germany. He proclaimed the Third Reich, following a history theory that German unity would be achieved in the Third Kingdom. After The Holy Roman Empire and Otto von Bismarck, Adolf Hitler proclaimed his rule would last a thousand years.”

Goeschel, Christian. “Suicide at the End of the Third Reich.” Journal of Contemporary History 41.1 (2006): 153-73. JSTOR. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. “In the spring of 1945 the Third Reich ended in a massive wave of suicides. Historians have so far not tried to analyse this upsurge in self-destruction, although such a study potentially has much to tell about the ways in which Germans responded to the decline and fall of the nazi regime and the ‘people’s community.’ Allied occupation and the trnsformation from war-time to a peace-time society.”

Goulding, Ossian. “I Fought for the Nazis.” Saturday Evening Post 29 Jan. 1944. EBSCO. Web. 2012. This excellent article “is of unusual interest because it comes from a man who fought with the army before Stalingrad and it gives our first full picture of what is happening in the minds of the Nazi legions.” The author interviews a “Finn who enlisted with the German army, participated in the Russian campaign and has been an object of search by the Gestapo since he deserted and escaped. …”

Graham, Robert A. “The ‘Right to Kill’ in the Third Reich: Prelude to Genocide.” The Catholic Historical Review 62.1 (Jan., 1976): 56-76. JSTOR. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. “[T]he doctors were happy and joyful in Nazi times when they could dispose of human lives, the lives of others.”

Harry, Tim. “The Rationale for the Night and Fog Decree.” Helium. Helium Inc., 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <http://www.helium.com/items/1109982-the-rationale-for-the-night-and-fog-decree>. “The Night and Fog Decree dealt with political prisoners” in the Nazi period.

Herring, Debra. “Biography: Anne Frank.” Helium. Helium Inc., 1 Aug. 2008. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <http://www.helium.com/items/1134345-anne-frank-diary-world-war-ii-holocost>. Anne Frank’s family hid from the Nazis in a secret space converted by her father in the annex portion of his office building. The family lived there for 2 1/2 years. She died at the Belgen-Belsen camp.

“Hidden Archive Exposes WWII Slaughters.” CNN.com – Breaking News, U.S., World, Weather, Entertainment & Video News. CNN. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. <http://articles.cnn.com/2011-08-11/world/wus.italy.war.crimes_1_german-troops-civilians-ardeatine-caves?_s=PM:WORLD>. “An archive forgotten for decades helps bring some justice for Italian victims of Nazi atrocities. In San Pancrazio, locals remember massacre victims with an annual candlelight vigil.”

A History of Hitler’s Empire. Perf. Professor Thomas Childers. The Teaching Company: Great Courses, 2001. DVD.

“Hitler’s Rise to Power.” DSU Computer Services. Web. 01 June 2011. <http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/hitler.html>. Chronicle of “Hitler’s rise to power.”

“Hitler-Saluting Dog Outraged Nazis.” World War II May-June 2011: 16. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 23 May 2011. “What’s a good way to get a Nazi hot under the collar? Train your dog to Heil.”

Irwin, Will. Abundance of Valor: Resistance, Survival and Liberation: 1944-45. New York: Ballantine, 2010. Print. “An important book on the brave men of the Jedburgh teams who led the way into Holland for Operation Market-Garden; it is an amazing story of courage and determination that should have been told years ago.”

“John Demjanjuk: Prosecution of An Alleged Nazi Collaborator.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 30 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007956>. John Demjanjuk has been tried in 4 different court proceedings denying crimes that he committed while he was a collaborator of the Nazi regime.

Kampeas, Ron. “Nazi Declassifiers Issue Report.” Mémoires De Guerre. 1 Oct. 2007. Web. 22 Nov. 2011. <http://www.memoiresdeguerre.com/article-nazi-declassifiers-issue-report-86796927.html>. “The difficulties faced by the U.S. government body researching Nazi war crimes underscore the need to make government records more accessible, the body said in its conclusion.”

Kershaw, Ian. The End: The Defiance and Destruction of Hitler’s Germany, 1944-45. New York: Penguin, 2011. Print. “A fascinating and original exploration of how the Third Reich was willing and able to fight to the bitter end of World War II.”

Kimmelman, Michael. “Art’s Survivors of Hitler’s War.” Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. The New York Times, 30 Nov. 2010. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/01/arts/design/01abroad.html?scp=1>. “[W]orkers digging for a new subway station near City Hall unearthed a bronze bust of a woman, rusted, filthy and almost unrecognizable. Researchers learned the bust was a portrait by Edwin Scharff, a nearly forgotten German modernist, from around 1920.”

Klemperer, Victor. I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years. New York: Random House, 1998. Print. “Nazism racism comes through forcefully in Klemperer’s litany of daily humiliations. …”

Koch, H. W. In the Name of the Volk: Political Justice in Hitler’s Germany. New York: St. Martin’s, 1989. Print. “The German judiciary during … Hitler’s rule … seemed to embody one of the most chilling aspects of the Third Reich. …”

Kremer, Hannes. “New Meanings for “Inherited” Customs?” Calvin College – Minds In The Making. Calvin College – Minds In The Making, 1937. Web. 31 Dec. 2011. <http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/feier37.htm>. “Background: The Nazis set about establishing their own rituals and holidays immediately after taking power.”

Krulwich, Robert. “Dissolve My Nobel Prize! Fast! (A True Story) : Krulwich Wonders… : NPR.” NPR : National Public Radio : News & Analysis, World, US, Music & Arts. 3 Oct. 2011. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. <http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2011/10/03/140815154/dissolve-my-nobel-prize-fast-a-true-story>. “It’s 1940. The Nazis have taken Copenhagen. They are literally marching through the streets, and physicist Niels Bohr has just hours, maybe minutes, to make two Nobel Prize medals disappear.”

Lawson, Dorothea S. “World War Memories: “Aryanization” of Germany in 1933 and Mass Book Burning.” German Culture. Germanculture.com. Web. 09 Nov. 2011. <http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/weekly/aa051001b.htm>. “Here are some behind-the-scene personal experiences from the 1930′s that might be of interest.”

Leahigh, James. “Geopolitik.” Special Libriaries 38.3 (1944): 88-91. Web. 5 Feb. 2012. Geopolotik “is inseparably identified with the Nazis’ grand strategy for world-wide aggression which would end with National Socialist Germany as supreme lord and master of the globe, its inhabitants and its resources.”

Lightbody, Bradley. “Invasion of Poland.” BBC World Wars. BBC, 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/invasion_poland_01.shtml>. “When Hitler invaded Poland, he was confident that Britain and France would continue their policy of appeasement and broker a peace deal. … [The author] considers his gross miscalculation and how it led Europe to stumble into war.”

Loewenstein, Karl. “Law in the Third Reich.” The Yale Law Review 45.5 (1936): 779-815. JSTOR. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. “The ubiquity of public law in the sphere of private law explains the reversal of systematic law in Germany; much of what belonged formerly to private law becomes now an object of political command.”

McDonald, Jason. “Germany under the Nazis.” The World War II Multimedia Database. 2 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://www.worldwar2database.com/html/nazis.htm>. Life under the Nazis was brutal. If you expressed disagreement and were caught, death was the punishment meted out.

Minerbi, Alessandra. A New Illustrated History of the Nazis. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 2005. Print. This book “contains many previously unseen photographs and illustrations from the Nazi regime.”

Müller, Ingo. Hitler’s Justice: The Courts of the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1991. Print. Concerning the German legal system during Hitler’s rule, this book “tells a depressing tale, one that reminds us how fragile the safeguards of a civilized society can be in the face of the powers of darkness.”

Newby, Leroy W. “Your Mission: Kill Hitler.” American Heritage Oct. 1998: 26+. General OneFile. Web. 30 June 2011. “A bombardier is ordered on a mission to bomb Adolf Hitler’s headquarters that never materializes.”

Newman, Klaus. “Germans as Victims of Nazism.” Theage.com.au. The Age Company Ltd, 22 Apr. 2005. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. “Joachim Fest’s new film, ‘Downfall,’ panders to a revisionist view of Hitler’s legacy.”

Nichol, John, and Tony Rennell. “Escape or Die: The Untold WWII Story.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 16 Mar. 2007. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-442819/Escape-die-The-untold-WWII-story.html>. “It’s one of the great untold stories of the war. How 5,000 Allied airmen, shot down behind Nazi lines, played cat and mouse with Hitler’s dreaded secret police, and made a home run back to Blighty. Terry Bolter stood on the landing of the tall Brussels townhouse, a revolver in each hand, and peered out of the window. Below in the street, leather-coated Gestapo officers were hammering at the door.”

“On This Day: Nazi Germany Invades Poland, Starting World War II.” FindingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources. 1 Sept. 2011. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-This-Day–Nazi-Germany-invades-Poland–starting-World-War-II.html>. “On Sept. 1, 1939, Nazi Germany launched an invasion of Poland. Two days later, Polish allies Britain and France declared war on Germany, marking the start of World War II.”

“Our Shared Legacy: World War II and The Joint.” Our Shared Legacy – JDC Archives. Joint Distribution Committee. Web. 1 June 2011. <http://archives.jdc.org/sharedlegacy/>. More than 500,000 names and over 1,000 photographs of the relief organization’s efforts during World War II in a searchable collection.

Peukert, Detlev J. K. Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition, and Racism in Everyday Life. New Haven: Yale UP, 1987. Print. The author “tried to evaluate the wide and uneven range of historiographical information available on everyday life and everyday experience under National Socialism in Germany, and to present the most important findings in the literature.”

Poltawska, Wanda. “And I Am Afraid of My Dreams.” The Sarmatian Review. Rice University — Web Services, 21 July 2003. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~sarmatia/195/lorence.html>. “This memoir describes the fate of a young Polish Catholic woman taken to the Nazi concentration camp in Ravensbrück where medical experiments were conducted upon her body.”

Rennell, Tony. “When Hitler Took on Russia He Fought a Brutal War That Was an Orgy of Rape and Genocide.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 23 June 2011. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2007072/Operation-Barbarossa-Orgy-rape-genocide-launched-Hitler-Russia.html>. “Going east: Hitler hoped his invasion of Russia would be concluded in a matter of week. Collision course: Hitler broke his non-aggression pact with Stalin in the hope of conquering Russia in a matter of weeks The numbers of troops involved were colossal, almost too large to take in.”

Rice, Earle. The Third Reich: Demise of the Nazi Dream. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 2000. Print. “Describes the rise and fall of Nazi Germany and explores the philosophical, economic, and military principles on which it was based.”

Roberts, Andrew. “Hitler’s Lightning Strike.” History Today Sept. 2009: 12-18. EBSCO. Web. 2012. “This article discusses the military tactics of the German army during World War II. The author details the army’s training, discipline, and Blitzkrieg tactics, which combined to sweep away the Polish resistance in 1939. …”

Rodman, Selden. “Forty Years After: The Nazi Heartland.” National Review 11 May 1979: 622+. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. “The article considers whether the European nations involved in World War II should feel guilty that they have contributed to the promotion of Nazism and antisemitism during Adolf Hitler’s time. According to the author, every country that Hitler penetrated had discovered a sense of racism just lying under almost every nation’s surface.”

Rosenbaum, Ron. “Revisiting the ‘Rise and Fall of the Third Reich’” Smithsonian Feb. 2012. Smithsonian.com. Web. 5 Feb. 2012. “Recently reissued, William L. Shirer’s seminal 1960 history of Nazi Germany [The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich] is still important reading.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Kurt Gerstein: A German Spy in the SS.” About.com 20th Century Hisotry. About.com, 2011. Web. 30 Aug. 2011. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/a/gerstein.htm?p=1>. “An anti-Nazi, Kurt Gerstein never intended to be a witness to the Nazi murder of the Jews. Yet he joined the SS and soon saw, first hand, gassings at Betzec.” After spending years trying to convince the Allies of what was happening, he was put in a French prison and either committed suicide or was murdered by German prisoners.

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Sterilization.” 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/a/sterilization.htm>. “In the 1930′s, the Nazis introduced a massive, compulsory sterilization of a large segment of the German population.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “The History of the Swastika.” About.com 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. <http://history1900s.about.com/cs/swastika/a/swastikahistory.htm>. The swastika is an ancient symbol.

“The Russians Were Expendable.” Saturday Evening Post 19 June 1943: 108. Academic Premier. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. “The article comments on the resistance of Russian people against the dictatorship of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. The Russian people have contributed to the victory of Allied forces against Nazi powers. There were millions of Russians who suffered and laid their life for the country.”

Ryan, Donna F., and John S. Schuchman. Deaf People in Hitler’s Europe. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet UP, 2002. Print. “[R]enowned scholars shed new light on the ideological and practical concerns that linked the theories of race and of eugenics to the sterilization and murder of persons whom the Nazis deemed ‘unworthy of life.’”

Schuman, Frederick L. “The Third Reich’s Road to War.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 175.1 (1934): 33-43. Print. “The control of Germany by a political movement committed since its inception to destroying the peace settlement of 1919, and the almost unanimous enthusiasm which the supernationalistic propaganda of this movement has evoked in the Reich, have produced world-wide alarm and despair for the future of peace.”

Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic, 2010. Print. “In Bloodlands, …[the author] offers a groundbreaking investigation of the place where Europeans were murdered by the millions, and a sustained explanation of the motives and methods of both Hitler and Stalin.” Fourteen million civilians were murdered by Hitler and Stalin.

Stackelberg, Roderick, and Sally Anne. Winkle. The Nazi Germany Sourcebook: An Anthology of Texts. London: Routledge, 2002. Print. This book is a “new collection of documents on the origins, rise, course and consequences of National socialism, the Third Reich, the Second World War, and the Holocaust.”

Stürmer, Michael. The German Empire: A Short History. New York: Modern Library, 2002. Print. The author “blends high politics, social history, portraiture, and an unparalleled command of military and economic developments to tell the story” of Germany.

Thompson, Robert Smith. Complete Idiot’s Guide to Nazi Germany. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha, 2003. Print. Ignore the title and read a “clear analysis of the Third Reich’s psychological, political. and military underpinnings.”

“Topic: 20th Century Hitler, the Nazis, Mussolini, and Fascism.” Best History Sites. EdTechTeacher. Web. 2 June 2011. <http://www.besthistorysites.net/20thCentury_Hitler.shtml>. “Best of History Web Sites is an award-winning portal that contains annotated links to over 1200 history web sites as well as links to hundreds of quality K-12 history lesson plans, history teacher guides, history activities, history games, history quizzes, and more.”

Ullstein, Hermann. “We Blundered Hitler into Power.” Saturday Evening Post. EBSCOhost. Web. 30 May 2011. The owner, with his brothers, of the Ullstein Publishing, tells how the Nazis stole the company. The company owned acres of buildings and had over 10,000 employees. He could not convince other businessmen that Hitler was taking over the country, and that something should be done soon. In the United States a friend said that he had been reading old newspapers. He said “I’ve read them to find out all the blunders I made. The blunders we all made.”

Ward, James. “‘Smash the Facists …’ German Communist Efforts to Counter the Nazis, 1930-1931.” Central European History 41.1 (1981): 30+. EBSCOhost. Web. 31 May 2011. “Discussed East German writers’ contention that the German Communist Party (KPD) sought to devise the political tactics that would block a Nazi takeover in 1930 and 1933.”

Weber, Ronald. The Lisbon Route: Entry and Escape in Nazi Europe. Lanham Md.: Ivan R. Dee, 2011. Print. The Lisbon “route offered thousands of refugees a path from Nazi-held Europe to neutral Portugal and from there to America.”