Nazi-Occupied Countries

 

 

 

File:Flag Map of Nazi Occupied Europe.png

 

Nazi-Occupied Europe

 

“1939: Germany Invades Poland.” BBC News. BBC, 09 Jan. 1939. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/1/newsid_3506000/3506335.stm>. “German forces have invaded Poland and its planes have bombed Polish cities, including the capital, Warsaw. The attack comes without any warning or declaration of war. Britain and France have mobilised their forces and are preparing to wage war on Germany for the second time this century. Just before dawn today, German tanks, infantry and cavalry penetrated Polish territory on several fronts with five armies, a total of 1.5 million troops.”

“1940-1945 [OCCUPATION].” Greece 1923 -1945. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.ime.gr/chronos/14/en/1940_1945/occupation/index.html>. ” “On 23 April 1941, the King and the government fled Athens [Greece] for Crete while the Germans advanced on the capital. Chaos and breakdown characterized the short period between the departure of the governors and the entry of the Germans into Athens. Many also left for Crete and the Middle East or simply made for the Peloponnese and the islands. The continuous bombardment of streets and harbours by enemy aircraft completed the atmosphere of disorder and fear. On 27 April the Germans entered an almost empty Athens, since the inhabitants remained stubbornly shut up in their houses. The hoisting of the Nazi swastika over the Acropolis marked the beginning of the German occupation. A quisling government was appointed with Georgios Tsolagoklou, the General who had signed the surrender, as first prime minister.”

“All about the Destruction of Lidice by the Occupying Nazi Forces in WWII.” Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.outsideprague.com/lidice/lidice.html>. “Lidice was a village that stood about 20 kilometres north-west of Prague until June 1942 when it was completely destroyed and erased from all maps by the occupying forces of Nazi Germany.”

Baranowski, Shelley. Nazi Empire: German Colonialism and Imperialism from Bismarck to Hitler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2011. Print. “Drawing on recent studies of the links between empire, colonialism, and genocide, Nazi Empire, 1871-1945 examines German history from 1871 to 1945 as an expression of the aspiration to imperialist expansion and the simultaneous fear of destruction by rivals. Acknowledging the important differences between the Second Empire, the Weimar Republic, and the Third Reich, Shelley Baranowski nonetheless reveals a common thread: the drama of German imperialist ambitions that embraced ethnic homogeneity over diversity, imperial enlargement over stasis, and ‘living space’ as the route to the biological survival of the German Volk.” Chapter 5: “The Nazi Place in the Sun: German-Occupied Europe during World War II”

Birn, Ruth Bettina. “Collaboration with Nazi Germany in Eastern Europe: The Case of the Estonian Security Police.” Contemporary European History 10.2 (Jul 2001): 181-98. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Little has been written about collaboration with the Nazi occupiers in eastern Europe. Using new material from former Soviet archives, the issue of the security police in Estonia is presented as a case study. The commander of the German security police deliberately set up a structure whereby German and Estonian police officers worked closely together, thereby minimising the need for German personnel. Although the security police dealt with the issues which were politically and ideologically the most important, non-Germans like Estonians were accepted as collaborators.”

Callendar, Harold. “‘New Europe’ Rises in Nazi Word Drive.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1942 sep 26: 6. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “By radio, through the press and in numerous speeches, the Nazis in the last few days have been busily publicizing within Europe their contention that the suffering imposed by the war — which they admit outran their time schedule — is justified because the ‘European question’ is at last being solved.”

“Czechoslovakia.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005688>. “After the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, Germany demanded the ‘return’ of the ethnic German population of Czechoslovakia — and the land on which it lived — to the German Reich. In late summer 1938, Hitler threatened to unleash a European war unless the Sudetenland was ceded to Germany. The Sudetenland was a border area of Czechoslovakia containing a majority ethnic German population as well as all of the Czechoslovak Army’s defensive positions in event of a war with Germany. The leaders of Britain, France, Italy, and Germany held a conference in Munich on September 29-30, 1938. In what became known as the Munich Pact, they agreed to the German annexation of the Sudetenland in exchange for a pledge of peace from Hitler.” And how did that work out?

Danilenko, Vladimir. “German Occupation of Kiev in 1941-1943: Documents of the Nazi-Controlled City Administration.” Eastview. Eastview Information Services. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.eastview.com/docs/CM807408_rev.pdf>. “The State Archive of the Kiev Oblast’ (GAKO) contains a collection designated as Fond R-2356 ‘Kievskaia gorodskaia uprava [Kiev City Administration]‘. Behind it is one of the most tragic pages in Ukraine’s recent history – the Great Patriotic War. Nazi Germany invaded the USSR on June 22nd, 1941. On September 19th, 1941, the capital of Ukraine was already taken by the Nazis. Kiev was occupied for more than two years until its liberation on November 6th, 1943. … The City Council documents stayed in GAKO’s secret stacks until December 1990, following which they were declassified and handed over for general storage. The Fond contains information on the economic position of the city during the occupation; the population’s political moods; appeals issues by the city mayor and German commanders; the organization of Ukrainian police force; the operation of housing management departments; the operation of schools, preschool centers, higher schools, libraries, theaters, and movies; massive deportations of the populations to forced labor in Germany; the use of child labor; the condition of medical establishments; incidences of diseases, documents of disabled and pensioners; and documents on the personnel of the Municipal Council and of institutions and enterprises under its control and the employment of experts. The documents are in Ukrainian, Russian and German.”

Daviess, Lawrence E. “Nazi Regime Is Duplicated In Europe, Says Marshall.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1948 mar 20: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2009) with Index (1851-1993). Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Prompt enactment and immediate application of the European Recovery Program are ‘fundamental’ to every future decision relative to a world situation, ‘as grave as any that has ever confronted this nation,’ the Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, asserted here today. The situation, he warned …  provides “duplication in Europe of the high-handed and calculated procedure of the Nazi regime.”

“Europe’s Industry a Giant Nazi Trust.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1943 jun 15: 5. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2009). Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “The Nazis, through plunder ‘and the severest economic pressure and political terror’ have seized every important industrial enterprise in the occupied countries of Europe and transformed Europe’s economy ‘into an enormous industrial empire,’ the Office of War Information stated today in its latest report on German domination.”

Fein, Esther B. “Soviets Confirm Nazi Pacts Dividing Europe.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1989 aug 19: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. “After decades of denial, the Kremlin conceded for the first time today that ‘without a doubt’ the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany secretly and illegally divided Eastern Europe into spheres of influence before the start of World War II.”

“German Invasion of Western Europe, May 1940.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005181>. “The campaign against the Low Countries and France lasted less than six weeks. Germany attacked in the west on May 10, 1940. Initially, British and French commanders had believed that German forces would attack through central Belgium as they had in World War I, and rushed forces to the Franco-Belgian border to meet the German attack. The main German attack however, went through the Ardennes Forest in southeastern Belgium and northern Luxembourg. German tanks and infantry quickly broke through the French defensive lines and advanced to the coast.”

“German Occupied Europe 1942 Map.” Jewish Virtual Library. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/occmap.html>. “In 1942, Germany dominated most of Europe. Greater Germany had been enlarged at the expense of its neighbors. Austria and Luxembourg were completely incorporated. Territories from Czechoslovakia, Poland, France, Belgium, and the Baltic states were seized by Greater Germany. German military forces occupied Norway, Denmark, Belgium, northern France, Serbia, parts of northern Greece, and vast tracts of territory in eastern Europe. Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Finland, Croatia, and Vichy France were all either allied to Germany or subject to heavy German influence. Between 1942 and 1944, German military forces extended the area under their occupation to southern France, central and northern Italy, Slovakia, and Hungary.”

“German Rule in Occupied Europe.” The Holocaust: A Learning Site for Students. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007685>. Germany planned to annex most of the conquered eastern territories after they had been Germanized. While some areas were to serve as reservations for forced laborers, most were to be resettled by German colonists. Most German plans for resettlement were postponed until the end of the war. Meanwhile, the regions were ruthlessly exploited for the German war effort: foodstuffs, raw materials, and war stocks were confiscated. Members of the local population were drafted for forced labor in war industries or military construction projects. Millions more were deported to Germany to be used as forced laborers in German war industries or agriculture.”

“German-occupied Europe.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II/53572/German-occupied-Europe>. “Hitler’s racist ideology and his brutal conception of power politics caused him to pursue certain aims in those European countries conquered by the Germans in the period 1939–42. Hitler intended that those western and northern European areas in which civil administrations were installed—the Netherlands and Norway—would at some later date become part of the German Reich, or nation. Those countries left by Germany under military administration (which originally had been imposed everywhere), such as France and Serbia, would eventually be included more loosely in a German-dominated European bloc. Poland and the Soviet Union, on the other hand, were to be a colonial area for German settlement and economic exploitation.” Includes audio, video, and interactives.

“German-occupied Europe.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Oct. 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German-occupied_Europe>. “German–occupied Europe or Nazi Empire refers to the countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945.” This site contains a really nice graphic of all the occupied countries.

Hagen, William W. “Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin.” Shofar 30.3 (Spring 2012): 178-81. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. [A] massive caveat looms against any argument that exposure to Soviet practice triggered Nazi genocide: already in fall 1939, in Nazi-occupied western and central Poland, public mass murder commenced of civilians, the victims numbering in the tens of thousands. Arendt derived twentieth-century political mass murder from the absorption of pseudo-scientific racial thinking into war-igniting western imperialism, from the ethnocentrism of the mass-mobilized nation-state and resultant exile of rejected human populations into the fatal limbo of dehumanized statelessness-and, too, from widespread popular anxiety and radicalization in crisis-ridden industrializing society.”

Hargrove, Charles R. “Nazi-Junker Drama Brings, Feeling Of Uncertainty to Europe’s Capitals.” Wall Street Journal (1923 – Current File) 1938 feb 14: 1. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. PARIS–The shadow of Germany’s latest weird drama hangs over the chancelleries of Europe. Until the meaning of this Nazi-Junker crisis is less obscure than it now is, tension will not disappear on the Continent.

Hertzberg, Sidney. “Nazi Activity in Northern Europe.” Current History (New York) 39.1 (1933 Oct 01): 113. Periodicals Archive Online; Periodicals Index Online. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Aided by Hitler’s God-given pan-Germanism, the Fascist elements in Northern Europe have given birth to an array of Feuhrer who are ready to lead their respective peoples to the National Socialist fountain of youth. How many followers they have it is difficult to judge.”

Hindley, Meredith. “Blockade before Bread: Allied Relief for Nazi Europe, 1939–1945.” Thesis. The American University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (2007): 479. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “This study provides the first analysis of Allied relief policy for Nazi-occupied territories–and by extension Allied humanitarian policy–during the Second World War. When the war began, Britain implemented an economic warfare campaign that sought to prevent Germany from importing any goods that would fuel the Nazi war machine. Food and clothing, the building blocks of relief programs, were included in the ban. In order for relief goods to pass Britain’s blockade against Germany, humanitarian organizations had to prove to Britain, and later the United States, that the goods would not aid the German war effort. Consequently, from the being of the war, a fundamental contradiction existed between Allied strategy and the humanitarian impulse. How the Allies negotiated that contradiction while pursuing victory is the subject of this study.”

Hollander, Ethan J.. “Implementing and Subverting the Final Solution in Nazi-occupied Europe.” Thesis. University of California, San Diego. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (2006): 511-11 P. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. This dissertation explains why levels of Jewish victimization varied among Nazi-occupied countries during World War II. I show that the ‘success’ of the German genocide program depended most importantly upon the relationship between Germany and each occupied country. I argue that where German rule was direct, its implementation of the Final Solution was unhindered, and therefore more effective. On the other hand, where Germany ruled through collaborators, the precise implementation of genocidal policies was the result of complex bargaining and negotiations: In return for their loyal cooperation in military or economic policy, collaborators could often get away with partial or simply ‘unenthusiastic’ implementation of the Final Solution. This was often a major factor in reducing rates of Jewish victimization.”

“Invasion of France.” ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/the_invasion_of_france.htm>. “After taking over Lithuania, Latvia, Ethiopia, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Denmark, Germany turned its attention to Great Britain and France. Germany was now very powerful, but so were these two nations. Germany, deciding it needed more power, declared war on Great Britain and France. Even though they expected this, Great Britain and France were not prepared for the battle they would have with Germany.”

Jacobsohn, Peter. “A Witness to the Age of Nazi Europe.” Chicago Tribune (1963-Current File) 27 Oct. 1968: 1-L16. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. In “the 1930s Elizabeth Wiskemann was one of a small but determined band of journalists who devoted frustrating yet exciting years to warning the world against Nazi Germany. In England this was no small task.”

Kennedy, Robert M. “German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944).” U.S. Army Center of Military History. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/antiguer-ops/AG-BALKAN.HTM>. “The purpose of this study is to describe briefly the German campaign against the guerrillas in the Balkans during the period of the European Axis occupation, from the end of hostilities against Greece and Yugoslavia in April 1941 to the capture of Belgrade by the Soviet forces and the Partisans in October 1944. The activities of Germany’s Italian, Bulgarian, Croatian, and other allies, as well as the British, Soviet, and United States forces in the area, are treated only to the extent that they affected German operations. In sequence of time, this study is a continuation of Department of the Army CMH Pub 104-18, The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941), of November 1953. The material for this study was obtained from German military records now in the custody of The Adjutant General, Department of the Army. In addition to these official records, monographs by former German officers who participated in these operations furnished considerable general information and were of assistance in supplementing the terse official reports of specific actions.”

Kuhn, Ferdinand Ferdinand. “Europe Redraws Lines to Meet Nazi Thrusts.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1938 apr 24: 62. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2009) with Index (1851-1993). Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Europe this week continued the uncomfortable process of adjusting itself to the dynamic outward pressure of Nazi Germany. It was a ‘quiet’ week with no violent changes except the hammer blow of Generalissimo Francisco Franco’s armies against Catalonia and the dramatic counterblow struck by King Carol against the Iron Guard in Rumania.”

“Lofoten War Museum – Occupation.” Lofoten War Museum. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. <http://www.lofotenkrigmus.no/e_okkupasjon.htm>. “It was chaotic in every sense during the first week of the German occupation. In the early days of May, Norwegian forces surrendered themselves, quickly followed by the forces locating in and around Trondheim. In the northern part of Norway, the fight against Wehrmacht continued with the aid of British, French and Polish armies, resulting in regaining control over Narvik May 28th. But not for long. Because of the ‘blitzkrieg’ on the continent our allied forces had to withdraw and Norway capitulated to the Germans 10th June 1945. Norway is occupied.”

Morawetz, Jennifer. “The Lebensborn Organization in Nazi Germany and Occupied Europe.” Thesis. The University of Texas at Dallas. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (2011): 177. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. The Lebensborn Program was a Nazi eugenics program that ran from 1935 to 1945. Designed and governed by Himmler, it was an attempt to increase the number of ‘Aryan’ children produced each year. It was a numerical failure as both German civilians and the elite SS who were to have been the cornerstone of program refused to become involved. Himmler was determined to increase the number of children by all means possible, and so in 1938 began a system of kidnapping children who fit the overt racial characteristic of ‘Aryan’, and ‘re-educating’ them to believe they were German. Kidnapping for the purpose of Germanization occurred in all of occupied Europe and ultimately some 92,000 children were under the control of the Lebensborn program. Himmler and his fellow ideologues placed the Lebensborn as a crucial aspect of the Third Reich and held it to be a center point of Nazi ideology.”

“Nazi Combines Grab Industrial Rule of Europe.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) 1943 jun 15: 4. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. The giant Nazi industrial combines have transformed Europe’s economy into an industrial empire “which could maintain power despite changes in the leadership of Germany, the Nazi party, or the German army,” the office of war information [OWI] reported today.

“Nazi Coup Imminent in Southeast Europe.” Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) 1944 jan 11: 3. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Complete German military occupation of Southeastern Europe is imminent because of growing enmity, marked by ugly riots between the mutually hostile peoples of the Nazi puppet states of Hungary, Rumania and Bulgaria.”

“Nazis Take Czechoslovakia.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/nazis-take-czechoslovakia>. “On this day, Hitler’s forces invade and occupy Czechoslovakia–a nation sacrificed on the altar of the Munich Pact, which was a vain attempt to prevent Germany’s imperial aims. On September 30, 1938, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, French Premier Edouard Daladier, and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain signed the Munich Pact, which sealed the fate of Czechoslovakia, virtually handing it over to Germany in the name of peace. Although the agreement was to give into Hitler’s hands only the Sudentenland, that part of Czechoslovakia where 3 million ethnic Germans lived, it also handed over to the Nazi war machine 66 percent of Czechoslovakia’s coal, 70 percent of its iron and steel, and 70 percent of its electrical power. Without those resources, the Czech nation was left vulnerable to complete German domination.”

“The Occupation of Denmark.” Denmark – The Official Website of Denmark. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://denmark.dk/en/society/history/occupation/>. “Denmark was occupied by Germany on 9 April 1940. Hitler was not particularly interested in Denmark in itself, but he needed to control the country and its air bases to make it easier for the German army to attack Norway. In addition Denmark was to be part of the German defences that would prevent an Allied invasion. The actual occupation proved no challenge for Germany. After a few hours of fighting the Danish soldiers in southern Jutland surrendered, and the Danish government began negotiations with the German invasion forces.”

“The Occupation of Norway.” The History Learning Site. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/occupation_of_norway.htm>. “The occupation of Norway in the spring of 1940 by Nazi Germany was swift and decisive. The German army quickly swept through Norway and in one month established its rule there. Its one weak area in the whole campaign was that many German troops had to be landed by sea and the control of the sea around Norway’s coast was vital.”

Petropoulos, Jonathan. “Co-opting Nazi Germany: Neutrality in Europe during World War Ii.” Dimensions 14.1 (May 2000): 13. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Neutrality, when practiced by nations, is not always neutral. It does not preclude involvement in international affairs, or even partisanship. According to international law, there are varying kinds of neutrality. For example, Switzerland adopted ‘differentiated’ neutrality in 1920, a decision which indicated a willingness to employ economic sanctions to communicate disapprobation of another nation; in 1938 the Swiss embraced ‘integral,’ or supposedly unconditional, neutrality. Despite the apparent precision of these legal terms, neutrality for Switzerland during World War II, as well as for the other continental European countries that claimed neutral status during that period — Portugal, Sweden, Spain, and the Vatican — can best be summed up by the phrase, self-interested noncombatant.These nations shared the common objectives of preserving relative independence in foreign policy and resisting encroachment into domestic affairs. But the costs were high: Switzerland, Sweden, Portugal and Spain, at certain points, deserved the unpleasant label — to borrow the title from Donald Waters’ book on Switzerland — ‘Hitler’s Secret Ally.’ … Indeed, the Swiss are tainted not just by their collaboration with the Reich, but by their postwar failure to confront a problematic past. To comprehend the magnitude of this ‘taint,’ it is necessary both to understand Switzerland’s degree of involvement in Nazi crimes, and to place that involvement in the context of the wartime behavior of the other three ‘neutrals.’ The Swiss bolstered the Nazi regime in many ways, ways that can be summarized by the following categories: border policies, opportunities for trade, and financial transactions. Behavior in all of these categories was either immoral or amoral, but Switzerland’s closing of escape routes over its border is probably the most troubling.”

“POLAND IN WWII.” POLAND WWII. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <http://www.polandww2.com/poland-wwii/poland-in-wwii>. “In German-occupied western Poland, an entire clandestine civil government (with courts, education, health, legislative and other usual government functions) and military organization (the ‘AK,’ Armia Krajowa [Home Army or Army of the Homeland]) formed underground, under the very noses of the brutal Nazi occupiers, taking their orders from the Polish government-in-exile in London via perilous courier networks and risky radio transmissions. ”

Potter, Pamela M. “The Arts in Nazi Germany: A Silent Debate.” Contemporary European History 15.4 (Nov 2006): 585-99. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. Joan Clinefelter, Artists for the Reich: Culture and Race from Weimar to Nazi Germany (Oxford: Berg, 2005). Richard Etlin ed., Art, Culture, and Media under the Third Reich (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). Eric Michaud, The Cult of Art in Nazi Germany, trans. Janet Lloyd (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004). Peter Paret, An Artist against the Third Reich: Ernst Barlach, 1933-1938 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). Frederick Spotts, Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics (London: Hutchinson, 2002)

Safranek, By Milos. “THE SPOIL OF EUROPE. The Nazi Technique in Political and Economic Conquest. By Thomas Reveille. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. “New York Times (1923-Current File) 1941 sep 07: 89. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.  MATERIAL about Hitler’s unbelievably brutal “New Order” in Europe, though freely and fully accessible in German publications, is systematically set forth for the first time in the United States in the current book by Thomas Reveille. This fact is in itself surprising, especially when we consider how vital it is to the interest of the Western Hemisphere to know the whole truth about Hitler’s ‘New Order’ in Europe, and concrete plans for his world new order.”

Salony, Mary F. “Hunger for the Printed Word: Books and Libraries in the Jewish Ghettos of Nazi-Occupied Europe.” Library Journal 122.8 (1997 May 01): 121. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Hunger for the Printed Word: Books and Libraries in the Jewish Ghettos of Nazi-Occupied Europe” by David Shavit is reviewed.

Stiles, Kent B. “Issued in Nazi Europe.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 25 July 1943: 1. New York Times. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “After postal representatives of Germany and Italy and of Nazi satellites and over-run countries in Europe had organized a European postal and communications union at Vienna last Oct. 12 through 19, reports filtered through that several of the participating governments had issued stamps to commemorate the assembly.”

Taylor, Sylvia Lynne. Le Cout De Vie: Daily Life in Northern France during the German Occupation of World War II. Thesis. University of Michigan. Dissertations & Theses @ CIC Institutions; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. “This dissertation is a study of the impact of the German occupation of northern France during World War II on the daily lives of the region’s inhabitants. The focus of attention is on the drastic shortages of food and fuel which arose both because of the destruction caused by the invasion and because of the centrally controlled economy imposed by the German occupiers, their impact on the lives and health of the local population and how that population coped with the shortages. Their methods of coping took two general forms; protest and evasion. The various coping techniques used were shaped by the peculiar nature of the relationship between occupier and occupied. … Chapter four examines the effects and consequences of these changes on the daily lives of the region’s inhabitants. Under the Nazi regime, daily life became a struggle for survival in a hostile and repressive political environment and an economy of chronic shortages and inflation. Chapters five and six explore the various means by which the population sought to cope with the difficulties of daily life, both through protest and through evasion of the myriad of regulations governing the economy. Some were more successful than others; all were frought with danger, for they were largely illegal activities. The opportunities available proved surprisingly diverse, ranging from strikes and food riots to pillaging and black markets. Each was a reflection of the nature of the relationship between the occupier and the occupied, and of the unpredictable and indeterminate nature of that relationship.”

Tyrnauer, Alfred. “Goering: Thief of Industrial Billions.” Click Magazine Sept. 1943: 26. Old Magazine Articles. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. <http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/Goering_Works_Hermann-Goering_art-thief_pdf>. “His incredible empire covers all nations conquered by Nazis. … [he] ‘owns’ the world’s largest industrial empire by right of possession.”

United Press., By The. “Anti-nazi Revolt Widens in Europe.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1941 sep 14: 1. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.  German armed forces today [Seot. 14,1941] were reported resorting to drastic measures to crush anti-Nazi and guerrilla outbreaks in Norway, Hungary, Yugoslavia, the Netherlands and Rumania.