National Socialism

“The National Socialist German Workers Party better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. The term Nazi is a short form of the German word Nationalsozialist (Nationalist Socialist, the ‘zi’ originating from Sozialist), reflecting the ideology of the NSDAP. The NSDAP set up the Third Reich after Hitler’s apppointment to Chancellor in January 1933.

The NSDAP was the main political force in Nazi Germany from the fall of the Weimar Republic in 1933 until the end of  World War II in 1945, when it was declared illegal and its leaders were arrested and convicted of crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials.” 


  • “Description: Forged copy of Adolf Hitler’s membership card in the German Worker Party (DAP), which would later become the NSDAP. His membership number was actually 555. In a letter from Anton Drexler that was drafted in 1940 but never sent, he said:

 No one knows better than you yourself, my Führer, that you were never the seventh member of the party, but at best the seventh member of the committee, which I asked you to join as recruitment director. And a few years ago I had to complain to a party office that your first proper membership card of the DAP, bearing the signatures of Schüssler and myself, was falsified, with the number 555 being erased and number 7 entered. (Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris 1889-1936, Penguin Books, p. 127).

[Note: membership was counted upwards from 500 (the first 500 members did not in fact exist), so Hitler's party number was 555.]“


Alsfeld, Richard W. “American Opinions of National Socialism.” International Social Science Review 60.3 (Summer 1985): 55. Periodicals Archive Online; Periodicals Index Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “This paper is concerned with the process of opinion formation and development displayed by a sample of American opinion leaders while commenting on Nationalism during the movement’s rise to power.”

Blackwell, Carolyn S., and Gordon R. Mork. “German Jewish Identity and German Jewish Response to National Socialism, 1933-1939.” Thesis. Purdue University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (1988): 317-17 P. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. The dissertation is a study of German Jewish identity and its influence on the response of German Jews to National Socialism during the years 1933-1939. German Jewish response was influenced by the relationship with the dominant culture, self-identity, political actions, previous experience and perception of the existing situation. The findings reveal that German Jews were not integrated into German society as fully as they perceived themselves to be. The majority of German Jews identified themselves as Germans of the Jewish faith and were caught between desiring full assimilation into German society and preserving their Judaic customs and traditions. Conflict among the Jewish leaders/organizations over what constituted German Jewish identity and the method to combat antisemitism created divisions within the Jewish community. The divisiveness prevented a unified response to National Socialism during the years 1933-1939. Individual German Jews responded according to their self-identity, degree of acculturation (as exemplified by the categories cultural, secular and practical), and perception of the existing situation.”

Blakey, Fred. “National Socialism.” Southern Quarterly 6.4 (1968 Jul 01): 438. Periodicals Archive Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “The culmination of the philosophy of fascism was reached in Germany with the development of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. Like Mussonini’s Fascism, the National Socialist movement combined an appeal to extreme and exclusive nationalism and chauvinist expansionism with a revolutionary call to the masses.”

Bowden, Robin L. Diagnosing Nazism: U.S. Perceptions of National Socialism, 1920–1933. Thesis. Kent State University. 2009. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “Historical coverage of American perceptions of National Socialism normally begins with Adolf Hitler’s appointment as chancellor in 1933. Yet American policymakers were aware of and reported on the party from its formation in the early 1920s, though their concern with Germany’s political and economic stability caused them to inaccurately assess the growing National Socialist threat during this formative period. U.S. diplomats’ often stark differences of opinion when it came to dealing with National Socialism before Hitler’s chancellorship have been relatively unexamined. Consequently, a complete understanding of the interwar relationship between the United States and Germany and the American understanding of National Socialism has heretofore been impossible. Using extensive primary documentation from the State Department and U.S. military intelligence, this dissertation dissects American diplomatic reporting on Germany from the formation of the NSDAP through Hitler’s appointment as chancellor. … As this study makes clear, U.S. observers had the opportunity to document and comprehend the developing National Socialist movement more than a decade before Hitler became chancellor. Lamentably, their coverage proved to be marked by misconceptions, some confusion, and, at times, complete disregard for the success of Hitler and his party.”

Bytwerk, Randall L. Landmark Speeches of National Socialism. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2008. Print. “As historians have long noted, public oratory has seldom been as pivotal in generating and sustaining the vitality of a movement as it was during the rise and rule of the National Socialist Party, from 1919 to 1945. Led by the charismatic and indefatigable Hitler, National Socialists conducted one of the most powerful rhetorical campaigns ever recorded. Indeed, the mass addresses, which were broadcast live on radio, taped for re-broadcast, and in many cases filmed for play on theater newsreels throughout the Third Reich, constituted one of the most thorough exploitations of media in history. … Gathered here are thirteen key speeches of this historically significant movement, including Hitler’s announcement of the party’s reestablishment in 1925 following the unsuccessful Beer Hall Putsch, four addresses by Joseph Goebbels, the 1938 Kristallnacht speech by Julius Streicher, and four speeches drafted as models for party leaders’ use on various public occasions. The volume concludes with Adolf Hitler’s final public address on January 30, 1945, three months before his suicide. Several of these works are presented for the first time in English translation. Bytwerk provides a brief introduction to each speech and allows the reader to trace the development and downfall of the Nazi party.”

“The Era of Nationalism.” Facts about Germany. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “Hitler did not come to power on the back of a major election victory but he would not have become Reich Chancellor in January 1933 had he not been the leader of the strongest party. At the last Weimar Republic Reichstag elections on November 6, 1932 the National Socialists had lost two million votes compared with the July 31, 1932 elections, while the Communists gained 600,000 thereby reaching the magic number of 100 Reichstag seats. The success of the Communist Party (KPD) whipped up fears of civil war, and it was this fear that was to become Hitler’s most powerful ally, particularly among the powerful Conservative elite.” Fischer, Conan. “Workers, the Middle Classes, and the Rise of National Socialism.” German History 9.3 (1991 Oct 01): 357. Periodicals Archive Online; Periodicals Index Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Book reviews.

Friedrich, Carl Joachim. “National Socialism In Germany.” The Political Quarterly 2.4 (1931): 520-30. Wiley Online Library. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “National Socialism is not only a party, it is also a movement. It is necessary to understand the causes from which the movement has sprung in order to appreciate the strength and the weaknesses of the party.”

“German Reich: National Socialism (1933-1945).” Bundesarchiv. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “Access may be gained in the Federal Archives to the national archives of central civilian and military bodies of the so-called Third Reich and to the records of the NSDAP, its structures and affiliated associations. It is supplemented by Pictures and posters, Films and documents on film history, Maps, Personal papers of historically important individuals, Current records of other parties, unions and associations, Collections Official printed matter.”

“Germany: National Socialism and World War II.” EuroDocs. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. Documents relating to National Socialism such as session proceedings of the Reichstag.

Godl, Doris. “Women’s Contributions to the Political Policies of National Socialism.” Feminist Issues 15.1-2 (1997): 31-41. ABI/INFORM Complete; GenderWatch; ProQuest Politics Collection. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Godl discusses the debate that originated in the early 1970s in the field of women’s studies in Germany. The debate surrounded the question of whether women during the era of National Socialism could properly be considered only as victims, or whether they had also been collaborators, supporters and advocates of this system.

Haeberlin, Andrew, and Konrad H. Jarausch. Politicizing Education: German Teachers Face National Socialism, 1930–1932. Thesis. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 2009. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “This thesis examines and compares German primary and secondary school teachers in the late Weimar Republic, their reactions to the economic crises of the early 1930s, and the effects that these reactions had on their political views. It argues that the shock of the Great Depression helped to politicize a teaching profession that had previously embraced a tradition of overt apolitically. Through an examination of the primary, national professional publication of each group it identifies key social and economic differences between their constituent members and explores the ways that these influenced their approaches to National Socialism.”

Henson, Andrew Brian. Before the Seizure of Power: American and British Press Coverage of National Socialism, 1922 to 1933. Thesis. Clemson University. 2007. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “This thesis focuses on the coverage of the National Socialist movement by the American and British press in the period from 1922 to 1933. Two major newspapers from both the United States and Great Britain were reviewed, as were several magazines and periodicals from those years. The nature of the coverage, as well as its accuracy, was the primary concern of this work. For the most part, the Anglo-American press emphasized the most visible political activities of the National Socialists and especially the prominent role of Adolf Hitler. American and British journalists addressed the violent, aggressive nature of the movement much more so than its inherent anti-Semitism and racist goals. Though a handful of journalists recognized that the party’s hatred of the Jews was seminal to Nazism, this view was never addressed frequently or prominently. The Anglo-American press consistently underestimated the ability of the party to implement their goals. … Overall, the American and British press was able to accurately assess the nature of the National Socialist movement before it took over Germany, but in an imbalanced way that did not take its aggressive aspirations seriously. Though there was alarm when Hitler was made Chancellor in 1933, American and British journalists honestly believed that his power would be limited.”

Herf, Jeffrey. “The Rise of National Socialism in Germany.” Contemporary European History 10.3 (Nov 2001): 513-22. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “Peter Fritzsche, Germans into Nazis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998);  Dan P. Silverman, Hitler’s Economy: Nazi Work Creation Programs,1933-1936 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998);  Roderick Stackelberg, Hitler’s Germany: Origins, Interpretations, Legacies (London and New York: Routledge, 1999);  Conan Fischer, ed., The Rise of National Socialism and the Working Classes in Weimar Germany, (Providence and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1996); Saul Friedlander, Nazi Germany and the Jews, Vol. I: The Era of Persecution, 1933-1939, (New York: HarperCollins, 1997). These works address, among other issues, the following: how widespread was support for Nazism before and after 1933 and how can this support be explained? What was the core of Nazi antisemitism, how important was it to the history of the regime, and how was it translated into policy? Several also demonstrate that, amidst the vast forest of specialist studies, it is also possible to write valuable synthetic works.”

“Joseph Goebbels: On National-Socialism, Bolshevism & Democracy.” Jewish Virtual Library. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 10 Sept. 1938. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “Men and women of the National-Socialist Party: Public life in Europe to-day is influenced by three striking political phenomena which I will group together under the popular heading ‘National-Socialism, Bolshevism, and Democracy.’ It is, however, clear to me that these names cannot define their full significance. The general public thinks of them as a triangle of irreconcilable contrasts. It would be understandable and logical if their reactions upon political personalities, actions, achievements, negotiations, and developments showed a corresponding degree of contrasts, but this is only the case to a limited extent. Often, and indeed mostly, we find, where decisive political problems are concerned, a united front of democracy and Bolshevism opposed to the nationalist, authoritarian States and their representatives. This is one of the most puzzling phenomena of modern politics. It can only be explained by the essential nature of the three political systems. I therefore think it necessary to analyse them in some detail from the theoretical point of view and in their effect on racial relations in Europe.”

Kaufeld, Stacy F. The Image of the Jew under National Socialism: Anti-Semitic Film Propaganda, 1939–41. Thesis. University of Calgary (Canada). 2006. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “This thesis is concerned with anti-Semitic film propaganda during the Third Reich. In particular, I examine the contradictory representation of the Jews in four films produced between 1939 and 1941. I analyze the Jews as a racial and economic threat to the stability of the Volksgemeinschaft (national racial community). I am particularly concerned with differentiating between the Nazi image of the assimilated Western Jew and the stereotypical Ostjude (Eastern Jews). I take an interdisciplinary approach that not only considers the films’ ideological and propagandistic content, but how the films were constructed in an effort to strengthen the anti-Semitism. Furthermore, employing interdisciplinary methodology allows me to examine how the National Socialists exploited the Jews as the scapegoat for all of Germany’s ills. In doing so, the Nazis were able to establish a growing mentality of hate towards the Jewish population that ultimately led to the Holocaust.”

Kirk, Tim. “The Rise of National Socialism and the Working Classes in Weimar Germany.” Labor History 40.3 (Aug 1999): 417-18. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Kirk reviews “The Rise of National Socialism and the Working Classes in Weimar Germany” edited by Conan Fischer.

Knoche, Michael. “Scientific Journals under National Socialism.” Libraries and Culture 26.2 (Spring 1991): 415. ProQuest. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “In their dealings with scientific journals the Nazis did not act so much from an ideological viewpoint as from economic considerations. Usually more than 50 percent of the circulation of German science journals was exported, bringing needed foreign exchange into the Reich. Thus the German publishers could use the relatively strong position they gained to ward off attacks on their entrepreneurial autonomy, to retain international authors’ contacts as long as possible, and to maintain the scientific standard of their journals to the extent possible.”

Krieg, Robert A. “Karl Adam, National Socialism, and Christian Tradition.” Theological Studies 60.3 (1999 Sep 01): 432. Periodicals Archive Online; Periodicals Index Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “The author sheds light on the progressive theology but conservative politics of Karl Adam (1876-1966), who in 1924 developed a theology of Church as community. However, beginning in 1933, Adam tried to bridge Catholicism and the National Socialism championed by Adolf Hitler.”

Lederer, Emil. “The Economic Doctrine of National Socialism.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 191.1 (1937): 219-25. JSTOR. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “German National Socialism is based on those earlier phases of thinking when economics had not yet developed into a special branch of science, but was considered a part of a general philosophy of the state.”

Mason, Tim. “National Socialism and the Working Class, 1925-May, 1933.” Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “The following essay is intended to illuminate the pre-history of the problems of national socialist rule discussed in my book Sozialpolitik im Dritten Reich. A proper perspective for the analysis of class relationships in Germany after 1933 can be gained only by first outlining the development and social composition of the national socialist movement before the seizure of power and by reconstructing the process which led to the destruction of working class organizations in 1933. Further, it is of greatest importance to point out those changes in economic and political constellations produced by the world economic crisis.”

Menendez, Al. “Hitler’s Priests: Catholic Clergy and National Socialism.” Voice of Reason 2008: 19-20. Alt-PressWatch; ProQuest Politics Collection. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “How could a Catholic clergyman, supposedly dedicated to moral, ethical and humane values, support the Nazi regime in Germany? This is the enigma that captivated historian and Catholic priest [Kevin P. Spicer] when he began research nine years ago on the ‘brown priests.’ His conclusion is that a fervid German nationalism, a desire to avenge the nation’s humiliating defeat in World War I, fear of a Communist takeover, and disillusion over postwar poverty and ‘immorality’ were major factors. But the glue that held this admittedly small number (138 of 34,000 priests in Germany) together was anti-Semitism. I found it difficult to comprehend how a person ordained to serve others and preach Christ’s commandment of love could so wholeheartedly embrace the hate-filled ideology of National Socialism.”

Micheler, Stefan. “Homophobic Propaganda and the Denunciation of Same-sex-desiring Men under National Socialism.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11.1/2 (2002): 95-130. GenderWatch. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “Micheler focuses on evidence from Hamburg, which, as a seaport and the second largest city in the German Reich, was reputed to be a ‘homosexual stronghold.’ He develops a refined chronology of the evolution of homophobic propaganda and its dissemination, to specify more precisely the stereotypes that were mobilized against those classed as ‘homosexual,’ and to investigate the relationships between regime propaganda and denunciations at the grass roots.”

“National Socialism in International Comparison.” Colby. Colby College. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “No doubt that many characteristics of the Nazi movement and regime are not uniquely German. The Nazis initially were often called fascists, and they looked favorably on Mussolini’s Italy. Hitler’s hope to seize power in Berlin by launching a putsch in Munich and marching on Berlin in 1923 was inspired by Mussolini’s successful march on Rome in October 1922. Italian fascism inspired a host of movements all over Europe (even in France, Belgium, and Britain). The aftermath of World War I saw a broad range of fascist or quasi-fascist organizations arise, which makes the line between radical and authoritarian nationalists on the one side and fascists proper on the other side difficult to draw.”

“National Socialism in Munich.” NS-Dokumentationszentrum München. City of Munich. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “The City of Munich is aware of its special obligation to keep alive the memory of the Nazi era and its crimes and to inform citizens and visitors about it. After all, it was here in Munich that the rise of the National Socialist movement began after the First World War. Munich was also the scene of the attempted putsch of 1923 and of Hitler’s subsequent trial. Here Hitler found influential patrons who gave him entry to bourgeois circles. And it was here in 1938 that Goebbels called for the nation-wide pogrom against the Jewish population. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, Munich was chosen by Hitler as the place to celebrate the cult of Nazism and given the titles ‘Capital of German Art’ and ‘Capital of the Movement.’”

“National Socialism.” Infoplease. Web. 07 Oct. 2013. <>. “National Socialism or Nazism, doctrines and policies of the National Socialist German Workers’ party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933 to 1945. In German the party name was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); members were first called Nazis as a derisive abbreviation.”

“National Socialism (political Movement, Germany).” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “National Socialism, German Nationalsozialismus, also called Nazism or Naziism, totalitarian movement led by Adolf Hitler as head of the Nazi Party in Germany. In its intense nationalism, mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, National Socialism shared many elements with Italian fascism.” Article includes the roots of National Socialism and totalitarianism.

“National Socialist Principles of Education.” National Socialist Principles of Education. 1936/37. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “This article is titled “The Educational Principles of the New Germany,” and was published in the Nazi magazine for women. It explains how the Nazis wanted women to view education. It is a rather explicit summary of Nazi educational policy. The illustration is the cover of the issue in which this article appeared. The caption next to the young lad is: “Germany’s youth belong to the Führer!” The source: “Die Erziehungsgrundsätze des neuen Deutschlands,” Frauen-Warte, #22 (1936/37), pp. 692-693.”

Neumann, Franz Leopold. Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, 1933-1944. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1966. Print. “Franz Neumann’s classic account of the workings of Nazi Germany, first published in 1942 and expanded in 1944, was immediately recognized as a groundbreaking investigation. To this day the book has remained a stimulus to inquiry and debate. ‘The provocative and controversial central argument,’ Peter Hayes writes in his introduction, ‘is that the Third Reich neither expressed a consistent ideology nor possessed a coherent structure.’”

Nicosia, Francis R J. “National Socialism and the Demise of the German-Christian Communities in Palestine during the Nineteen Thirties.” Canadian Journal of History/Annales Canadiennes D’Histoire 14.2 (1979 Aug 01): 235. Periodicals Archive Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “Before World War I, Germany acquired considerable cultural influence and prestige in Syria and Palestine. … During the war, Germany lost every advantage she had had in Palestine with the possible exception of the continued good will of the inhabitants.”

“Permanent Exhibition: Resistance Against National Socialism.” Visit Berlin. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “The permanent exhibition “Resistance Against National Socialism”, opened in 1989, documents with more than 5,000 photos and documents, in 26 areas, about the whole range and diversity of the fight against the national socialistic dictatorship. It informs on the political resistance against National Socialism as well as on the diverse forms of resistance basing on Christian conviction, attempted military coups between 1938 and 1944, the active conspiracy of decisive opponents of the regime at the centre of the power, on the opposition of youth, and the resistance during the daily life during war. ”

S, P. J. “Writers Tell Brutalities of National Socialism.” Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) 1942 apr 26: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1989). Web. 14 Oct. 2013. In these two volumes we have, first, a presentation of the elements, contradictory and confused, that make up what is called National Socialism; and, second, illustrations of what that brutal mixture means when applied to a non-German people.”

“Spartacus Educational.” Nazi Party (NSDAP). Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. History of the NSDAP.

Spectator. “National Socialism and the Church.” The Contemporary Review 1939 jul 01: 474. ProQuest. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “In the following pages this philosophy of life will be referred to as the philosophy of present-day Germany, though well-informed circles know that, in spite of clamorous propaganda, the official teachings are accepted by a comparatively small section of the people.”

Stokes, Lawrence D. “National Socialism and German History.” Canadian Journal of History/Annales Canadiennes D’Histoire 19.2 (1984 Aug 01): 255. Periodicals Index Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. The shift in historiographical emphasis among reviewed books in article is discussed.

Thompson, Dorothy. “National Socialism: Theory and Practice.” Foreign Affairs (pre-1986) 13.000004 (Jul 1935): 557-73. ABI/INFORM Complete; ProQuest Politics Collection. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “Konrad Heiden says that National Socialism is a union of causes rather than aims, and certainly the present form of government in Germany is unimaginable with the history of the last twenty years. … the class of the unemployed worker … looked for salvation, not to the power of ownership not yet to the power of economic pressure through organization, but directly to the state.”

Trotsky, Leon. “What Is National Socialism?” Marxists. 10 June 1933. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “Written in exile in Turkey, June 10, 1933. Translated from Russian and from German. Appeared in several versions in various journals, first being The Modern Thinker, October 1933. Last two paragraphs added as postscript November 2, 1933.”

“The Vienna Philharmonic under National Socialism (1938 – 1945).” Wiener Philharmoniker. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “In 1938, politics encroached upon the Vienna Philharmonic in the most brutal manner. The National Socialists dismissed all Jewish artists from the Vienna State Opera and disbanded the Association of the Vienna Philharmonic. It was only the intervention of Wilhelm Furtwängler and other individuals which achieved the nullification of the disbandment order and, with two exceptions, saved the “half-Jews” and “closely-related” from dismissal from the Vienna State Opera Orchestra. However, five members of the orchestra perished in concentration camps, despite the intervention of the new Nazi chairman of the orchestra, who attempted to rescue them from deportation. Another two members died in Vienna as a direct result of attempted deportation and persecution.”

Walker, Mark. “National Socialism and German Physics.” Journal of Contemporary History 24.1 (1989 Jan 01): 63. Periodicals Archive Online; Periodicals Index Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “[The relationships between deutsch Physik, National Socialism, and the German physics community provide a fascinating example of the impact that an ideology can have on science as well as how science and scientists, in turn, can influence this ideology.”

Zimmermann, Michael. “National Socialism and Gypsies in Austria.” Romani Studies 10.1 (2000): 89-92. Ethnic NewsWatch. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “The English translation has also been expanded by an updated bibliography and numerous photographs, which were not included in the German edition. Since the German publication of National Socialism and Gypsies in Austria research on the Nazi policy against the Gypsies has of course made progress; Erika Thurner’s book has nevertheless remained the authoritative study of Nazi policy toward Gypsies in Austria.”