Anti-Semitism

Henry Ford   “In the early 1920s, Ford sponsored a weekly newspaper that published …  strongly anti-Semitic views. … The newspaper published The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which was discredited by The Times of London as a forgery during the Independent’s publishing run. The American Jewish Historical Society described the ideas presented in the magazine as “anti-immigrant, anti-labor, anti-liquor, and anti-Semitic.” In February 1921, the New York World published an interview with Ford, in which he said: ‘The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on.’ … In Germany, Ford’s anti-Semitic articles from The Dearborn Independent were issued in four volumes, cumulatively titled The International Jew, the World’s Foremost Problem published by Theodor Fritsch, …  a member of the Reichstag. In a letter written in 1924, Heinrich Himmler described Ford as ‘one of our most valuable, important, and witty fighters.’” Wikipedia

 

“Adolf Hitler, Nazi Germany: Christian Nationalism, Christian Anti-Semitism, Anti-Communism.” Agnosticism / Atheism – Skepticism & Atheism for Atheists & Agnostics. About.com. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/od/adolfhitlernazigermany/Adolf_Hitler_Nazi_Germany_Christian_Nationalism_AntiSemitism.htm>. “The Nazis and Adolf Hitler are commonly thought of as representing the antithesis of Christianity and Christian values. If that’s true, why did tens of millions of German Christians adore Hitler, join the Nazis, and participate in the Holocaust (among other atrocities)? Hitler and the Nazis promoted a Christian nationalism, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, and return to traditional values which most Christians appreciated. The Nazi party platform specifically endorsed ‘positive’ Christianity.” Bibliography.

“Ahmadinejad Calls Holocaust Denial Major Achievement of His Presidency.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 7 July 2013. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/07/07/news-opinion/israel-middle-east/ahmadinejad-calls-holocaust-denial-major-achievement-of-his-presidency>. “Outgoing Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said during a farewell ceremony that publicizing his Holocaust denial was a major achievement of his presidency.”

Alperin, Michele. “A Tale of Mutual Empathy: Jewish Refugee Scholars at Historically Black colleges.” JNS.Org. 13 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2013/1/13/a-tale-of-mutual-empathy-jewish-refugee-scholars-at-historic.html>. “In Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love, an exhibition … will highlight a historical moment of mutual respect and cooperation between the African American and Jewish communities. Although their relationship has often been tense, especially after the rise of the black power movement and its expressions of anti-Semitism, the hiring of Jewish refugee scholars in the 1930s by historically black colleges stands as a beacon to the potential for common ground between the two groups.”

Anti-Defamation League. ADL Appalled at Reports That Turkish Deputy P.M. Blamed ‘Jewish Diaspora’ for Fueling Demonstrations. ADL. Anti-Defamation League, 2 July 2013. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.adl.org/press-center/press-releases/anti-semitism-international/adl-appalled-at-reports-that-turkish-deputy-pm-blamed-jewish-diaspora-for-demonstrations.html>. “The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today urged the prime minister of Turkey and other government leaders to immediately, strongly and publicly reject disturbing conspiratorial statements reportedly made by the deputy prime minister who blamed, among others, the ‘Jewish diaspora’ for instigating and fueling recent demonstrations in Turkey.”

“Anti-Semitic Hate for Kids … and Adults.” Commentary Magazine. 9 July 2013. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.commentarymagazine.com/2013/07/08/anti-semitic-hate-for-kids-and-adults-palestinians/>. “Part of the answer to that puzzle is supplied from those who, unlike the mainstream media, do pay attention to what is written and broadcast in the official Palestinian media run by Abbas’s PA. Those wondering why the Palestinians would reject peace offers including an independent state (as they have three times since 2000), can do no better than to view this PA TV excerpt brought to our attention from Palestinian Media Watch in which two little Palestinian girls are asked to recite a hateful poem that refers to Jews in the following manner: ‘Most evil among creations, barbaric monkeys, wretched pigs,’ condemned to ‘humiliation and hardship.’ It also went on to say the following about the Jewish presence in Jerusalem: Jerusalem vomits from within it your impurity Because Jerusalem, you impure ones, is pious, immaculate And Jerusalem, you who are filth, is clean and pure.”

Attitudes Toward Jews in Ten European Countries. Rep. Anti-Defamation League, Mar. 2012. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://archive.adl.org/Anti_semitism/adl_anti-semitism_presentation_february_2012.pdf>. “As with previous surveys, data from this latest 2012 European tracking poll indicates that significant percentages of European respondents continue to believe in some of the most pernicious anti-Semitic stereotypes. Respondents across the continent were asked whether or not they thought the following four statements were ‘probably true’ or ‘probably false.’ 1) Jews are more loyal to Israel than to this country. 2) Jews have too much power in the business world. 3) Jews have too much power in international financial markets. 4) Jews still talk too much about what happened to them in the Holocaust.”

Barnett, Victoria J. “The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation.” Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies 12.2 (1998). ADL: Fighting Anti-Semitism, Bigotry and Extremism. Anti-Defamation League, 2000. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://www.adl.org/braun/dim_14_1_role_church.asp>. “[I]t has become abundantly clear that [the Churches'] failure to respond to the horrid events … was not due to ignorance; they knew what was happening. Ultimately, the Churches’ lapses during the Nazi era were lapses of vision and determination.”

Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2004. Print. “Karel Berkhoff provides a searing portrait of life in the Third Reich’s largest colony. Under the Nazis, a blend of German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and racist notions about the Slavs produced a reign of terror and genocide. But it is impossible to understand fully Ukraine’s response to this assault without addressing the impact of decades of repressive Soviet rule. Berkhoff shows how a pervasive Soviet mentality worked against solidarity, which helps explain why the vast majority of the population did not resist the Germans. He also challenges standard views of wartime eastern Europe by treating in a more nuanced way issues of collaboration and local anti-Semitism.”

Black, Edwin. “DISPOSSESSED How Iraq’s 2,600-year-old Jewish Community Was Decimated in One Decade.” Reform Judaism Online. Union for Reform Judaism, Winter 2004. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://reformjudaismmag.org/Articles/index.cfm?id=2369>. “Baghdad, June 22, 2004. Just days before the Coalition Provisional Authority is scheduled to return power to Iraqi control, four Iraqi Jews–two in their forties, two elderly–inconspicuously board a Royal Jordanian airplane to Amman. … With the exception of approximately eleven Jews who have not chosen to leave, these are the last vestiges of a 125,000-strong Jewish community whose ancestors flourished here for twenty-six centuries. The dismantling of Iraqi Jewry, once the most established and affluent Jewish community in the Arab Middle East, began at 3 PM on June 1, 1941, some forty years before Saddam Hussein came to power. In Europe, the events of the next thirty-six hours would have been called a pogrom. Iraqi Jews called it the Farhud. Perhaps Farhud is best translated as violent dispossession. The Farhud was not a spontaneous outburst; it was the culmination of an anti-Jewish campaign rooted in an alliance between the Mufti of Jerusalem and Adolf Hitler.”

Cardozo, Nathan L. “Unmasking Anti-Semitism.” JPost.com. 5 Jan. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/Unmasking-anti-Semitism-311730>. “As Europe and other countries around the world become aggressively more anti-Semitic, and antagonism towards the State of Israel escalates, there is a need for careful assessment of the nature of anti-Semitism.”

Cary, Noel D. “Antisemitism, Everyday Life, and the Devastation of Public Morals in Nazi Germany.” Central European History 35.04 (2002): 551. EbscoHost. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. Reviews of Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany; Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany; Probing the Depths of German Antisemitism: German Society and the Persecution of the Jews, 1933-1941; Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans, and other books.

“Confronting Antisemitism.” Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/antisemitism/>. “Early Christian thought held Jews collectively responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus. This religious teaching became embedded in both Catholic and Protestant theology during the first millennium, with terrible consequences for Jews. Following many centuries of persecution and exclusion, the Jewish minority in Europe achieved some rights after the Enlightenment. As Europe became more secular and Jews integrated into mainstream society, political forms of antisemitism emerged. Jews were targeted for their ideas and their role in society. In the late nineteenth century, pseudo-scientific theories that legitimized a racial form of antisemitism became popular with some intellectuals and political leaders. All of these centuries of hatred were exploited by the Nazis and their allies during World War II culminating in the Holocaust, the systematic murder of Europe’s Jews.”

“Confronting Antisemitism.” Resources on Antisemitism. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/antisemitism/related/?lang=en>. Includes Holocaust Encyclopedia articles, Library bibliography, Photo Archives, For educators/students, Selected Scholarly Programs, and External Links from the United States, European institutions, Belgium, Canada, France, Israel, Netherlands, Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom.

“Danish Jewry Dwindling Due in Part to Anti-Semitism, Community Leader Says.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 7 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/10/07/news-opinion/world/danish-jewry-dwindling-due-to-anti-semitism-community-leader-says?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=04ea4cbd09-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_18_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-04ea4cbd09-26655725>. “Denmark’s Jewish community has lost 25 percent of its registered members over the past 15 years, partly due to anti-Semitism, its president said. The Jewish Community in Denmark, or Mosaisk Troessamfund, currently has 1,899 members compared to 2,639 in 1997, Mosaisk President Finn Schwarz told the Danish daily Jyllands-Posten in an interview published last week.”

Darring, Jerry. “Catholic Timeline on Antisemitism.”  Spring Hill College. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/Timeline.htm>. “Origen of Alexandria writes that the Jews ‘have committed the most abominable of crimes’ in conspiring against Christ, and for that reason ‘the Jewish nation was driven from its country, and another people was called by God to the blessed election’.”

Darring, Gerald. “Western European Churches and the Holocaust.” Spring Hill College. Web. 09 Feb. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/09Western.htm>. Italy: Before Germany took over military control of Italy in September 1943, Italian Jews were relatively safe. But from that date to the end of the war, they were subjected to hostile legal actions, forced labor, arrest, and deportation. France: In the face of so great and utter a tragedy, too many of the Church’s pastors committed an offense, by their silence, against the Church itself and its mission. The Netherlands: There was no protest from the Catholic hierarchy. Indeed, Ger van Roon asserts that protests against anti-Jewish measures came earlier from Protestants than from Catholics, and they came more from pastors, priests and laity than from bishops and church leaders. Denmark: There is no other Holocaust story similar to that of the rescue of Danish Jews. Most of the country’s 8,000 Jews were saved by being ferried in boats to neutral Sweden.”

Darring, Jerry. “A Catholic Timeline of Events Relating to Jews, Anti-Judaism, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust From the 3rd Century to the Beginning of the Third Millennium.”  Spring Hill College. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/Timeline.htm>. Timeline from c. 240 to 2000. In c. 240. “Origen of Alexandria writes that the Jews ‘have committed the most abominable of crimes’ in conspiring against Christ, and for that reason ‘the Jewish nation was driven from its country, and another people was called by God to the blessed election’.”

Davidzon, Vladislav. “Secrets of English World War II Upper-Class Nazi Club Revealed by a Venetian Dandy.” Tablet Magazine. 26 June 2013. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/135982/english-nazi-club-revealed>. “A new film about England’s avowed anti-Semites stirs a champion of European tolerance, liberalism, and civilization.” A discussion of the book The Red Book: The Membership List of the Right Club – 1939 and the documentary Churchill and the Fascist Plot.

Fox, Tamar. “The Jew Who Gave Roosevelt a Bad Rap.” Jewniverse. MyJewishLearning, 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 30 Aug. 2013. <http://thejewniverse.com/2013/the-jew-who-gave-roosevelt-a-bad-rap/>. “Close your eyes and picture the one person who did the most to save Jews from the Holocaust. Did you picture Oskar Schindler? Irena Sendler? Raoul Wallenberg? How about…Franklin Delano Roosevelt? If a Zionist activist named Peter Bergson had his way, you might have. So say some historians, anyway.” Excellent video included.

Friedlander, Saul. “Anti-Semitism.” My Jewish Learning. Web. 25 July 2013. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/1700-1914/Modern_Anti-Semitism.shtml>. “In a pamphlet published in 1873, Der Sieg des Judentums uber das Germanentum (‘The Victory of Judaism over Germandom’), Wilhelm Marr, the German political agitator, coined the term ‘antisemit­ism.’ Fortuitous though it may have been, the coincidence of the inven­tion of the word and the manifesta­tions of what could be considered early modern anti-Semitism was cer­tainly very symbolic.”

Gerdmar, Anders. Roots of Theological Anti-Semitism: German Biblical Interpretation and the Jews, from Herder and Semler to Kittel and Bultmann. Leiden: Brill, 2009. Print. “As Adolf Hitler strategised his way to power, he knew that it was necessary to gain the support of theology and the Church. This study begins two hundred years earlier, however, looking at roots of theological anti-Semitism and how Jews and Judaism were constructed, positively and negatively, in the biblical interpretation of German Protestant theology. Following the two main streams of German theology, the salvation-historical and the Enlightenment-oriented traditions, it examines leading exegetes from the 1750s to the 1950s and explores how theology legitimises or delegitimises oppression of Jews, in part through still-prevailing paradigms.”

“German Chancellor Scores Antisemitic Movement.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 17 Jan. 1924. Web. 21 Apr. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1924/01/17/2757892/german-chancellor-scores-antisemitic-movement>. “‘In certain German circles’ declared the German Chancellor Marx in an exclusive interview granted the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, there is an attempt to exploit the distress of the German people for the purpose of anti-Semitic agitation. This movement is not only unsupport by the Central Government and the various state governments, but is uncompromisingly opposed as harmful to the general interests of Germany.”

“The German Churches and the Nazi State.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005206>. “The population of Germany in 1933 was around 60 million. Almost all Germans were Christian, belonging either to the Roman Catholic (ca. 20 million members) or the Protestant (ca. 40 million members) churches. The Jewish community in Germany in 1933 was less than 1% of the total population of the country. How did Christians and their churches in Germany respond to the Nazi regime and its laws, particularly to the persecution of the Jews? The racialized anti-Jewish Nazi ideology converged with antisemitism that was historically widespread throughout Europe at the time and had deep roots in Christian history. For all too many Christians, traditional interpretations of religious scriptures seemed to support these prejudices.”

Gilbert, Martin. Churchill and the Jews: A Lifelong Friendship. New York: Henry Holt and, 2007. Print. “An insightful history of Churchill’s lifelong commitment—both public and private—to the Jews and Zionism, and of his outspoken opposition to anti-Semitism Winston Churchill’s commitment to Jewish rights, to Zionism, and ultimately to the State of Israel never wavered. In 1922, he established on the bedrock of international law the right of Jews to emigrate to Palestine. During his meeting with David Ben-Gurion in 1960, Churchill presented the Israeli prime minister with an article he had written about Moses, praising the patriarch. In between these events he fought harder and more effectively for the Jewish people than the world has ever realized.”

Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. The Devil That Never Dies: The Rise and Threat of Global Antisemitism. New York: Little, Brown and (Canada), 2013. Print. “Antisemitism never went away, but since the turn of the century it has multiplied beyond what anyone would have predicted. It is openly spread by intellectuals, politicians and religious leaders in Europe, Asia, the Arab world, America and Africa and supported by hundreds of millions more. Indeed, today antisemitism is stronger than any time since the Holocaust. In THE DEVIL THAT NEVER DIES, Daniel Jonah Goldhagen reveals the unprecedented, global form of this age-old hatred; its strategic use by states; its powerful appeal to individuals and groups; and how technology has fueled the flames that had been smoldering prior to the millennium.”

“Hitler’s Aide Attacks Him for Preaching Racial Anti-semitism.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 15 Dec. 1930. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/12/15/2788988/hitlers-aide-attacks-him-for-preaching-racial-antisemitism>. “An attack on Adolf Hitler, National Socialist party leader, by Captain Ehrhardt, one of his chief lieutenants, in today’s Boersen Zeitung, created a sensation here. Ehrhardt’s vigorous attack on the Fascist chieftain has aroused particular interest not only because he was the military leader of the abortive Munich putsch but because his anti-Hitler stand marks a further split in the Nazis’ ranks and indicates that Hitler is losing some of his effective military support.”

“International Peace Conference Sees Menace to World Peace in Spread of Anti-semitism.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 17 Sept. 1926. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1926/09/17/archive/international-peace-conference-sees-menace-to-world-peace-in-spread-of-anti-semitism?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=f94ede5f07-TWJH_2013_6-08&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-f94ede5f07-26655725>. “Steps to combat the activities of the Anti-Semitic International were taken an the International Peace Conference which is in session here. The conference unanimously adopted a resolution submitted to it by the International Women’s Peace League, which recently held its sessions here, on behalf of the League of Jewish Women. The resolution draws attention to the activities of the anti-Semitic International and protests against these activities as being closely connected with the militaristic and anti-democratic reactionary elements who are diverting the attention of the people from the real causes of suffering, by alleging that the Jews are responsible for everything.”

Jones, Leslie. “The German-Jewish Soldiers of the First World War.” History Today. 11 June 2013. Web. 18 July 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/print/88831>. “In October 1935 Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels peremptorily announced that ‘It is forbidden to list the names of fallen Jews on memorials and memorial plaques for the fallen of the world war.’ According to Nazi ideology a Jew, even a Jew who had died for Germany, was not a real German. Following Goebbels’ edict, some war memorials duly underwent ‘Aryanisation’.”

Karady, Victor. “Political Antisemitism and Its Christian Antecedent. Trying to Make Sense of Nonsense.” Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History 3 (July 2012). Quest.cdecjournal.it. Journal of Fondazione CDEC, July 2012. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/focus.php?id=289>. “The central thesis of this paper is that political antisemitism cannot be understood without taking into account what should be regarded as its Christian foundation proper, the perception and stigmatization of Jews as dangerous aliens. By introducing the differentiation between an ‘chimerical anti-Semitism’, a product of the pre-modern mental set-up, often generated by Christian religious phantasmagoria, and a modern anti-Semitism with concrete references to social relations in industrial and post-industrial societies with a trend to associate exclusively Jews to societal ills, it is argued that the latter can be regarded as an ideological construction which represent the rationalization of deeply inbred preconceptions about Jews as radical aliens and as bearers of a set of negative characteristics. The article presents a reflection on the Christian origins, the development of Jew-hatred during the Middle Ages and the early modern period and discusses the extension of secularized anti-Semitic conceptions in various European societies as well as the main observable topical patterns of judeophobia in modern times.”

Karradine, Karen. “New Agers Fall for Antisemitism.” Mosaic. 17 Sept. 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://mosaicmagazine.com/picks/2013/09/anti-semitism-watch/?utm_source=Mosaic+Daily+Email&utm_campaign=fe3bdd19cd-Mosaic_2013_9_18&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_0b0517b2ab-fe3bdd19cd-41142621>. “It is only recently that this new form of hostility, which I call New Age antisemitism, has come about. It is a heartbreaking and troubling experience for me to watch as a movement for peace and enlightenment becomes sullied by an ancient form of hatred.”

Kertzer, David I. The Popes against the Jews: The Vatican’s Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-semitism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001. Print. “In this meticulously researched, unflinching, and reasoned study, … David I. Kertzer presents shocking revelations about the role played by the Vatican in the development of modern anti-Semitism. Working in long-sealed Vatican archives, Kertzer unearths startling evidence to undermine the Church’s argument that it played no direct role in the spread of modern anti-Semitism. In doing so, he challenges the Vatican’s recent official statement on the subject, We Remember. Kertzer tells an unsettling story that has stirred up controversy around the world and sheds a much-needed light on the past.”

Kirsch, Adam. “A World Without Jews.” Tablet Magazine. 13 Feb. 2013. Web. 09 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/123971/a-world-without-jews>. “The title of David Nirenberg’s new book, Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition, uses a term pointedly different from the one we are used to. The hatred and oppression of Jews has been known since the late 19th century as anti-Semitism—a label, it is worth remembering, originally worn with pride by German Jew-haters. What is the difference, then, between anti-Semitism and anti-Judaism? The answer, as it unfolds in Nirenberg’s scholarly tour de force, could be summarized this way: Anti-Semitism needs actual Jews to persecute; anti-Judaism can flourish perfectly well without them, since its target is not a group of people but an idea.”

Mikies, David. “The Diplomat of Shoah History.” Tablet. 26 July 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyb7Hjv_AVI&feature=related>. “The dispute between Poles and Jews about the Nazi period can move in unsettling directions, ones that make an unhealed wound hurt even worse. … The Polish role in the Holocaust had other roots, darker ones: traditional anti-Semitism and the greedy desire for Jewish property.”

Mikies, David. “Why Literally Everyone in the World Hates the Jews, and What To Do About It.” Tablet Magazine. 4 Sept. 2013. Web. 10 Sept. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/143487/academic-anti-semitism>. “Two new scholarly books show how even the most neutral academic can feel bound to answer anti-Semites’ demonic vigor in kind. In many parts of the world, Jews are increasingly unwelcome in the 21st century. The number of countries in which wearing visibly Jewish clothing such as a kippa means risking physical violence has hit an all-time high. On both the individual and the national level, Jews are targeted with extraordinary ferocity: We hear Israelis (but no one else) being compared to Nazis; we are told that Jewish nationalism is oppressive and archaic; that Israel is a uniquely racist country; that Israel’s terrible misdeeds explain why people hate Jews. Instead of being seen as ordinary or all too human, Jews are seen as carriers of a uniquely transcendent evil. No other group of people on the planet is accused so much and of such fantastic wrongs. For a few decades after the Holocaust, it seemed that anti-Semitism might wane or even die out. That hope has now been defeated. Could anything we do or say stem the tide, or will Jew-hatred persist as long as there are Jews to hate?”

Moynihan, Michael. “Hiding Judaism in Copenhagen.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/128077/hiding-judaism-in-copenhagen>. “Walking this length of Nørrebrogade, as I did on a freezing day last month, provides a street-level view of multicultural Denmark. It’s a perfectly pleasant experience, provided you are, like me, an unassuming gentile. For Jews exploring Nørrebro, it’s advisable to heed the advice of Israel’s ambassador to Denmark, Arthur Avnon, who last November suggested that Jews traveling in Copenhagen exercise extreme subtlety: Don’t speak Hebrew too loudly, cover up any visible Star of David jewelry, fold your kippot and slip them into your pockets. In other words, in certain areas of Copenhagen, it’s best to keep your Judaism to yourself.”

Nirenberg, David. Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2013. Print. “This incisive history upends the complacency that confines anti-Judaism to the ideological extremes in the Western tradition. With deep learning and elegance, David Nirenberg shows how foundational anti-Judaism is to the history of the West.”

“Pope Warns of Anti-semitism as Rome Commemorates Holocaust.” The Times of Israel. 12 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.timesofisrael.com/pope-warns-of-anti-semitism-as-rome-commemorates-holocaust/>. “Pope Francis urged vigilance against any resurgence of anti-Semitism ahead of the 70th anniversary of the deportation of Rome’s Jews to Auschwitz. Commemoration of the 1943 deportation, he said, ‘will also be an occasion to recall the importance of remaining vigilant in order that we do not regress, under any pretext, to any forms of intolerance and anti-Semitism, in Rome and in the rest of the world.’ More than 1,000 Roman Jews were deported by Nazi occupiers on Oct. 16, 1943; only 16 survived.”

Rubin, Barry. “With an Anti-Semitic Holland, Where Is It Safe for Jews?” The Jewish Press. 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/analysis/rubin-reports/if-holland-is-becoming-anti-semitic-where-else-is-safe-for-jews/2013/04/03/>. “A few years ago in Amsterdam I was shown the most popular manual published in the Netherlands, in Dutch, on how to raise one’s children as proper Muslims. The book included virulently anti-Semitic passages, based on Muslim holy texts. After the Jewish community objected, the authorities forced the publisher to put white tape over the offending passages. The tape could easily be peeled off by purchases so that these words could be read.”

Rupnow, Dirk. “Racializing Historiography: Anti-Jewish Scholarship in the Third Reich.” Patterns of Prejudice 42.1 (2008): 27-59. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 July 2012. “Despite continued debates about the role of German historians in the Third Reich, current scholarship views the work that was conducted under National Socialism under the rubric of Judenforschung (research on Jews) as a marginal and pseudo-scientific phenomenon.”

Sedan, Gil. “German Bishops: Catholic Church Responsible for Lack of Resistance.” JTA Archives. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 Jan. 1995. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1995/01/25/2881746/german-bishops-catholic-church-responsible-for-lack-of-resistance>. “The Conference of German Bishops has admitted the ‘shared responsibility’ of the Catholic Church for anti-Semitism during World War II.”

Snowman, Daniel. “Pain and Deliverance.” History Today Aug. 2013. History Today. 18 July 2013. Web. 19 July 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/daniel-snowman/pain-and-deliverance>. “Daniel Snowman surveys four recent books that look at the impact of antisemitism on Jewish cultural identity during the 19th and 20th centuries: Forbidden Music by Michael Haas, The Exiles Return by Elisabeth de Waal, The Pope’s Jews by Gordon Thomas, and Giants: The Dwarfs of Auschwits by Yehuda Koren and Eilat Negev.”

“Soviet Authorities Investigate Long List of Anti-semitic Practices.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 July 1928. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1928/07/08/archive/soviet-authorities-investigate-long-list-of-anti-semitic-practices>. “Cases of anti-Semitic practices are being investigated by the Soviet authorities. A list of these activities published today shows the spread of anti-Semitism in various localities. Jewish workers in the factories Cemintern and Krasni Profinterin, in Werchnedne-Provsk were beaten. In Mosir a member of the district soviet refused to vote for a budget for a Jewish workmen’s club, declaring there is no need for a house for ‘Zhidovske dances.’”

Turner, David. “Chapter 20, “The Acquiescence of The United States Government in the Murder of the Jews.”  Jerusalem Post – Blogs. 26 Aug. 2013. Web. 27 Aug. 2013. <http://blogs.jpost.com/content/acquiescence-united-states-murder-jews>. “In response to the intensifying threat to German Jewry Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau approached Roosevelt in 1938 suggesting the president promote British Guiana as refuge for refugees. But, ‘Roosevelt did not favor that particular proposal.’ British Guiana was the first of several rejected suggestions of locations outside the U.S. for refuge. But administration reticence regarding European Jewry was not limited to ‘refuge’: ‘Pehle’s office [in Treasury] had authorized a number of charitable groups to use funds in the U.S. regulated under the Trading with the Enemy Act to pay for food, medicine, and other aid to refugees and other civilian victims of the war in Europe. Those efforts were systematically blocked by some officials in the U.S. State Department.’ It was this systematic antisemitic policy expressed by the Roosevelt Administration that led three senior members of Morgenthau’s staff to charge the administration as complicit in Germany’s Final Solution to the Jewish Problem.”

Unger-Sargon, Batya. “Is Jewish Control Over the Slave Trade a Nation of Islam Lie or Scholarly Truth?” Tablet Magazine. 5 Aug. 2013. Web. 08 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/137476/slave-trade-black-muslim>. “At a recent rally for the Voting Rights Act in Alabama, Minister Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam spoke of the Jews. Surrounded by a cadre of tall, glowering men with snappy suits, sunglasses, and folded arms, Farrakhan addressed an enthusiastic crowd in terms that would be unsurprisng to anyone familiar with his unique way of stirring up an audience. After asserting, with a benevolent smile, that he is not an anti-Semite, Farrakhan dove into his feelings about Jews: ‘I just don’t like the way they misuse their power,’ he said. ‘And I have a right to say that, without being labeled anti-Semitic, when I have done nothing to stop a Jewish person from getting an education, setting up a business, or doing whatever a Jewish person desires to do.’ The remarks were evocative of the sentiments he has shared widely throughout his decades-long career as a public figure—namely, that blacks should not trust Jews.”

“Von Prittwitz Says Anti-semitism Temporary Phase; Hitler Not Voice of Germany.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Oct. 1930. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/10/27/2787917/von-prittwitz-says-antisemitism-temporary-phase-hitler-not-voice-of-germany>. “A very young looking man for an ambassador, with a polite worldly manner, offered a statement to America, on his arrival to resume his duties as Ambassador, reassuring the citizens of the United States that any seeming disturbances in Germany were due only to the lack of economic stability and not to any untoward tendencies of the German public.”

Weeks, Theodor R. “Russians, Jews, and Poles: Russification and Antisemitism 1881-1914.” Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History 3 (July 2012). Quest.cdecjournal.it. Journal of Fondazione CDEC, July 2012. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/img/header.gif>. “Relations between Poles and Jews deteriorated significantly in the three decades leading up to World War I. Many reasons for this phenomenon can be given, for example: economic competition, a general atmosphere of acute nationalism, increased migration, perceived threats to traditional forms of life and religion. Exacerbating all of these factors, however, was the fact of Polish statelessness and the extreme sensitivity of Poles to perceived threats to their culture and nation. In particular within the Russian Empire, Poles perceived the very future of their nation at risk. In such circumstances the continued existence of Jewish cultural difference combined with the development of specifically Jewish forms of national awakening (e.g., the Bund and Zionism) were understood by many in Polish society as ingratitude and collaboration with the Russian occupier.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “The Foundation of Antisemitism: We Want to Kill Too.” Sixmillioncrucifixions.com. 2011. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://sixmillioncrucifixions.com/The_Foundation_of_Antisemitism_-_We Want _to_Kill_Too.html>. “No one should be too surprised that these people kill with a clean conscience, given that they never heard from their pope, bishops, or parish priests that murdering Jews and stealing their property was a crime and a mortal sin, and that participation in mass murder would condemn their souls to hell.”

Wistrich, Robert S. “Kristallnacht Redux? Anti-Semitism Flourishes in Middle East.” Louisville Courier-Journal. 6 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <http://www.courier-journal.com/article/20111106/OPINION04/311060030/Kristallnacht-redux-Anti-Semitism-flourishes-Middle-East?odyssey=mod%7Cnewswell%7Ctext%7CHome%7Cs>. In the Middle East the hatred of Jews burns fiercely. There is insistence of the reality of the ‘Jewish conspiracy for world domination.’ There is also a revival of the medieval Christian blood-libel against the Jews.”

Zdiara, Kevin. “The Portuguese Dreyfus.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 14 Oct. 2012. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/5217/features/the-portuguese-dreyfus/>. “In 1894, the Jewish Captain Alfred Dreyfus was wrongly convicted of treason by an anti-Semitic French military court. It took 10 years before that injustice was rectified. The world remembers Dreyfus. It should also remember the Jewish military officer Artur Carlos de Barros Basto, wrongly convicted by an anti-Semitic Portuguese military court in 1937. The injustice suffered by Barros Basto took much longer to correct. The Portuguese government overturned his conviction only this year.”