Gestapo

 

A memorial, on the corner of Petschkův palác, commemorating the victims of the Gestapo and Reinhard Heydrich. “During the period of Nazi occupation, this building was home to the cruel Gestapo where the warriors for our nation’s freedom fought, suffered and died. We shall never forget their memory and be faith [sic] to their legacy. People Be Watchful!”

 

“200 Gestapo Men Killed by Jews During Battle in Polish Extermination Camp€.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 Feb. 1944. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1944/02/08/2863008/200-gestapo-men-killed-by-jews-during-battle-in-polish-extermination-camp>. “More than 200 Gestapo agents and Ukrainian guards in the ‘Jewish extermination camp’ of Sobibor, in occupied Poland, were killed during a revolt of the Jewish internees organized with the aid of the underground movement, the Polish Government-in-Exile reported today.”

Coady, Mary F. “Hitler & the Jesuits: Three Resisters & the Price They Paid.” Commonweal (11-22-2004): 20-21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. The story of three Jesuits on the run from the Gestapo.

Crozier, Andrew. “Outwitting the Gestapo; Nacht Und Nebel Night and Fog; War In Italy 1943-1945; Inside Hitler’s Greece.” History Today. 1995. Web. 18 July 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/andrew-crozier/outwitting-gestapo-nacht-und-nebel-night-and-fog-war-italy-1943-1945-inside-hitlers-g>. “Four new books on Nazism and the Second World War in Europe [are discussed]: Outwitting the Gestapo, Nacht Und Nebel Night and Fog: From the Diary of Floris B. Bakels, War In Italy 1943-1945: A Brutal Story, Inside Hitler’s Greece: The Experience Of Occupation 1941-44. The Second World War, as these four books show, has not yet ceased to be a subject of fascination and curiosity for the general reader and a fertile area for the historical researcher alike. The theme that unites these four books is perhaps one of the most compelling to emerge from the Second World War and one that has provoked a continuous stream of books ever since its end, namely, the conduct of the Germany occupying authorities throughout Europe during this period. Two of these books concern the impact of that occupation on the individual; the other two the impact on nations as a whole.”

Delarue, Jacques. The Gestapo: A History of Horror. New York: Skyhorse Pub., 2008. Print. “From 1933 to 1945, the Gestapo was Nazi Germany’s chief instrument of counter-espionage, political suppression, and terror. Jacques Delarue, a saboteur arrested by the Nazis in occupied France, chronicles how the land of Beethoven elevated sadism to a fine art. The Gestapo: A History of Horror draws upon Delarue’s interviews with ex-Gestapo agents to deliver a multi-layered history of the force whose work included killing student resisters, establishing Aryan eugenic unions, and implementing the Final Solution. This is a probing look at the Gestapo and the fanatics and megalomaniacs who made it such a successful and heinous organization—Barbie, Eichmann, Himmler, Heydrich, Müller. The Gestapo’s notorious reign led to the murder of millions. The Gestapo is an important documentation of what they did and how they did it.”

“THE EVOLUTION, STRUCTURE, AND MEMBERSHIP OF THE RSHA. HolocaustResearchProject.org. HEART, 2007. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/holoprelude/RSHA/rsha.html>. Long article: “The creation of a Political Police force was an early objective of National Socialism. Prussia was the largest state in Germany, including as it did the capital, Berlin, as well as other major cities. On 26 April 1933, Hermann Göring, initially acting as Prussian Minister of the Interior and then as Prussian Minister President, established the Secret State Police Office (Geheimes Staatspolizeiamt – Gestapa), which evolved into the Secret State Police (Geheime Staatspolizei – Gestapo). The Prussian police force had consisted of the uniformed or Order Police (Ordnungpolizei – Orpo) and the plain clothed Criminal Police (Kriminalpolizei – Kripo) which included the Political Police (Staatspolizei – Stapo). It was the political sections of the Kripo, together with the Stapo that were taken over and became the Gestapo, headed by Rudolf Diels.”

Fromm, Bella. “Sisters of the Swastika.” Coronet Oct. 1942: 77+. OldMagazineArticles. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/beautiful_women_of_Nazi_Germany_pdf>. “[T]he Nazis [Gestapo] are using women for political purposes to an extent unequalled by any government of political regime in history. But it is not the human value in women that they exploit; it is pure sex degraded to its lowest aspect.” The Gestapo send agents to kill or kidnap the author, a German native, who wrote this article from her own observations. The FBI apprehended them first.

Gellately, Robert. “Denunciations and Nazi Germany : New Insights and Methodological Problems.” Historical Social Research 22.3/4 (1997): 228-39. SSOAR. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/29157>. “Since 1990 or so, the role of denunciations in the Nazi terror system has been highlighted by a number of writers interested in the functioning of the Gestapo in the context of everyday life in Germany. Several historians have claimed that ordinary citizens who volunteered information on suspected infringements of the letter or spirit of the laws played a crucial role in everyday terror under Hitler’s dictatorship. This cooperation by German citizens and their apparent willingness to denounce calls for historical analysis. In this paper I discuss the full range of denunciations in Nazi Germany and outline briefly some of the main theoretical problems involved. Essentially, historians have adopted two methods. The first takes a systems approach and focuses on the structures of state, society, and to some extent also on political culture. The other adopts a ‘life-world’ perspective, and attempts to reconstruct the experiences of historical actors, including those of ‘ordinary people’. Each approach has its own advantages, but neither seems to do justice to the phenomenon of denunciations as discussed in the recent literature. The new findings impel us to rethink what we mean by willingness, consent, and support when these concepts are applied to modern dictatorships. The paper should be of interest to a wide variety of specialists. It will offer new substantive findings, suggest directions for future research and delineate some of the main methodological issues and problems that must be confronted.”

Gellately, Robert. The Gestapo and German Society: Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933-1945. Oxford: Clarendon, 1990. Print. “How was the Gestapo able to detect the smallest signs of non-compliance with Nazi doctrines–especially ‘crimes’ pertaining to the private spheres of social, family, and sexual life? How could the police enforce policies such as those designed to isolate Jews, or the foreign workers brought to Germany after 1939, with such apparent ease? Addressing these questions, Gellately argues that the key factor in the successful enforcement of Nazi racial policy was the willingness of German citizens to provide authorities with information about suspected ‘criminality.’”

Gestapo – Documentary – Part 1. YouTube. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtgB4qiiWBI>. “The Nazis converted their country from a flawed democracy to a fascist dictatorship in which the rights of the individual were trampled in the interests of the state. Institutions and organizations were warped to serve this purpose, none more than the police. At first, it was the Storm Troopers of the SA, who beat, intimidated, and killed those who opposed the regime. But something more was needed than simple thuggery and the police were co-opted. The Gestapo, the Secret State Police, was the organization set up to perform this function. By reputation its network of black-clad officers spread everywhere; yet it was a small organization–at its height in 1941 there were only 8,000 officers. Program 1 shows the power struggle between the worst of Hitlers henchmen, Himmler and Heydrich on the one hand, and Göring on the other. And it introduces us to a mysterious figure, Heinrich Müller, a career policeman who became the ice-cold leader of the Gestapo.” Look for Part 2.

Gestapo, Bielefeld: Order on Transport of Jews. 1945. Wiener Library, London, England. <http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cgi-bin/vcdf/detail?coll_id=8508&inst_id=104>. “Order from the Gestapo on the transport of those living in mixed race marriages, (Geltungsjuden), and stateless Jews, for forced labour in Theresienstadt concentration camp, 8 Feb 1945, includes list of the names and addresses of Jews and Geltungsjuden in Herford, suburb of Bielefeld, Germany.”

“Gestapo, Essen: Letter on Jews Wearing the Yellow Star.” Letter to Gestapo, Dusseldorf. 27 Sept. 1941. AIM25. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cgi-bin/vcdf/detail?coll_id=8447&inst_id=104>. “Copy of a letter from the Gestapo, Essen, to the Gestapo, Düsseldorf on the reaction of Jews to the wearing of the Star of David from evidence in confiscated letters, parts of which are quoted here, 27 Sep 1941.”

“The Gestapo.” History Learning Site. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/gestapo.htm>. “The Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei) was Nazi Germany’s feared secret police force. During World War Two the Gestapo was under the direct control of Heinrich Himmler who controlled all the police units within Nazi Germany. The first head of the Gestapo was Rudolf Diels but for most of its existence, the Gestapo was led by Heinrich Müller. The Gestapo acted outside of the normal judicial process and it had its own courts and effectively acted as judge, jury and frequently executioner.”

“Gestapo.” Yadvashem. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/microsoft%20word%20-%206284.pdf>. “(acronym of Geheime Staatspolizei, meaning Secret State Police). The Third Reich’s secret political police force, serving as Hitler’s main instrument of torture and terror. The Gestapo was established prior to the Nazi rise to power, as a secret intelligence agency within the Prussian police department. As Hitler rose to power in 1933, he appointed Hermann Goering Interior Minister of Prussia. Goering maintained authority over the Prussian political police, including the Gestapo. Within a month, the Gestapo had the power to impose ‘protective custody’ on whomever it liked. Ultimately, this meant that if a person was arrested by the Gestapo, they would lose all civil rights and were no longer protected by the law. Legally, the Gestapo had free reign to do whatever it.”

Goulding, Ossian. “I Fought for the Nazis.” Saturday Evening Post 29 Jan. 1944. EBSCO. Web. 2012. This excellent article “is of unusual interest because it comes from a man who fought with the army before Stalingrad and it gives our first full picture of what is happening in the minds of the Nazi legions.” The author interviews a “Finn who enlisted with the German army, participated in the Russian campaign and has been an object of search by the Gestapo since he deserted and escaped. …”

Graf, C. “The Genesis of the Gestapo.” Journal of Contemporary History 22.3 (1987): 419-35. JSTOR. Web. 16 July 2013. “The history of the Prussian political police, particularly during the transition period between the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich, has not yet been studied systematically, although it played an important – perhaps crucial – role in the national socialist seizure of power. One reason for this lack of critical analysis is the existence of a number of publications and personal accounts whose short- comings have hitherto gone unnoticed. Chief among these are the memoirs of the first Gestapo chief, Rudolf Diels. Although this book is based more on fiction than fact, it has none the less been widely quoted by both publicists and historians. Suggestively entitled Luciferanteportas, Diels’s memoirs were first published in 1949 as a pre-print in the widely-read German magazine, Der Spiegel, then by a dubious right-wing publisher in Zurich and finally, in 1950, by a renowned publishing house in Stuttgart. Since then, Diels’s account has passed for the standard work on the epoch of the nazi seizure of power, particularly with regard to the police. Its apologetic and belittling character, however, has not drawn any comment.”

Hall, C. M. “An Army of Spies? The Gestapo Spy Network 1933–45.” Journal of Contemporary History 44.2 (2009): 247-65. JSTOR. Web. 16 July 2013. “The contemporary belief of a Gestapo spy on every corner that, in turn, helped create a veil of fear over the German people has been too easily dismissed by scholars on the grounds that the Gestapo did not possess an ‘army of spies’. The image of the Gestapo as a ‘big brother’ figure with eyes and ears everywhere has been discredited by historians such as Robert Gellately as a nazi fabrication. Gellately’s important work on denunciations successfully pushed his thesis of a ‘self-policing’ society operating within a ‘consensusdictatorship’ to the forefront of historiography, but in a revisionist overstatement he exaggerated the significance of denunciations. This article hopes to address the current debate concerning the nature of policing in nazi Germany by demonstrating that there was aregular presence of paid informers alongside denouncers, reinforcing the proactive natureof the Gestapo in repressing dissent.”

Johnson, Eric A. “Gender, Race and the Gestapo.” Historical Social Research 22.3/4 (1997): 240-53. SSOAR. Social Science Open Access Repository, 1997. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/29158>. “As part of an ongoing project on Nazi terror, this paper systematically examines the evidence contained in hundreds of Gestapo and Special Court case files in the Cities of Krefeld and Cologne and the results of a recent survey of elderly Cologne citizens pertaining to their experiences in Nazi Germany to compare the persecution of Jewish men and women with the persecution of non-Jewish men and women during the Third Reich. It argues that while most elderly Germans claim today that they had violated Nazi laws at one time or another (e.g. by listening to foreign radio broadcasts, telling anti-Nazi jokes, giving aid to Nazi victims, or spreading information about the Holocaust) very few of their illegal acts concerned the police and justice authorities greatly and very few either came to the attention of the Gestapo or where punished with severity when they did, except in cases involving Jewish men and Jewish women, who suffered ruthless punishment for even the most minor of infractions.”

Johnson, Eric A. Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans. New York: Basic, 1999. Print. “Nazi Terror tackles the central aspect of the Nazi dictatorship head on by focusing on the roles of the individual and of society in making terror work. Based on years of research in Gestapo archives, on more than 1,100 Gestapo and ‘special court’ case files, and on surveys and interviews with German perpetrators, Jewish victims and ordinary Germans who experienced the Third Reich firsthand, Johnson’s book settles many nagging questions about who, exactly, was responsible for what, who knew what, and when they knew it.”

Joshi, V. “The `Private’ Became `Public’: Wives as Denouncers in the Third Reich.” Journal of Contemporary History 37.3 (2002): 419-35. JSTOR. Web. 16 July 2013. “This article explores how the practice of political denunciation affected family relations in nazi Germany. It focuses on housewives who denounced their husbands to the Gestapo. Under the pretext of reporting an opponent of the regime, they used denunciation to subvert patriarchal order at home and to challenge the stereotypical image of the subservient housewife. The article is based on the Gestapo case files of victims pertaining to the metropolitan city of Düsseldorf. I have drawn my stories from specific categories of ‘crime’, namely, KPD, Heimtückegesetz, Fremdvölkische Minderheiten and Fremdarbeiter. The names of private individuals have been changed.”

Joshi, Vandana. Gender and Power in the Third Reich: Female Denouncers and the Gestapo (1933-45). Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print. “This book examines the everyday operations of the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police. The Gestapo were able to detect the smallest signs of non-compliance with Nazi doctrines, especially ‘crimes’ pertaining to the private spheres of social, family, and sexual life. One of the key factors in the enforcement of Nazi policies was the willingness of German citizens to provide the authorities with information about suspected ‘criminality’. This book examines women denouncers in Nazi Germany through close examination of the Gestapo files.”

“Klaus Barbie: Women Testify of Torture at His Hands.” Literature of the Holocaust. Al Filreis, 23 Mar. 1987. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. <http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/barbie.html>. “France–In 1944, when she was 13, Simone Lagrange testified yesterday, Klaus Barbie gave her a smile as thin as a knife blade, then hit her in the face as he cuddled a cat at the Gestapo headquarters in Lyon. Lise Lesevre, 86, said Barbie tortured her for nine days in 1944, beating her, nearly drowning her in a bathtub and finally breaking one of her vertebrae with a spiked ball. … The three women were among seven people who took the witness stand yesterday to testify against Barbie, the former head of the Gestapo in [Paris] during the Nazi occupation of France in World War II.”

List of Gestapo and SS War Criminals. 20th century. Wiener Library, London, England. <http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cgi-bin/vcdf/detail?coll_id=8294&inst_id=104>.  Typescript list of Gestapo and SS war criminals, with brief details of the nature of their crimes. Arranged in sections according to the place of crime eg Lithuania, Latvia or Belsen, Auschwitz.

Loughlin, Matt. “Is the Gestapo Everywhere? The Origins of the Modern Perception of the Secret Police of the Third Reich.” Legacy 11.1 (2012). Opensiu.edu. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1011&context=legacy&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dis%2520the%2520gestapo%2520everywhere%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26ved%3D0CCwQFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fopensiuc.lib.siu.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1011%2526context%253Dlegacy%26ei%3DGgDIUeKzOKHVyAHg4YFY%26usg%3DAFQjCNGQ_pv44LxIeedi9-rtkhY9RjE1PA%26sig2%3DxC-Ko4Vwl1BQewjQnEIzAA%26bvm%3Dbv.48293060%2Cd.aWc#search=%22gestapo%20everywhere%22>. “The attempted genocide of European Jews committed by the National Socialist-controlled Germany in the 1930s and 40s has left scholars with more questions than could ever be answered definitively. A persisting question in the mind of anyone studying the Holocaust has to be ‘How could this happen?’ How could the mechanized killing of millions of people happen in a modernized country in the twentieth century? Surely, whoever is to blame for these atrocities, this black spot on the human race is unlike you and me. Blame must be placed on something grand and evil. This type of thinking makes it possible to blame an overpowering government. The Secret Police of Germany during this time, also known as the Gestapo, was one of the groups that was put on trial and allocated blame for the Holocaust after World War II.”

Ludwig, Frank. Auschwitz Concentration Camp. A Report 1942-45. Rep. New York, NY: Center for Jewish History, 1946. Print. A handwritten report by Ludwig Frank: “Betrayed by collaborating French, Frank was arrested by the Gestapo in France and brought to the internment camp of Drancy in 1942. After a short stay he was deported to Auschwitz where he survived as a bookkeeper. Describes mainly his experiences in Auschwitz between 1942 and 1945 and his liberation in Austria in May 1945.”

Mallmann, Klaus-Michael, and Gerhard Paul. “OMNISCIENT, OMNIPOTENT, OMNIPRESENT? Gestapo, Society and Resistance.” Pre.docdat.com. 21 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 July 2013. <http://pre.docdat.com/docs/index-9683.html?page=21>. “Ever since 1933, the Gestapo has been the ultimate symbol of that typically twentieth-century nightmare, the totalitarian police state. In the following article, Mallmann and Paul show, however, that the popular image of the Gestapo is a ‘myth’ originally propagated by the Gestapo leaders themselves. After the war, historians perpetuated this myth of the “omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent” Gestapo by taking the Gestapo leaders’ statements of aims and ambitions as accur­ate reflections of everyday Gestapo practices. The ‘myth’ of the Gestapo also gave the mass of ordinary Germans a convenient alibi; their failure to engage in serious resistance to the Nazi dictatorship could simply be seen as the inevitable consequence of the Gestapo’s awesome power. Mallmann and Paul dissolve these widely circulated images of Ges­tapo omnipotence and popular impotence by showing just how ill-equipped most Gestapo district offices were to perform the role of totalitarian ‘Big Brother.’”

Manvell, Roger, and Heinrich Fraenkel. Heinrich Himmler: The SS, Gestapo, His Life and Career. New York, NY: Skyhorse Pub., 2007. Print. “Authors Roger Manvell and Heinrich Fraenkel, notable biographers … delve into the life of one of the most sinister, clever, and successful of all the Nazi leaders: Heinrich Himmler. As the head of the feared SS, Himler supervised the extermination of millions. Here is the story of how a seemingly ordinary boy grew into an obsessive and superstitious man who ventured into herbalism, astrology, and homeopathic medicine before finally turning to the ‘science’ of racial purity and the belief in the superiority of the Aryan people.”

Moorehead, Caroline. A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France. New York: HarperCollins, 2011. Print. “In occupied France the Gestapo hunted down 230 disparate women who had one thing in common–they were engaged in resistant activities. The women turned to one other and “found solace and strength in their deep affection camaraderie.’”

“The Nazi Perpetrators: The Gestapo.” Jewish Virtual Library. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Gestapo.html>. “The Geheime Staatspolizei (German for Secret State Police, abbreviated ‘Gestapo’) was the secret police of Nazi Germany, and its main tool of oppression and destruction, which persecuted Germans, opponents of the regime, and Jews. It later played a central role in helping carry out the Nazi’s ‘Final Solution.’”

Nichol, John, and Tony Rennell. “Escape or Die: The Untold WWII Story.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 16 Mar. 2007. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-442819/Escape-die-The-untold-WWII-story.html>. “It’s one of the great untold stories of the war. How 5,000 Allied airmen, shot down behind Nazi lines, played cat and mouse with Hitler’s dreaded secret police, and made a home run back to Blighty. Terry Bolter stood on the landing of the tall Brussels townhouse, a revolver in each hand, and peered out of the window. Below in the street, leather-coated Gestapo officers were hammering at the door.”

Nutinen, Joni. “Third Reich in Trial.” WW2-articles. Cloudworth. Web. 22 May 2013. <http://cloudworth.com/WW2-articles/nazi-trials.html>. “A Gestapo torturer protected by the CIA, a Soviet Red Army soldier who ended up as a Nazi guard – These are only some of the strange and controversial Nazi court cases which have emerged over the decades. The public knows surprisingly little about the Third Reich related trials which have taken place through the decades. The biggest reason, it seems, is the uninspiring presentation of these cases both in media and in history books. This article covers the noteworthy court cases linked to Hitler’s Nazi Germany, summing up their essence in a sentence or two, plus exploring various interesting – and often debated – controversies linked to these trials.”

The Power of Conscience: The Danish Resistance and the Rescue of the Jews. Dir. Alexander M. Isles. Perf. Danish Anti-Nazi Resistance. Direct Cinema Limited, 2007. DVD. Hitler occupied Denmark in 1940. “In October of 1943, when the Gestapo decided to round up the Danish Jews, ordinary citizens banded together with resisters and overnight they created a rescue operation that hid and transported over 7,000 of their countrymen across the water to Sweden.”

Sanchez, Gustavo. “In Pursuit of Bolivia’s Secret Nazi.” The Guardian. 10 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/sep/10/bolivia-germany>. “After the second world war many high-ranking Nazis fled to South America. Among them was the head of the Gestapo in the French city of Lyon, a man responsible for the deportation of Jews to the death camp at Auschwitz and the torture of members of the French Resistance. Hiding in Bolivia, Klaus Barbie, the Butcher of Lyon, changed his name to Klaus Altmann and made himself helpful to drug lords and dictators alike. Bolivian journalist Gustavo Sanchez explains what happened when he tracked Barbie down in 1983.”

Savill, Richard. “Lulu, the Belgian Teen Who Took on the Gestapo.” Telegraph.co.uk – Telegraph Online, Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph. 24 Feb. 2007. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1543698/Lulu-the-Belgian-teen-who-took-on-the-Gestapo.html>. “A little-known Second World War heroine who joined the Belgian resistance at 15, and was later tortured by the Gestapo, was buried near her home in Dorset yesterday. Code named Lulu, Lucie Bruce, a Belgian national who moved to Britain in 1946, spied on Nazi troops and ammunition dumps, after joining the resistance in 1940 following Belgium’s capitulation to German occupation.”

Saxon, Wolfgang. “Klaus Barbie, 77, Lyons Gestapo Chief.” The New York Times. 26 Sept. 1991. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/1991/09/26/world/klaus-barbie-77-lyons-gestapo-chief.html?pagewanted=all>. “Klaus Barbie died a prisoner yesterday in Lyons, the French city where he led a reign of terror as the local Gestapo chief during World War II. The last surviving German war criminal of rank to be tried by a tribunal of justice, he was 77 years old and had been in poor health for years. … Mr. Barbie commanded the Gestapo in Lyons, which was the base for the Resistance and a center of French Jewry. With an SS rank equivalent to an army captain’s, he ran a campaign of torture and death against Resistance leaders and caused uncounted other people, most of them Jews, to be sent to the gas chambers of Auschwitz.”

Schofield, Hugh . “Raymond Aubrac: How I Tricked the Gestapo.” BBC News Magazine. BBC, 27 Jan. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16761781>. “The capture of French Resistance hero Jean Moulin is one of the country’s darkest chapters of the war. The last surviving Resistance leader, Raymond Aubrac, recalls that night and the audacious escape that followed.”

Smith, S.E., and O. Wallace. “What Is the Difference between the German Army, Gestapo, Nazi Party, SA, SS, and Wehrmacht?” WiseGeek. Conjecture. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-difference-between-the-german-army-gestapo-nazi-party-sa-ss-and-wehrmacht.htm>. “Students of European history often encounter discussions of the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo), Wehrmacht, Sturmabteilung (SA), Schutzstaffel (SS), and Nationalsozialisische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nazi Party) in books and commentaries about Germany in the first half of the 20th century. These organizations all had slightly different roles in Germany in the 1930s through 1940s, contributing to Hitler’s rise to power and the conflict of the Second World War.”

Taug, Walter. “Report on the German People.” Collier’s 16 Oct. 1943: 17+. OldMagazineArticles. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/pdf/1943-German_Despair.pdf>. “The specter of 1918 is haunting the Nazi party, as Himmler and his Gestapo are turned loose on the German people in a desperate attempt to hole the home front together.”

“Triumph of Hitler: The Gestapo Is Born.” The History Place. 2001. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/triumph/tr-gestapo.htm>. “Although the Gestapo is generally associated with SS Leader Heinrich Himmler, it was actually founded by Hermann Göring in April 1933.Upon becoming Chancellor of Germany, Adolf Hitler had appointed Göring as Minister of the Interior for the State of Prussia, Germany’s biggest and most important state, which controlled two thirds of the country, including the capital, Berlin, and the big industrial centers. As Minister of the Interior, Göring thereby had control of the police.”

Trynauer, Alfred. “Goering: Thief of Industrial Billions.” Click Magazine Sept. 1943: 26+. OldMagazineArticles. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://oldmagazinearticles.com/Goering_Works_Hermann-Goering_art-thief_pdf>. “Master crook, blackmailer and general villain, Reichsmarshal Hermann Wilhelm Goer[ing], second most potent Nazi, ‘owns’ the world’s largest industrial empire by right of possession. Gross Goering has stopped at nothing, not even murder, to enrich himself and insure his future comfort whether the Nazi regime stands or falls.”

Von Halle, Elly. Our Report 1938-1948. Rep. New York, NY: Center for Jewish History, 1991. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://access.cjh.org/home.php?type=extid&term=403569#1>. A report held by the Center for Jewish History: “The story of Arthur and Elly Von Halle portraits their escape from the Nazis. It was first written down in German by Elly, and in 1991 translated by their daughter Ursula Ettlinger. This is the English translation. The first event described is on November 19, 1938, when the family learned that Jews were being arrested by the Gestapo in Hamburg, Germany where they lived.”

Von Hartz, Ernest. “Hitler’s Headsman.” Collier’s 14 May 1938: 43+. OldMagazineArticles. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/Nazi-SS-HEINRICH-HIMMLER-Article_pdf>. “For six days a week Heinrich Himmler as head of the Third Reich’s Secret Police, the Gestapo, can liquidate Germans and on the seventh day retire to his chicken farm convinced that if heads must roll they roll for the good of the Reich and to the glory of God.”