Adolf Eichmann “Chief Executioner of the Third Reich”


“For the dispatch of each train by the Accused [Eichmann] to Auschwitz, or to any other extermination site, carry one thousand human beings, meant that the Accused was a direct accomplice in one thousand premeditated acts of murder . … we have found that the Accused acted out of an inner identification with the orders that he was given and out of a fierce will to achieve the criminal objective … This Court sentences Adolf Eichmann to death.” Judge Moshe Landau, December 15, 1961.


Aarons, Mark, and John Loftus. Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, the Nazis, and the Swiss Banks. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1998. Print. “Written in rivetings fashion by the coauthors of The Secret War Against the Jews, Unholy Trinity tells one of the darkest tales of World War II. After the war had ended, fearing a surge of Soviet growth, the Papacy entered into an espionage alliance with British and American intelligence agents. Subsuming justice to the nascent Cold War ideology, these three powers ferreted Nazi criminals out of Europe so that they could be used in the supposedly greater fight against Communism. The Vatica’s Nazi smuggling network was penetrated by Prince Anton Turkul, the great Soviet double agent who turned the operations into a sting for his masters in the Kremlin.

“Adolf Eichmann.” History Learning Site: Adolf Eichmann. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “Adolf Eichmann is labeled as the man who masterminded the actual organisation of the Holocaust. Adolf Eichmann was a SS officer who planned with meticulous detail the sending of Jews and other groups to death camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka and Sobibor. Such work was to earn Eichmann the title ‘Chief Executioner of the Third Reich’.”

“Adolf Eichmann Nazi Files Will Stay Secret – for Now.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 3 July 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <>. “A German court rejected a German newspaper’s bid to view files related to Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, ruling they should remain classified. The Bild Zeitung newspaper, which sued in 2011 to see the files, could try to appeal the June 28 [2013] decision by the Federal Administrative Court to Germany’s Supreme Court, according to reports. The administrative court determined that the foreign intelligence agency was within its rights to black out passages from the documents.”

“Adolf Eichmann.” The Nizkor Project. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer Karl Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962) was head of the Department for Jewish Affairs in the Gestapo from 1941 to 1945 and was chief of operations in the deportation of three million Jews to extermination camps.”

Aharoni, Zvi, and Wilhelm Dietl. Operation Eichmann: The Truth about the Pursuit, Capture and Trial. New York: J. Wiley, 1997. Print. “Operation Eichmann, as the pursuit, capture, and trial of the notorious Nazi official was known, stunned the world. Its success was due largely to the unceasing efforts of one man, Zvi Aharoni, an experienced Mossad operative who was a skilled investigator and interrogator. He tracked Eichmann to Argentina, secured photographs that established his identity, and was a key player in the plot to kidnap the exiled war criminal and bring him to trial. Above all, as the sole person to interrogate ‘the architect of the Final Solution’ after his capture, and the man who convinced Eichmann to admit his identity and face trial in Israel, Zvi Aharoni is the only one who knows firsthand what Eichmann actually said—a controversial subject often misrepresented in previous accounts.”

Aloff, Mindy. “What We Know, and Don’t, About Eichmann.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 23 June 2006. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <>. “Most of what we know – or think we know – about Adolf Eichmann, a notorious Nazi functionary, may be wrong. Or so readers will surmise from ‘Becoming Eichmann,’ David Cesarani’s monumental biography of the man who made the trains run to Auschwitz and, through other enthusiastic bureaucratic decisions and initiatives, effected the deaths of millions. The book arrives wreathed in appreciative notices for its exhaustive, Javert-like research — much of it incorporating sources unavailable until the 1990s — and for its overturning of long-held presumptions concerning Eichmann’s antisemitism, intelligence and motivations for his deeds.”

Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem; a Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: Viking, 1963. Print. “Originally appearing as a series of articles in The New Yorker, Hannah Arendt’s authoritative and stunning report on the trial of Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann sparked a flurry of debate upon its publication. This revised edition includes material that came to light after the trial, as well as Arendt’s postscript directly addressing the controversy that arose over her account. A major journalistic triumph by an intellectual of singular influence, Eichmann in Jerusalem is as shocking as it is informative—an unflinching look at one of the most unsettling (and unsettled) issues of the Twentieth Century. This edition includes an introduction by Amos Elon.”

Ashman, Charles R., and Robert J. Wagman. The Nazi Hunters. New York: Pharos, 1988. Print. “Focuses on the Nazi hunters Simon Wiesenthal, the Klarsfelds, Edgar Bronfman, Elan Steinberg, Israel Singer of the World Jewish Congress, Rabbi Marvin Hier, Neal Sher, and the Justice Department’s Office of Special Investigations.”

The Attorney-General of the Government of Israel v. Eichmann. 56 The American Journal of International Law 805-845. 17 Sept. 2013. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “Judicial Decisions by Covey Oliver of the Board of Editors. Jurisdiction of Israel to try Eichmann–international law in relationship to the Israeli Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law.”

Baade, Hans W. “The Eichmann Trial: Some Legal Aspects.” Duke Law Journal 1961.3 (1961): 400-20. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “In Israel, Mr. Eichmann was charged with ‘crimes against the Jewish people’ and ‘crimes against humanity’ under the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law of August I, 1950. He is presently being tried under these charges by the District Court of Jerusalem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the legality of the Eichmann trial under Israeli law and under international law. While this discussion necessarily has to proceed from the assumption that the factual allegations of the prosecution are substantially correct and susceptible to legal proof, no opinion is expressed as to the facts. It need hardly be added that this would be highly improper at the present time.”

Bascomb, Neal. Hunting Eichmann: How a Band of Survivors and a Young Spy Agency Chased down the World’s Most Notorious Nazi. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009. Print. “When the Allies stormed Berlin in the last days of the Third Reich, Adolf Eichmann shed his SS uniform and vanished. Following his escape from two American POW camps, his retreat into the mountains and out of Europe, and his path to an anonymous life in Buenos Aires, his pursuers are a bulldog West German prosecutor, a blind Argentinean Jew and his beautiful daughter, and a budding, ragtag spy agency called the Mossad, whose operatives have their own scores to settle (and whose rare surveillance photographs are published here for the first time). The capture of Eichmann and the efforts by Israeli agents to secret him out of Argentina to stand trial is the stunning conclusion to this thrilling historical account, told with the kind of pulse-pounding detail that rivals anything you’d find in great spy fiction.”

Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale?: Nazi-Jewish Negotiations, 1933-1945. New Haven: Yale UP, 1994. Print. “In this riveting book, a leading Holocaust scholar examines the dramatic attempts to negotiate with the Nazis for the release of Jews in exchange for money, goods, or political benefits, and explores the moral issues raised by the negotiations.”

Black, Ian, and Benny Morris. Israel’s Secret Wars: A History of Israel’s Intelligence Services. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991. Print. “This is the first documented, comprehensive history of all three of Israel’s intelligence services, from their origins in the 1930s, through Israel’s five wars, up to the present, with a new chapter updating the book through the Gulf War. Highly readable and exhaustively researched, it provides the most balanced view yet of this controversial subject.”

Braham, Randolph L., and Scott Miller. The Nazis’ Last Victims: The Holocaust in Hungary. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1998. Print. “The Nazis’ Last Victims articulates and historically scrutinizes both the uniqueness and the universality of the Holocaust in Hungary, a topic often minimized in general works on the Holocaust. The result of the 1994 conference at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on the fiftieth anniversary of the deportation of Hungarian Jewry, this anthology examines the effects on Hungary as the last country to be invaded by the Germans. The Nazis’ Last Victims questions what Hungarians knew of their impending fate and examines the heightened sense of tension and haunting drama in Hungary, where the largest single killing process of the Holocaust period occurred in the shortest amount of time. Through the combination of two vital components of history writing—the analytical and the recollective—The Nazis’ Last Victims probes the destruction of the last remnant of European Jewry in the Holocaust.”

Braham, Randolph L. Eichmann and the Destruction of Hungarian Jewry. New York: World Federation of Hungarian Jews; Distributed by Twayne, 1961. Print.

Brayard, Florent. “Grasping the Spokes of the Wheel of History.” History & Memory 20.1 (2008): 48-88. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “Since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the access to new archives previously kept secret by the Soviet Union, historians of Nazism have had a growing tendency to believe that the historical narrative should be based exclusively on archives and refrain from using eyewitness testimonies, which are such fragile sources. This article argues, on the basis of the case of Adolf Eichmann’s involvement in Zyklon B deliveries to the extermination camps, that such an approach is unsatisfactory. Without eyewitness testimonies, neither Eichmann’s implication in this activity (which he of course always denied) nor the role played by Kurt Gerstein could be narrated. Taking into account only what is documented in archives would, therefore, mean relinquishing the aim of creating as complete a picture of the past as possible. In the case discussed in the article, this would mean forfeiting information that can alter the usual perception of Eichmann, Gerstein, or the workings of the RSHA.”

Breitman, Richard. “Plans for the Final Solution in Early 1941.” German Studies Review 17.3 (1994): 483-93. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “In the last fifteen years historians have felled many trees debating whether the Nazi regime had long planned or hastily improvised the Holocaust. This controversy has often focused on a seemingly small matter of timing: determination of the date when the SS moved to a continentwide program of mass murder, which they euphemistically called the Final Solution of the Jewish Question. The date of a decision to embark on the Final Solution is not only of interest in itself, but also because it helps us establish with greater precision the range of influences on, and participants in, the process-in laymen’s terms, the causes and the villains.” Adolf Eichmann had a big part in the Final Solution.

Breton, Albert, and Ronald Wintrobe. “The Bureaucracy of Murder Revisited.” Journal of Political Economy 94.5 (1986): 905. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “The paper reexamines the question of the guilt of subordinates in large organizations, a question posed with special force by Hannah Arendt in her book on Adolf Eichmann. He consistently claimed innocence on the ground that he was only following orders. Arendt accepted this picture of the regime but nevertheless indicted him for ‘crimes against humanity.’ The paper suggests that this model of the Nazi bureaucracy is false: in the Nazi bureaucracy of murder, as in other large bureaucracies, subordinates competed with each other to advance the goals of superiors they trusted. In this context, their guilt is easily established.”

Cesarani, David. “Adolf Eichmann: The Mind of a War Criminal.” BBC News. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “Adolf Eichmann systematically applied the logistics of commerce to the annihilation of Jews during the Holocaust. David Cesarani examines the mind of a Nazi war criminal.”

Cohen, Roger. “Why? New Eichmann Notes Try to Explain: [Biography].” New York Times 13 Aug. 1999. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “So, early on in memoirs published today by the German daily Die Welt, does Adolf Eichmann seek to explain his central role in the killing of six million European Jews by the Nazis. The statement, part of an attempt by Eichmann to portray himself as a man driven by a visceral sense of duty rather than hatred to organize the mass murder of Jews, appears on page 6 of 127 pages of handwritten reflections that Die Welt said it found at the Center for Research on Nazi Crimes in the southern German town of Ludwigsburg. The photocopied pages in Ludwigsburg — whose authenticity was confirmed by several German historians and has not been contested by Eichmann’s family — appear to be a synopsis of, or an introduction to, the larger body of Eichmann’s writings that Israel has said it intends to release.”

Donovan, John. Eichmann, Man of Slaughter. New York: Avon Book Division, Hearst, 1960. Print.

Draper, G.I.A.D. “THE EICHMANN TRIAL A JUDICIAL PRECEDENT.” International Affairs 38.4 (1962): 485-93. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “‘IF there is any regret in their hearts it is because the loathsome work was not completed. If there is sorrow, it is because the means chosen were not effective enough to complete the task.’ In these words the Israeli Attorney-General described to the judges of the District Court of Jerusalem the present state of mind of those Germans, many of whom are still alive and thriving, who made possible and carried out mass murders on a scale and in a manner more frightful than the world has ever had the misfortune to know. The occasion was the trial of Adolf Eichmann, a former S.S. police official who, from his desk in Berlin, put in motion, operated and controlled the extermination of some six millions of European Jews. This trial has made reflecting men and women aware, everywhere and for ever, that the limits of man’s inhumanity to man are solely those of time, opportunity, and scientific knowledge. The rate of expansion of the latter needs no description.”

Eichmann, Adolf, Jochen Von. Lang, and Claus Sibyll. Eichmann Interrogated: Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1983. Print. “As head of the Gestapo’s ‘Jewish Evacuation Department,’ Lieutenant Colonel Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962) was the driving force in the impoverishment, deportation, and extermination of millions of Jews. In 1945 he escaped with a Vatican passport and fled to South America. In May 1960 the Israelis located and kidnapped Eichmann from Argentina, and brought him to trial in Israel, where he was convicted and hanged, his remains cremated and scattered. For nearly a year prior to his trial Eichmann was interrogated by Captain Avner W. Less, a German Jew whose father and numerous relatives perished in Nazi concentration camps. Eichmann Interrogated is a superbly edited condensation of their 275-hour exchange, representing ten percent of the 3,564-page total. Amid his lies, distortions, evasions, half-truths, and startling admissions, Eichmann fully acknowledges the reality of the Holocaust while attempting to minimize his central role in its execution. As his life from traveling salesman to mass murderer unfolds, Eichmann’s defense becomes a chilling self-indictment and a warning of Evil’s often unassuming visage.”

Goñi, Uki. The Real Odessa: How Perón Brought the Nazi War Criminals to Argentina. London: Granta, 2002. Print. “Drawing on American and European intelligence documents, Uki Goni shows how from 1946 onward a Nazi escape operation was based at the presidential palace in Buenos Aires, harboring such war criminals as Adolf Eichmann and Josef Mengele. Goni uncovers an elaborate network that relied on the complicity of the Vatican, the Argentine Catholic Church, and the Swiss authorities. The discoveries made in this meticulously researched book reveal the entangled web of the Nazi regime and its sympathizers and has prompted Argentine officials to demand closed files on the Nazi era from their current government.”

Harel, Isser, and Shlomo J. Shpiro. The House on Garibaldi Street. London: Frank Cass, 1997. Print. “This is the true story of the kidnapping of Adolf Eichmann in Argentina by the Mossad, Israel’s secret intelligence serviceunder the leadership of Isser Harel. This is his account, revised and updated, with the real names and details of all Mossad personnel.”

Harris, Whitney R. Tyranny on Trial: The Trial of the Major German War Criminals at the End of World War II at Nuremberg, Germany, 1945-1946. Dallas: Southern Methodist UP, 1999. Print. “Tyranny on Trial relates the full story of the historic Nuremberg Trial. In this classic work, now in revised and expanded edition, Whitney R. Harris presents indisputable evidence of the horrific crimes of Adolph Hitler and Nazism, and irrefutable proof of the realities of the Holocaust.”

Kerr, Peter. “Man Who Seized Eichmann Recalls Secret Role.” New York Times 28 Apr. 1986, Late Edition East Coast ed.: B2. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “‘Here I see a man like you and me,’ said Mr. [Peter Malkin], staring into the distance as he envisioned the bedroom of the villa where [Adolf Eichmann] was manacled by the leg to a bed. ‘I had held his hand and I wondered, ‘How could this be?’ I tried to imagine six million, a row of six million waiting for their trains. It didn’t work. I couldn’t see it. It wasn’t real.’ Mr. Malkin describes his occupation today as a consultant with expertise in ‘security and antiterrorism.’ He is 58 years old and barrel-chested. He speaks English with a Hebrew accent, and when interviewed, he chain-smoked cigarettes and sipped Perrier water through a straw. ‘I told him, ‘You have a beautiful boy – I saw him through the window,’ Mr. Malkin recalled. ‘He reminds me of another boy that could be have been his brother. It was my sister’s son. The only difference is that this boy is dead.’ ‘He said, ‘It’s not my fault; he was Jewish!’ Mr. Malkin recalled. ‘He said, ‘I have nothing against the Jews. On the contrary, I love Jews.’ ”

Kraft, Jessica. “The Eichmann Trial – My Jewish Learning.” Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “Eichmann was found guilty on all counts and sentenced to death. On June 1, 1962 he was hanged. This was the only time that the death penalty was used in the history of the state of Israel. Eichmann was prosecuted under the provisions of the Nazi and Nazi Collaborators Punishment Law, established in 1950 by Ben Gurion’s government. The trial was only possible because a sovereign Jewish state with its own political structure, legal system, and intelligence and security agencies existed. For the first time in history, the Jewish people had the means to bring about justice to those who persecuted them. Ben Gurion and other founders of the state saw this as an intrinsic value of Israel’s national identity.”

Lasok, D. “The Eichmann Trial.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 11.2 (1962): 355-74. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “THE trial of Adolf Eichmann will go down in history as a trial without precedent not only because of the enormity of the charges but mainly because it is likely to perpetuate and deepen the controversy provoked by the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal.’ Reference had already been made to Eichmann at Nuremberg and the account of his activities recorded in a two-volume report of the Polish War Crimes Commission. But the drama unfolded with his seizure by Israeli agents and abduction from Argentina in May 1960. From the reaction of the Argentinian government to this obvious act of violation of Argentina’s sovereignty one might have expected a repetition of the Jacob-Salomon Case in reverse, but history did not repeat itself and Eichmann had no alternative but to go into the glass cage provided for him at the Jerusalem court.”

Levin, Meyer. “Eichmann’s Last Victim.” Coronet July 1961: 98+. Old Magazine Articles. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. The tragic fate of Dr. Rudolf Kastner, Eichmann’s last victim is explored. He was a Hungarian Jewish underground leader who negotiated with the Nazis and saved many of his people from extermination.

“The Long Road to Eichmann’s Arrest: A Nazi War Criminal’s Life in Argentina.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 1 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “Before his arrest by Israel’s Mossad intelligence service, Adolf Eichmann boasted openly to other foreigners in Argentina of the war crimes he had committed. He confided in one journalist that his only mistake was not having murdered all the Jews. ‘We didn’t do our work correctly,’ he said.”

Mulisch, Harry. Criminal Case 40/61, the Trial of Adolf Eichmann: An Eyewitness Account. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2005. Print. “The trial of Adolf Eichmann began in 1961 under a deceptively simple label, ‘criminal case 40/61.’ Hannah Arendt covered the trial for the New Yorker magazine and recorded her observations in Eichmann in Jerusalem: The Banality of Evil. Harry Mulisch was also assigned to cover the trial for a Dutch news weekly. Arendt would later say in her book’s preface that Mulisch was one of the few people who shared her views on the character of Eichmann. … Mulisch modestly called his book on case 40/61 a report, and it is certainly that, as he gives firsthand accounts of the trial and its key players and scenes (the defendant’s face strangely asymmetric and riddled by tics, his speech absurdly baroque). Eichmann’s character comes out in his incessant bureaucratizing and calculating, as well as in his grandiose visions of himself as a Pontius Pilate-like innocent. As Mulisch intersperses his dispatches from Jerusalem with meditative accounts of a divided and ruined Berlin, an eerily rebuilt Warsaw, and a visit to the gas chambers of Auschwitz, Criminal Case 40/61, the Trial of Adolf Eichmann becomes as a disturbing and highly personal essay on the Nazi extermination of European Jews and on the human capacity to commit evil ever more efficiently in an age of technological advancement.”

Rein, Raanan. “The Eichmann Kidnapping: Its Effects on Argentine-Israeli Relations and the Local Jewish Community.” Jewish Social Studies 7.3 (2001): 101-30. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “This article will examine the consequences of the Eichmann kidnapping for the Jewish community of Argentina and for Buenos Aires’ relations with Jerusalem. The contrast between the very speedy resolution of the crisis in Israeli-Argentine relations and the affair’s long-lasting effects on Argentina’s Jews indicates once again that the interests of the local Jewish community and those of the state of Israel-which defined itself on the day of its birth as ‘the Jewish state’-are not completely congruent and involve, at times, different dynamics. It also indicates that Argentine authorities were too often unwilling or unable to put a stop to antisemitic attacks by nationalist groups. Instead, they opted for closer relations with the Jewish state, hoping in this way to prevent such attacks from blackening Argentina’s image in Western public opinion in general and in the American media in particular. Securing U.S. support and economic cooperation was, after all, a prime goal for all Argentine governments in the post-World War II era.”

Rohter, Larry. “Half-century Later, a New Look at Argentine-Nazi Ties.” New York Times 4 Apr. 2005: A8. Pro. Web. “That scores of fugitive Nazis found their way to Argentina after World War II, aided and abetted by Gen. Juan D. Peron, is no secret. But according to a book just published here [Buenos Aires] that draws extensively on archival material only now being made available to researchers, his government also offered a haven for the profits of German companies that had been part of the Nazi war machine and whose assets the victorious Allies would otherwise have seized.” “The German Connection: The Laundering of Nazi Money in Argentina’ by Gaby Weber.

Scott, Shane. “C.I.A. Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show.” New York Times 7 June 2006: A3. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “The Central Intelligence Agency took no action after learning the pseudonym and whereabout of the fugitive Holocaust administrator Adolf Eichmann in 1958, according to C.I.A. document released Tuesday that shed new light on the spy agency’s of of former Nazis as informants after World War II.”

“‘Vatican Aided Eichmann’s Escape’” 14 Mar. 2010. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <>. “Campaigners in Germany are challenging the 50-year secrecy order that binds files on Adolf Eichmann’s flight from Germany after World War II, the Daily Mail reported on Sunday. According to the dissenters, led by German journalist Gabriele Weber, the dossier may contain information that shows Eichmann’s post-war escape from the country was aided by the Vatican and by German officials.”

Weitz, Yechiam. “In the Name of Six Million Accusers: Gideon Hausner as Attorney-General and His Place in the Eichmann Trial.” Israel Studies 14.2 (2009): 26-49. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “The article examines Gideon Hausner’s (1915-1990) appointment as attorney-general and later chief prosecutor in the Eichmann trial, his attitude towards the main issues that arose during the trial, his position on the issue of Jewish heroism during the Holocaust, how he became the definitive personification of the trial, and Shmuel Tamir’s opposition to the trial.”

Wiegrefe, Klaus. “West Germany’s Efforts to Influence the Eichmann Trial.” SpigelOnline. 15 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “The 1961 trial in Israel of Holocaust organizer Adolf Eichmann was a global sensation. But it made West Germany nervous. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was afraid the trial could expose the Nazi pasts of government officials in Bonn. And his government did everything it could to influence the proceedings.”