Additional Women in the Third Reich and America

Mrs. Viola Sievers, one of the wipers at the roundhouse giving a giant Chicago and North Western Railway ‘H’ class locomotive a bath of live steam, Clinton, Iowa. 1943


Aderet, Ofer. “Diary of a Love That Perished in Auschwitz.” Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <>. “It took Alice Lehmann decades to dare to open the journals of her first love, Bernie Sapir, who was murdered in Auschwitz. Now the 88-year-old Jerusalemite has shared their tragic tale in a heartrending book.”

Albright, Madeleine Korbel. and William Woodward. Prague Winter: A Personal Story of Remembrance and War, 1937-1948. New York, NY: Harper, an Imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers, 2012. Print. “Madeleine Albright has written a remarkable story of adventure and passion, tragedy and courage, set against the backdrop occupied Czechoslovakia and World War II. … [She] challenges us to think deeply about the moral dilemmas that arise in our own lives.”

Atwood, Kathryn J. Women Heroes of World War II: 26 Stories of Espionage, Sabotage, Resistance, and Rescue. Chicago: Chicago Review, 2011. Print. “These twenty-six suspense-filled stories unfold from across Germany, Poland, Great Britain, the United States, and more, providing an inspiring reminder of women and girls’ refusal to sit on the sidelines around the world and throughout history.”

Binney, Marcus. The Women Who Lived for Danger: The Agents of the Special Operations Executive. New York: William Morrow, 2002. Print. In this book the author “recounts the story of ten remarkable women who were dropped in occupied territories [in WW II to] work as secret agents.”

Blessed Is the Match: The Life and Death of Hannah Senesh. Dir. Roberta Grossman. 2008.  Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <>.  [R]iveting portrait of Hungarian poet Hannah Senesh who endured capture, torture, and death to rescue Jews.

Brysac, Shareen Blair. “When the Red Orchestra Fell Silent.” The New York Times. 16 Feb. 2013. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <>. “On Feb. 15, 1943, a green police wagon left Charlottenburg Women’s Prison in Berlin, making its way through streets pockmarked by Allied bombs to the infamous execution center at Plötzensee. The handcuffed prisoner, a 40-year-old American woman, scholar, journalist, lecturer, teacher and translator named Mildred Fish Harnack, was led to a first-floor death cell. She was beheaded the next day.”

Cantrell, Rebecca. A City of Broken Glass. New York: Forge, 2012. Print. Fiction. “Hannah Vogel, journalist and former spy for the British, travels to Poland with her twelve-year-old son, Anton, to write a feature article on 1938′s Saint Martin festival. When she hears that twelve thousand Polish Jews have been deported from Nazi Germany, Hannah drops her fluff piece and rushes to get the story on the refugees, regardless of the consequences.”

Carve Her Name with Pride. Dir. Lewis Gilbert. 1958. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <>. “When her husband is killed in battle, brave patriot Violette Szabo (Virginia McKenna) joins the British secret service and agrees to spy on the enemy — even though it means being separated from her child. Eventually captured and tortured by the Nazis, the intrepid agent refuses to betray the Allies.”

Cosner, Shaaron, and Victoria Cosner. Women under the Third Reich: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998. Print. “This dictionary, with entries on more than 100 women, shows the diversity of their roles in this turbulent and disturbing period.”

Crane, Cynthia A. Divided Lives: “Mischling” Women in the Third Reich. Diss. University of Cincinnati, 1997. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1997. Print. This “dissertation centers on eight Mischling (‘half-breed’) women who survived the Third Reich.”

Ditty, Lauren. Knowledge and Complicity: High Society Women and the Third Reich. Thesis. Georgetown University, 2009. Web. 24 June 2013. “Hedwig Höss enjoyed luxury. Fortunately, her marriage to Auschwitz Kommandant Rudolph Höss provided her with the status and privilege to indulge her extravagant tastes. From late 1941 to the summer of 1944, Frau Höss lived in a villa complete with an extensive flower garden just outside the gates of Auschwitz. During this time, an Auschwitz prisoner by the name of Stanislaw Dubiel tended to Frau Höss’ flowers and periodically visited a depot located a walking distance from the villa to acquire everything from household items to jewelry for the woman of the house. Dubiel frequented this depot, affectionately referred to by Frau Höss as ‘Kanada,’ each time she decided her wardrobe or her reception rooms lacked sufficient opulence. Kanada was a convenient euphemism employed by Hedwig Höss; Kanada referred to a warehouse containing the belongings of Jewish prisoners sent to the gas chambers.”

“Execution of Women by the Nazis.” Capital Punishment UK. 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <>. “This is a tribute to the amazing courage of so many young women during World War II who were put to death for plotting and fighting against the Nazis, as resistance fighters, partisans and activists in towns and concentration camps. It is estimated that more than 4,000 women of various ages were hanged by Nazi forces between 1939 and 1945. Many more were shot or guillotined and many were tortured before minimal or non-existent trials.”

Fest, Joachim C. “German Wife And Mother: The Role Of Women In The Third Reich from Functionaries Of Totalitarian Rule.” The Face of the Third Reich. New York: Pantheon Book, 1970. Print. “The National Socialist movement, from the beginning a militant community of like-minded men, had almost no place in its ranks for women. The very first general meeting of members early in 1921 passed a unanimous resolution that ‘a woman can never be accepted into the leadership of the party and into the governing committee’. … The misogyny of the initial phase, despite all mitigating assurances by the top leadership, remained a basic factor and emphatically differentiated the NSDAP from all other political groups and parties. The type of homeless man, profoundly incapable of bourgeois stability, who gave the movement its shape during the early phase, generally despised attachment to a wife and family along with all other ties. The decisive influences in his life, experience at the front, … had always had the character of a men’s society, and the feelings of Comradeship from those years further reinforced this masculine exclusiveness. In the idea of a carefully fostered elite and hierarchy, particularly in the SA and later in the SS, in the ecstatic admiration for the ‘Indomitable leader’, the ‘heroic friend’ and the ‘self-sacrificing comrade’ we see a repeated tendency to homosexuality also revealed in the soft, vaguely sentimental tone used to embellish acts of brutality.”

“Funeral Held in Lanark for French Schoolgirl Spy.” BBC News. BBC, 13 May 2010. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. “The funeral has taken place of a Scottish grandmother who played a vital role as a schoolgirl resistance fighter in occupied France during World War II.”

Gentry, Kira Andrianne. Interpreting Memory: Young Women Coming of Age in the Shadow of the Third Reich. Thesis. California State University, Fullerton, 2008. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2008. ProQuest. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. “This study examines how German women recall their childhoods during the Third Reich and immediate aftermath. It explores this era through their eyes interpreting how memory compares with scholarly works on this topic. Much has been written about the Third Reich as it pertains to those old enough to vote; however, academic scholarship has not fully considered the impact on younger generations. Utilizing oral histories conducted with women residing in the United States, social and gender methodologies, recent memoirs, and Nazi propaganda, this study explores the lack of ideological influence the Bund Deutscher Mddel possessed over its members, how racial intolerance penetrated society through cultural conditioning, and the manner in which German women recall and have dealt with the reality of rape in the postwar Soviet occupation.”

Gillham, David R. City of Women. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2012. Print. “David Gillham brings war-torn Berlin to life and reveals the extraordinary mettle of women tested to their limits and beyond. Powerful and piercingly real.”

Grady, Denise. “Florence Waren, Dancer Who Resisted Nazis, Dies at 95. “The New York Times. 05 Aug. 2012. Web. 07 Aug. 2012. <>. “Even in the depths of war in occupied France, Florence Waren and Frederic Apcar [sic] or ‘Florence et Frederic,’ as they were billed — dazzled Paris, he in tails, she in jeweled gowns with flowers in her hair, the two of them gliding and swirling across the stage as one of the most famous ballroom-dance teams in Europe.”

Griebeler, Monika. “Lost and Forgotten: German ‘wolf Children’ in Lithuania” DW.DE. 9 May 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <>. “The Second World War ended in May 1945 – but not for the German ‘Wolfskinder,’ or ‘wolf children.’ On their own, they made their way from East Prussia to Lithuania, a decision they’ll never forget. When Alfreda Pipiraite turned 18, she believed she’d made it. ‘But no, they said to me, ‘You German pig! You Hitlerist! Fascist!’ And so on,” she told DW.”

Hall, Allan. “How to Become the Perfect Nazi Bride: The Sinister Regulations for Women to Learn to Breed, Cook, Sew, Iron – and Worship Hitler.” Mail Online. 12 Aug. 2013. Web. 13 Aug. 2013. <–worship-Hitler.html>. “A sinister set of rules for would-be wives of Nazis in the Third Reich has been discovered three quarters of a century later. Several ‘bride schools’ were set up with the aim of providing the perfect partners for Adolf Hitler’s henchmen. Regulations dictated that young women would be taught ‘washing, cooking, childcare and home design’ before they could walk up the aisle with the men who would staff death camps and rule conquered lands with an iron fist. They were also instructed in social niceties – such as how to hold conversations at cocktail parties – and how to bring up their children worshipping not God or Jesus Christ, but Hitler. ‘This is participation in the resurrection path of our people,’ said Gertrud Scholtz-Klink, chief of the Nazi bride schools which began 75 years ago when the first was established on the island of Schwanenwerder in the Wannsee lake outside of Berlin.”

Hall, Allan. “Revealed: Women’s Role in Nazi Crimes.” Telegraph. 3 Feb. 2009. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. “In Nazi art, films and magazines, women were always portrayed as the fairer sex, fighting on the home-front as their menfolk fought on the battlefields. … But a new book by the historian Kathrin Kompisch has revealed a very different reality.”

Humbert, Agnès, and Barbara Mellor. Résistance: A Woman’s Journal of Struggle and Defiance in Occupied France. New York: Bloomsbury, 2008. Print. The author “offers a uniquely personal and recklessly candid perspective on this dark and dramatic period.”

Johnson, Eric A. “German Women and Nazi Justice: Their Role in the Process from Denunciation to Death.” Historical Social Research 20.1 (1995): 33-69. JSTOR. Web. 1 July 2013. <>. “This essay examines both the »legal« repression of women in Nazi Germany and the role that women played in helping to make the Nazi system of social and political control function. It focusses on women and the organs of social control in the city of Cologne and its surrounding area. It combines a computer analysis of all existing cases (circa 30,000) of illegal political activity reported to the state prosecuting attorney (Staatsanwaltschaft) in the district served by the Cologne »Special Court« (Sondergericht) with an indepth analysis of a sample of over two hundred of these cases in the city of Cologne and in the neighboring small town of Bergheim. It also analyzes the prison records of the main Cologne jail (Klingelpütz) during the war years. It argues that though women were important actors in the Nazi control apparatus at the local level, both as denouncers and as witnesses, they were far less active than men in making the Nazi terror work. Likewise, they were less often and usually less severely punished for anti-governmental activities than men. Finally, social class, racial background, and marital status sharply differentiated women who were repressed by the Nazi regime from women who helped the Nazi regime repress others.”

Lovin, Clifford R. “Farm Women in the Third Reich.” Agricultural History 60.3 (1986): 105. ProQuest. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. “A study of farm women is clearly needed for a better understanding of women and of agriculture in the Third Reich. Not only would such a work illuminate a corner of the National Socialist state, but it will provide some insights into the relationship between ideology and economic policy, between romanticism and practicality.”

Lynn, Jenifer M. Contested Femininities: Representations of Modern Women in the German Illustrated Press, 1920 — 1945. Diss. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2012. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2012. ProQuest. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. “Following World War I, the Neue Frau (New Woman) emerged as a mass-consumer image within the illustrated press and other forms of mass media including novels, movies and advertisements. However, this widely debated and enduring icon of Weimar Modernity was only one variant of a wide range of competing images of the Modern Woman in the Weimar Republic. Various groups modified and adapted the image of the Modern Woman according to their political and social goals. Thus far, most scholars have concentrated on the mass-consumer orientated image of the New Woman without acknowledging the tensions and contestation between the multiple versions of the Modern Woman in the broad and changing political spectrum of Weimar Germany. … In this study, the concept of the Neue Frau defines the iconographical, commercialized representation of female modernity during the Weimar Republic, which has thus far been deemed the quintessential expression of ‘modernity.’ However, the concept of the ‘Modern Woman,’ in a broader context reveals that competing visual and textual interpretations of modernity were not only widespread in Weimar, but extended into the Third Reich. … This project explores the development of the visual and textual representations of the Modern Woman and their nuanced differences in a wide range of illustrated magazines produced between the 1920 and 1945. … By concentrating on visual and textual representations, I reveal the ways in which visual, in combination with textual representations, played a significant role in imagining and negotiating the limits and possibilities for women in all aspects of society.”

Meding, Dorothee Von. Courageous Hearts: Women and the Anti-Hitler Plot of 1944. Providence, RI: Berghahn, 1997. Print. “This collection of interviews, conducted by the author, reveals that it was the women’s courage that sustained their husbands both before the plot and later, in the face of certain violent death”

Moorehead, Caroline. “The French Women Who Defied the Nazis and Survived Auschwitz.” BBC News Magazine. BBC, 11 Jan. 2012. Web. 12 Jan. 2012. <>. “Caroline Moorehead’s book, A Train in Winter, takes a different approach to the Nazi occupation of France during the Second World War. In it she tells the story of a group of 230 French women deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau together in January 1943. … [T]he book celebrates the spirit of resistance and friendship that persisted, despite the hardship, among these heroines of World War II.”

Moorehead, Caroline. A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France. New York: HarperCollins, 2011. Print. This book “chronicles what happened to 230 women from all over the country [France] who did not accept the [Nazi] occupation quietly.”

Newborn, Jud. “Lessons Today from Sophie Scholl’s Anti-Nazi Resistance.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 18 Feb. 2013. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <>. ”Though Sophie Scholl and the students of the White Rose resistance were executed by the Nazis 70 years ago this month, the example they set of courage in the face of authoritarian repression is as relevant today as it was seven decades ago.”

Owings, Alison. Frauen: German Women Recall the Third Reich. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1993. Print. “A vivid picture of Germany under the Nazis emerges from this collection of unsettling interviews conducted by freelance TV writer Owings with 29 women of diverse backgrounds, both Aryan and Jewish. Among the women whose lives in Germany’s war-torn homefront are chronicled are the widow of a resistance leader and the wife of an SS guard, who refers to her husband’s work in the Ravensbrook and Buchenwald ‘manufacturing plants.’”

Pauwels, Jacques R. Women, Nazis, and Universities: Female University Students in the Third Reich, 1933-1945. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1984. Print. “Based on official government documents and extensive secondary literature, this book revises several old assumptions on the periods of peace and war. For the 1930s, Pauwels demonstrates that declining female university enrollments were caused neither by Nazi rhetoric nor antifeminist campaigns but by the drastic drop in university-age population and the Depression. Despite their alleged egalitarianism, Nazi social and economic policies favored the access of middle- and upper-class women to higher education. The Third Reich was unsuccessful in creating an auxiliary female vanguard to serve in its leadership or welfare programs and failed to stop women from flocking into law, medicine, and engineering. It was WWII, not Nazism, that gave German women a dramatic improvement in higher education; increased numbers of women for a short time achieved unprecedented freedom and prefessional advancement though at war’s end, these dramatic gains were lost. Extensive charts, notes, and bibliography enhance a well-written concise monograph.”

Regis, Margaret. When Our Mothers Went to War: An Illustrated History of Women in World War II. Seattle, WA: NavPublishing, 2008. Print. “An illustrated history of the challenges faced by women in the U.S. on the home front and in the war zone during WWII as pilots, shipbuilders, flight nurses, military recruits, OSS agents and in other roles as they kept the nation running, salvaged resources, and more.”

Schubert, Helga. Judas Women: Ten Case Studies of Female Denunciation in the Third Reich. Thesis. Trans. Linnea Damer. Wesleyan University, 2010. Web. 24 June 2013. <>. “I first encountered Helga Schubert’s Judas Women in the course reader for a class that explored Berlin during and after the Second World War through the medium of literature. Coincidentally, this was shortly before I began to search for a book to translate for my honors project. I kept it in mind as I searched through bookstores in Berlin and asked friends, family, and professors if they could think of any interesting books of an appropriate length that were so new or obscure that they had not been translated into English. While I received many interesting suggestions, none of them captured my attention the way Judas Women had.”

“Sophie Scholl Revolt & Resistance” HolocaustEducationArchiveResearchTeam. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. Sophie Scholl, co-founder of the White Rose, a political resistance group, is discussed. “The group co-authored six anti-Nazi Third Reich political resistance leaflets. Calling themselves the White Rose, they instructed Germans to passively resist the Nazis. They had been horrified by the behaviour of the Germans on the Eastern Front where they had witnessed a group of naked Jews being shot in a pit.”

Stibbe, Matthew. “Women and the Nazi State.” History Today 1 Nov. 1993. Print. “Hitler may have thought women were there for cooking, children and church, but recent research has shown that female attitudes to, and involvement in, the apparatus of the Third Reich was much more significant, argues Matthew Stibbe.”

Stoltzfus, Nathan. “The German Women Who Stood Up to the Nazis.” The Jewish Press. 13 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <>. “In cases where the Nazi regime judged that protest could spark attention from the broader German public, the decision was made for tactical reasons to appease rather than quell with brute force.”

Suncan, George. “Women of the Third Reich.” Women of the Third Reich. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <>. ” A collection of short biographical portraits of some forty women who either gave their full support to Hitler and were sympathetic to the Nazi party, or on the other hand, were strongly anti-Nazi and played an active part in the anti-Hitler resistance movements. Many paid the supreme penalty for their beliefs and actions. The vast majority of German women however were neither particularly pro nor anti-Nazi but simply went along with the system thus providing passive support for it.”

Thomas, Theodore N. Women against Hitler: Christian Resistance in the Third Reich. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995. Print. In Nazi Germany “pastors’ wives replaced their absent husbands in the pulpits, … women preached and assumed administration of the orphaned parishes. Women fought to save their civil rights, and freedoms of speech, assembly, press, and religion. Some went to jail. Some died.”

Thynne, Jane. “Fashion and the Third Reich.” History Today. 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <>. “Jane Thynne looks at the foundation of the Deutsches Modeamt, an attempt by the Nazis to put the fascist into fashion.”

Watts, Margaret Ann. From Model to Mutter – National Socialist School Readers and the Ideal Woman. Thesis. University of Alberta, 2004. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2004. ProQuest. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. “The notion that motherhood is political is by no means foreign to the present-day ear. Governments in nations such as China and India are particularly active in administering state policies that affect the lives of countless women. Yet it is little more than seventy years ago when what is arguably the greatest state-organized pro-motherhood campaign the world had or has ever seen began in Nazi Germany. Far from simply remaining the underdeveloped brainchild of those in charge, German women for the most part relinquished the ich for the urn, effectively deleting any semblance of individuality for the sake of the Volk. For women, being part of the Volk was equated with fulfilling what was deemed their ‘natural,’ ‘traditional,’ even ‘sacred’ role – having children.”

Weitz, Margaret Collins. Sisters in the Resistance: How Women Fought to Free France, 1940-1945. New York: J. Wiley, 1995. Print. Contains first-person interviews with French women who fought in the resistance.

“Women at War.” Spartacus Educational. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <>. Sixty profiles of women WWII journalists, Anti-Nazi Resistance members, secret agents, and civilians. The profiles include many links.

“Women during the Holocaust.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 5 May 2011. <>.

“Women in the Third Reich.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 04 May 2013. <>. “Women played a vital role in Adolf Hitler’s plan to create an ideal German Community (Volksgemeinschaft). Hitler believed a larger, racially purer population would enhance Germany’s military strength and provide settlers to colonize conquered territory in eastern Europe. The Third Reich’s aggressive population policy encouraged ‘racially pure’ women to bear as many ‘Aryan’ children as possible.”

“Women in World War Two.” History Learning Site. Web. 6 Aug. 2013.  <>, “ As in World War One, women played a vital part in this country’s success in World War Two. But, as with World War One,  women at the end of World War Two, found that the advances they had made were greatly reduced when the soldiers returned from fighting abroad.”

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