Anti-Semitism

Dearborn_Independent_antisemitic

Henry Ford   “In the early 1920s, Ford sponsored a weekly newspaper that published …  strongly anti-Semitic views. … The newspaper published The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which was discredited by The Times of London as a forgery during the Independent’s publishing run. The American Jewish Historical Society described the ideas presented in the magazine as “anti-immigrant, anti-labor, anti-liquor, and anti-Semitic.” In February 1921, the New York World published an interview with Ford, in which he said: ‘The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on.’ … In Germany, Ford’s anti-Semitic articles from The Dearborn Independent were issued in four volumes, cumulatively titled The International Jew, the World’s Foremost Problem published by Theodor Fritsch, …  a member of the Reichstag. In a letter written in 1924, Heinrich Himmler described Ford as ‘one of our most valuable, important, and witty fighters.’” Wikipedia

 

“Adolf Hitler, Nazi Germany: Christian Nationalism, Christian Anti-Semitism, Anti-Communism.” Agnosticism / Atheism – Skepticism & Atheism for Atheists & Agnostics. About.com. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/od/adolfhitlernazigermany/Adolf_Hitler_Nazi_Germany_Christian_Nationalism_AntiSemitism.htm>. “The Nazis and Adolf Hitler are commonly thought of as representing the antithesis of Christianity and Christian values. If that’s true, why did tens of millions of German Christians adore Hitler, join the Nazis, and participate in the Holocaust (among other atrocities)? Hitler and the Nazis promoted a Christian nationalism, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, and return to traditional values which most Christians appreciated. The Nazi party platform specifically endorsed ‘positive’ Christianity.” Bibliography.

“Ahmadinejad Calls Holocaust Denial Major Achievement of His Presidency.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 7 July 2013. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/07/07/news-opinion/israel-middle-east/ahmadinejad-calls-holocaust-denial-major-achievement-of-his-presidency>. “Outgoing Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said during a farewell ceremony that publicizing his Holocaust denial was a major achievement of his presidency.”

Alperin, Michele. “A Tale of Mutual Empathy: Jewish Refugee Scholars at Historically Black colleges.” JNS.Org. 13 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2013/1/13/a-tale-of-mutual-empathy-jewish-refugee-scholars-at-historic.html>. “In Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love, an exhibition … will highlight a historical moment of mutual respect and cooperation between the African American and Jewish communities. Although their relationship has often been tense, especially after the rise of the black power movement and its expressions of anti-Semitism, the hiring of Jewish refugee scholars in the 1930s by historically black colleges stands as a beacon to the potential for common ground between the two groups.”

Anti-Defamation League. ADL Appalled at Reports That Turkish Deputy P.M. Blamed ‘Jewish Diaspora’ for Fueling Demonstrations. ADL. Anti-Defamation League, 2 July 2013. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.adl.org/press-center/press-releases/anti-semitism-international/adl-appalled-at-reports-that-turkish-deputy-pm-blamed-jewish-diaspora-for-demonstrations.html>. “The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today urged the prime minister of Turkey and other government leaders to immediately, strongly and publicly reject disturbing conspiratorial statements reportedly made by the deputy prime minister who blamed, among others, the ‘Jewish diaspora’ for instigating and fueling recent demonstrations in Turkey.”

“Anti-Semitic Hate for Kids … and Adults.” Commentary Magazine. 9 July 2013. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.commentarymagazine.com/2013/07/08/anti-semitic-hate-for-kids-and-adults-palestinians/>. “Part of the answer to that puzzle is supplied from those who, unlike the mainstream media, do pay attention to what is written and broadcast in the official Palestinian media run by Abbas’s PA. Those wondering why the Palestinians would reject peace offers including an independent state (as they have three times since 2000), can do no better than to view this PA TV excerpt brought to our attention from Palestinian Media Watch in which two little Palestinian girls are asked to recite a hateful poem that refers to Jews in the following manner: ‘Most evil among creations, barbaric monkeys, wretched pigs,’ condemned to ‘humiliation and hardship.’ It also went on to say the following about the Jewish presence in Jerusalem: Jerusalem vomits from within it your impurity Because Jerusalem, you impure ones, is pious, immaculate And Jerusalem, you who are filth, is clean and pure.”

Attitudes Toward Jews in Ten European Countries. Rep. Anti-Defamation League, Mar. 2012. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://archive.adl.org/Anti_semitism/adl_anti-semitism_presentation_february_2012.pdf>. “As with previous surveys, data from this latest 2012 European tracking poll indicates that significant percentages of European respondents continue to believe in some of the most pernicious anti-Semitic stereotypes. Respondents across the continent were asked whether or not they thought the following four statements were ‘probably true’ or ‘probably false.’ 1) Jews are more loyal to Israel than to this country. 2) Jews have too much power in the business world. 3) Jews have too much power in international financial markets. 4) Jews still talk too much about what happened to them in the Holocaust.”

Barnett, Victoria J. “The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation.” Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies 12.2 (1998). ADL: Fighting Anti-Semitism, Bigotry and Extremism. Anti-Defamation League, 2000. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://www.adl.org/braun/dim_14_1_role_church.asp>. “[I]t has become abundantly clear that [the Churches'] failure to respond to the horrid events … was not due to ignorance; they knew what was happening. Ultimately, the Churches’ lapses during the Nazi era were lapses of vision and determination.”

Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2004. Print. “Karel Berkhoff provides a searing portrait of life in the Third Reich’s largest colony. Under the Nazis, a blend of German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and racist notions about the Slavs produced a reign of terror and genocide. But it is impossible to understand fully Ukraine’s response to this assault without addressing the impact of decades of repressive Soviet rule. Berkhoff shows how a pervasive Soviet mentality worked against solidarity, which helps explain why the vast majority of the population did not resist the Germans. He also challenges standard views of wartime eastern Europe by treating in a more nuanced way issues of collaboration and local anti-Semitism.”

Black, Edwin. “DISPOSSESSED How Iraq’s 2,600-year-old Jewish Community Was Decimated in One Decade.” Reform Judaism Online. Union for Reform Judaism, Winter 2004. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://reformjudaismmag.org/Articles/index.cfm?id=2369>. “Baghdad, June 22, 2004. Just days before the Coalition Provisional Authority is scheduled to return power to Iraqi control, four Iraqi Jews–two in their forties, two elderly–inconspicuously board a Royal Jordanian airplane to Amman. … With the exception of approximately eleven Jews who have not chosen to leave, these are the last vestiges of a 125,000-strong Jewish community whose ancestors flourished here for twenty-six centuries. The dismantling of Iraqi Jewry, once the most established and affluent Jewish community in the Arab Middle East, began at 3 PM on June 1, 1941, some forty years before Saddam Hussein came to power. In Europe, the events of the next thirty-six hours would have been called a pogrom. Iraqi Jews called it the Farhud. Perhaps Farhud is best translated as violent dispossession. The Farhud was not a spontaneous outburst; it was the culmination of an anti-Jewish campaign rooted in an alliance between the Mufti of Jerusalem and Adolf Hitler.”

Cardozo, Nathan L. “Unmasking Anti-Semitism.” JPost.com. 5 Jan. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/Unmasking-anti-Semitism-311730>. “As Europe and other countries around the world become aggressively more anti-Semitic, and antagonism towards the State of Israel escalates, there is a need for careful assessment of the nature of anti-Semitism.”

Cary, Noel D. “Antisemitism, Everyday Life, and the Devastation of Public Morals in Nazi Germany.” Central European History 35.04 (2002): 551. EbscoHost. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. Reviews of Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany; Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany; Probing the Depths of German Antisemitism: German Society and the Persecution of the Jews, 1933-1941; Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans, and other books.

“Confronting Antisemitism.” Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/antisemitism/>. “Early Christian thought held Jews collectively responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus. This religious teaching became embedded in both Catholic and Protestant theology during the first millennium, with terrible consequences for Jews. Following many centuries of persecution and exclusion, the Jewish minority in Europe achieved some rights after the Enlightenment. As Europe became more secular and Jews integrated into mainstream society, political forms of antisemitism emerged. Jews were targeted for their ideas and their role in society. In the late nineteenth century, pseudo-scientific theories that legitimized a racial form of antisemitism became popular with some intellectuals and political leaders. All of these centuries of hatred were exploited by the Nazis and their allies during World War II culminating in the Holocaust, the systematic murder of Europe’s Jews.”

“Confronting Antisemitism.” Resources on Antisemitism. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/antisemitism/related/?lang=en>. Includes Holocaust Encyclopedia articles, Library bibliography, Photo Archives, For educators/students, Selected Scholarly Programs, and External Links from the United States, European institutions, Belgium, Canada, France, Israel, Netherlands, Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom.

“Danish Jewry Dwindling Due in Part to Anti-Semitism, Community Leader Says.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 7 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/10/07/news-opinion/world/danish-jewry-dwindling-due-to-anti-semitism-community-leader-says?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=04ea4cbd09-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_18_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-04ea4cbd09-26655725>. “Denmark’s Jewish community has lost 25 percent of its registered members over the past 15 years, partly due to anti-Semitism, its president said. The Jewish Community in Denmark, or Mosaisk Troessamfund, currently has 1,899 members compared to 2,639 in 1997, Mosaisk President Finn Schwarz told the Danish daily Jyllands-Posten in an interview published last week.”

Darring, Jerry. “Catholic Timeline on Antisemitism.”  Spring Hill College. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/Timeline.htm>. “Origen of Alexandria writes that the Jews ‘have committed the most abominable of crimes’ in conspiring against Christ, and for that reason ‘the Jewish nation was driven from its country, and another people was called by God to the blessed election’.”

Darring, Gerald. “Western European Churches and the Holocaust.” Spring Hill College. Web. 09 Feb. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/09Western.htm>. Italy: Before Germany took over military control of Italy in September 1943, Italian Jews were relatively safe. But from that date to the end of the war, they were subjected to hostile legal actions, forced labor, arrest, and deportation. France: In the face of so great and utter a tragedy, too many of the Church’s pastors committed an offense, by their silence, against the Church itself and its mission. The Netherlands: There was no protest from the Catholic hierarchy. Indeed, Ger van Roon asserts that protests against anti-Jewish measures came earlier from Protestants than from Catholics, and they came more from pastors, priests and laity than from bishops and church leaders. Denmark: There is no other Holocaust story similar to that of the rescue of Danish Jews. Most of the country’s 8,000 Jews were saved by being ferried in boats to neutral Sweden.”

Darring, Jerry. “A Catholic Timeline of Events Relating to Jews, Anti-Judaism, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust From the 3rd Century to the Beginning of the Third Millennium.”  Spring Hill College. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/Timeline.htm>. Timeline from c. 240 to 2000. In c. 240. “Origen of Alexandria writes that the Jews ‘have committed the most abominable of crimes’ in conspiring against Christ, and for that reason ‘the Jewish nation was driven from its country, and another people was called by God to the blessed election’.”

Davidzon, Vladislav. “Secrets of English World War II Upper-Class Nazi Club Revealed by a Venetian Dandy.” Tablet Magazine. 26 June 2013. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/135982/english-nazi-club-revealed>. “A new film about England’s avowed anti-Semites stirs a champion of European tolerance, liberalism, and civilization.” A discussion of the book The Red Book: The Membership List of the Right Club – 1939 and the documentary Churchill and the Fascist Plot.

Fox, Tamar. “The Jew Who Gave Roosevelt a Bad Rap.” Jewniverse. MyJewishLearning, 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 30 Aug. 2013. <http://thejewniverse.com/2013/the-jew-who-gave-roosevelt-a-bad-rap/>. “Close your eyes and picture the one person who did the most to save Jews from the Holocaust. Did you picture Oskar Schindler? Irena Sendler? Raoul Wallenberg? How about…Franklin Delano Roosevelt? If a Zionist activist named Peter Bergson had his way, you might have. So say some historians, anyway.” Excellent video included.

Friedlander, Saul. “Anti-Semitism.” My Jewish Learning. Web. 25 July 2013. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/1700-1914/Modern_Anti-Semitism.shtml>. “In a pamphlet published in 1873, Der Sieg des Judentums uber das Germanentum (‘The Victory of Judaism over Germandom’), Wilhelm Marr, the German political agitator, coined the term ‘antisemit­ism.’ Fortuitous though it may have been, the coincidence of the inven­tion of the word and the manifesta­tions of what could be considered early modern anti-Semitism was cer­tainly very symbolic.”

Gerdmar, Anders. Roots of Theological Anti-Semitism: German Biblical Interpretation and the Jews, from Herder and Semler to Kittel and Bultmann. Leiden: Brill, 2009. Print. “As Adolf Hitler strategised his way to power, he knew that it was necessary to gain the support of theology and the Church. This study begins two hundred years earlier, however, looking at roots of theological anti-Semitism and how Jews and Judaism were constructed, positively and negatively, in the biblical interpretation of German Protestant theology. Following the two main streams of German theology, the salvation-historical and the Enlightenment-oriented traditions, it examines leading exegetes from the 1750s to the 1950s and explores how theology legitimises or delegitimises oppression of Jews, in part through still-prevailing paradigms.”

“German Chancellor Scores Antisemitic Movement.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 17 Jan. 1924. Web. 21 Apr. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1924/01/17/2757892/german-chancellor-scores-antisemitic-movement>. “‘In certain German circles’ declared the German Chancellor Marx in an exclusive interview granted the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, there is an attempt to exploit the distress of the German people for the purpose of anti-Semitic agitation. This movement is not only unsupport by the Central Government and the various state governments, but is uncompromisingly opposed as harmful to the general interests of Germany.”

“The German Churches and the Nazi State.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005206>. “The population of Germany in 1933 was around 60 million. Almost all Germans were Christian, belonging either to the Roman Catholic (ca. 20 million members) or the Protestant (ca. 40 million members) churches. The Jewish community in Germany in 1933 was less than 1% of the total population of the country. How did Christians and their churches in Germany respond to the Nazi regime and its laws, particularly to the persecution of the Jews? The racialized anti-Jewish Nazi ideology converged with antisemitism that was historically widespread throughout Europe at the time and had deep roots in Christian history. For all too many Christians, traditional interpretations of religious scriptures seemed to support these prejudices.”

Gilbert, Martin. Churchill and the Jews: A Lifelong Friendship. New York: Henry Holt and, 2007. Print. “An insightful history of Churchill’s lifelong commitment—both public and private—to the Jews and Zionism, and of his outspoken opposition to anti-Semitism Winston Churchill’s commitment to Jewish rights, to Zionism, and ultimately to the State of Israel never wavered. In 1922, he established on the bedrock of international law the right of Jews to emigrate to Palestine. During his meeting with David Ben-Gurion in 1960, Churchill presented the Israeli prime minister with an article he had written about Moses, praising the patriarch. In between these events he fought harder and more effectively for the Jewish people than the world has ever realized.”

Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. The Devil That Never Dies: The Rise and Threat of Global Antisemitism. New York: Little, Brown and (Canada), 2013. Print. “Antisemitism never went away, but since the turn of the century it has multiplied beyond what anyone would have predicted. It is openly spread by intellectuals, politicians and religious leaders in Europe, Asia, the Arab world, America and Africa and supported by hundreds of millions more. Indeed, today antisemitism is stronger than any time since the Holocaust. In THE DEVIL THAT NEVER DIES, Daniel Jonah Goldhagen reveals the unprecedented, global form of this age-old hatred; its strategic use by states; its powerful appeal to individuals and groups; and how technology has fueled the flames that had been smoldering prior to the millennium.”

“Hitler’s Aide Attacks Him for Preaching Racial Anti-semitism.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 15 Dec. 1930. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/12/15/2788988/hitlers-aide-attacks-him-for-preaching-racial-antisemitism>. “An attack on Adolf Hitler, National Socialist party leader, by Captain Ehrhardt, one of his chief lieutenants, in today’s Boersen Zeitung, created a sensation here. Ehrhardt’s vigorous attack on the Fascist chieftain has aroused particular interest not only because he was the military leader of the abortive Munich putsch but because his anti-Hitler stand marks a further split in the Nazis’ ranks and indicates that Hitler is losing some of his effective military support.”

“International Peace Conference Sees Menace to World Peace in Spread of Anti-semitism.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 17 Sept. 1926. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1926/09/17/archive/international-peace-conference-sees-menace-to-world-peace-in-spread-of-anti-semitism?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=f94ede5f07-TWJH_2013_6-08&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-f94ede5f07-26655725>. “Steps to combat the activities of the Anti-Semitic International were taken an the International Peace Conference which is in session here. The conference unanimously adopted a resolution submitted to it by the International Women’s Peace League, which recently held its sessions here, on behalf of the League of Jewish Women. The resolution draws attention to the activities of the anti-Semitic International and protests against these activities as being closely connected with the militaristic and anti-democratic reactionary elements who are diverting the attention of the people from the real causes of suffering, by alleging that the Jews are responsible for everything.”

Jones, Leslie. “The German-Jewish Soldiers of the First World War.” History Today. 11 June 2013. Web. 18 July 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/print/88831>. “In October 1935 Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels peremptorily announced that ‘It is forbidden to list the names of fallen Jews on memorials and memorial plaques for the fallen of the world war.’ According to Nazi ideology a Jew, even a Jew who had died for Germany, was not a real German. Following Goebbels’ edict, some war memorials duly underwent ‘Aryanisation’.”

Karady, Victor. “Political Antisemitism and Its Christian Antecedent. Trying to Make Sense of Nonsense.” Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History 3 (July 2012). Quest.cdecjournal.it. Journal of Fondazione CDEC, July 2012. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/focus.php?id=289>. “The central thesis of this paper is that political antisemitism cannot be understood without taking into account what should be regarded as its Christian foundation proper, the perception and stigmatization of Jews as dangerous aliens. By introducing the differentiation between an ‘chimerical anti-Semitism’, a product of the pre-modern mental set-up, often generated by Christian religious phantasmagoria, and a modern anti-Semitism with concrete references to social relations in industrial and post-industrial societies with a trend to associate exclusively Jews to societal ills, it is argued that the latter can be regarded as an ideological construction which represent the rationalization of deeply inbred preconceptions about Jews as radical aliens and as bearers of a set of negative characteristics. The article presents a reflection on the Christian origins, the development of Jew-hatred during the Middle Ages and the early modern period and discusses the extension of secularized anti-Semitic conceptions in various European societies as well as the main observable topical patterns of judeophobia in modern times.”

Karradine, Karen. “New Agers Fall for Antisemitism.” Mosaic. 17 Sept. 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://mosaicmagazine.com/picks/2013/09/anti-semitism-watch/?utm_source=Mosaic+Daily+Email&utm_campaign=fe3bdd19cd-Mosaic_2013_9_18&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_0b0517b2ab-fe3bdd19cd-41142621>. “It is only recently that this new form of hostility, which I call New Age antisemitism, has come about. It is a heartbreaking and troubling experience for me to watch as a movement for peace and enlightenment becomes sullied by an ancient form of hatred.”

Kertzer, David I. The Popes against the Jews: The Vatican’s Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-semitism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001. Print. “In this meticulously researched, unflinching, and reasoned study, … David I. Kertzer presents shocking revelations about the role played by the Vatican in the development of modern anti-Semitism. Working in long-sealed Vatican archives, Kertzer unearths startling evidence to undermine the Church’s argument that it played no direct role in the spread of modern anti-Semitism. In doing so, he challenges the Vatican’s recent official statement on the subject, We Remember. Kertzer tells an unsettling story that has stirred up controversy around the world and sheds a much-needed light on the past.”

Kirsch, Adam. “A World Without Jews.” Tablet Magazine. 13 Feb. 2013. Web. 09 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/123971/a-world-without-jews>. “The title of David Nirenberg’s new book, Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition, uses a term pointedly different from the one we are used to. The hatred and oppression of Jews has been known since the late 19th century as anti-Semitism—a label, it is worth remembering, originally worn with pride by German Jew-haters. What is the difference, then, between anti-Semitism and anti-Judaism? The answer, as it unfolds in Nirenberg’s scholarly tour de force, could be summarized this way: Anti-Semitism needs actual Jews to persecute; anti-Judaism can flourish perfectly well without them, since its target is not a group of people but an idea.”

Mikies, David. “The Diplomat of Shoah History.” Tablet. 26 July 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyb7Hjv_AVI&feature=related>. “The dispute between Poles and Jews about the Nazi period can move in unsettling directions, ones that make an unhealed wound hurt even worse. … The Polish role in the Holocaust had other roots, darker ones: traditional anti-Semitism and the greedy desire for Jewish property.”

Mikies, David. “Why Literally Everyone in the World Hates the Jews, and What To Do About It.” Tablet Magazine. 4 Sept. 2013. Web. 10 Sept. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/143487/academic-anti-semitism>. “Two new scholarly books show how even the most neutral academic can feel bound to answer anti-Semites’ demonic vigor in kind. In many parts of the world, Jews are increasingly unwelcome in the 21st century. The number of countries in which wearing visibly Jewish clothing such as a kippa means risking physical violence has hit an all-time high. On both the individual and the national level, Jews are targeted with extraordinary ferocity: We hear Israelis (but no one else) being compared to Nazis; we are told that Jewish nationalism is oppressive and archaic; that Israel is a uniquely racist country; that Israel’s terrible misdeeds explain why people hate Jews. Instead of being seen as ordinary or all too human, Jews are seen as carriers of a uniquely transcendent evil. No other group of people on the planet is accused so much and of such fantastic wrongs. For a few decades after the Holocaust, it seemed that anti-Semitism might wane or even die out. That hope has now been defeated. Could anything we do or say stem the tide, or will Jew-hatred persist as long as there are Jews to hate?”

Moynihan, Michael. “Hiding Judaism in Copenhagen.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/128077/hiding-judaism-in-copenhagen>. “Walking this length of Nørrebrogade, as I did on a freezing day last month, provides a street-level view of multicultural Denmark. It’s a perfectly pleasant experience, provided you are, like me, an unassuming gentile. For Jews exploring Nørrebro, it’s advisable to heed the advice of Israel’s ambassador to Denmark, Arthur Avnon, who last November suggested that Jews traveling in Copenhagen exercise extreme subtlety: Don’t speak Hebrew too loudly, cover up any visible Star of David jewelry, fold your kippot and slip them into your pockets. In other words, in certain areas of Copenhagen, it’s best to keep your Judaism to yourself.”

Nirenberg, David. Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2013. Print. “This incisive history upends the complacency that confines anti-Judaism to the ideological extremes in the Western tradition. With deep learning and elegance, David Nirenberg shows how foundational anti-Judaism is to the history of the West.”

“Pope Warns of Anti-semitism as Rome Commemorates Holocaust.” The Times of Israel. 12 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.timesofisrael.com/pope-warns-of-anti-semitism-as-rome-commemorates-holocaust/>. “Pope Francis urged vigilance against any resurgence of anti-Semitism ahead of the 70th anniversary of the deportation of Rome’s Jews to Auschwitz. Commemoration of the 1943 deportation, he said, ‘will also be an occasion to recall the importance of remaining vigilant in order that we do not regress, under any pretext, to any forms of intolerance and anti-Semitism, in Rome and in the rest of the world.’ More than 1,000 Roman Jews were deported by Nazi occupiers on Oct. 16, 1943; only 16 survived.”

Rubin, Barry. “With an Anti-Semitic Holland, Where Is It Safe for Jews?” The Jewish Press. 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/analysis/rubin-reports/if-holland-is-becoming-anti-semitic-where-else-is-safe-for-jews/2013/04/03/>. “A few years ago in Amsterdam I was shown the most popular manual published in the Netherlands, in Dutch, on how to raise one’s children as proper Muslims. The book included virulently anti-Semitic passages, based on Muslim holy texts. After the Jewish community objected, the authorities forced the publisher to put white tape over the offending passages. The tape could easily be peeled off by purchases so that these words could be read.”

Rupnow, Dirk. “Racializing Historiography: Anti-Jewish Scholarship in the Third Reich.” Patterns of Prejudice 42.1 (2008): 27-59. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 July 2012. “Despite continued debates about the role of German historians in the Third Reich, current scholarship views the work that was conducted under National Socialism under the rubric of Judenforschung (research on Jews) as a marginal and pseudo-scientific phenomenon.”

Sedan, Gil. “German Bishops: Catholic Church Responsible for Lack of Resistance.” JTA Archives. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 Jan. 1995. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1995/01/25/2881746/german-bishops-catholic-church-responsible-for-lack-of-resistance>. “The Conference of German Bishops has admitted the ‘shared responsibility’ of the Catholic Church for anti-Semitism during World War II.”

Snowman, Daniel. “Pain and Deliverance.” History Today Aug. 2013. History Today. 18 July 2013. Web. 19 July 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/daniel-snowman/pain-and-deliverance>. “Daniel Snowman surveys four recent books that look at the impact of antisemitism on Jewish cultural identity during the 19th and 20th centuries: Forbidden Music by Michael Haas, The Exiles Return by Elisabeth de Waal, The Pope’s Jews by Gordon Thomas, and Giants: The Dwarfs of Auschwits by Yehuda Koren and Eilat Negev.”

“Soviet Authorities Investigate Long List of Anti-semitic Practices.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 July 1928. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1928/07/08/archive/soviet-authorities-investigate-long-list-of-anti-semitic-practices>. “Cases of anti-Semitic practices are being investigated by the Soviet authorities. A list of these activities published today shows the spread of anti-Semitism in various localities. Jewish workers in the factories Cemintern and Krasni Profinterin, in Werchnedne-Provsk were beaten. In Mosir a member of the district soviet refused to vote for a budget for a Jewish workmen’s club, declaring there is no need for a house for ‘Zhidovske dances.’”

Turner, David. “Chapter 20, “The Acquiescence of The United States Government in the Murder of the Jews.”  Jerusalem Post – Blogs. 26 Aug. 2013. Web. 27 Aug. 2013. <http://blogs.jpost.com/content/acquiescence-united-states-murder-jews>. “In response to the intensifying threat to German Jewry Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau approached Roosevelt in 1938 suggesting the president promote British Guiana as refuge for refugees. But, ‘Roosevelt did not favor that particular proposal.’ British Guiana was the first of several rejected suggestions of locations outside the U.S. for refuge. But administration reticence regarding European Jewry was not limited to ‘refuge’: ‘Pehle’s office [in Treasury] had authorized a number of charitable groups to use funds in the U.S. regulated under the Trading with the Enemy Act to pay for food, medicine, and other aid to refugees and other civilian victims of the war in Europe. Those efforts were systematically blocked by some officials in the U.S. State Department.’ It was this systematic antisemitic policy expressed by the Roosevelt Administration that led three senior members of Morgenthau’s staff to charge the administration as complicit in Germany’s Final Solution to the Jewish Problem.”

Unger-Sargon, Batya. “Is Jewish Control Over the Slave Trade a Nation of Islam Lie or Scholarly Truth?” Tablet Magazine. 5 Aug. 2013. Web. 08 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/137476/slave-trade-black-muslim>. “At a recent rally for the Voting Rights Act in Alabama, Minister Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam spoke of the Jews. Surrounded by a cadre of tall, glowering men with snappy suits, sunglasses, and folded arms, Farrakhan addressed an enthusiastic crowd in terms that would be unsurprisng to anyone familiar with his unique way of stirring up an audience. After asserting, with a benevolent smile, that he is not an anti-Semite, Farrakhan dove into his feelings about Jews: ‘I just don’t like the way they misuse their power,’ he said. ‘And I have a right to say that, without being labeled anti-Semitic, when I have done nothing to stop a Jewish person from getting an education, setting up a business, or doing whatever a Jewish person desires to do.’ The remarks were evocative of the sentiments he has shared widely throughout his decades-long career as a public figure—namely, that blacks should not trust Jews.”

“Von Prittwitz Says Anti-semitism Temporary Phase; Hitler Not Voice of Germany.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Oct. 1930. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/10/27/2787917/von-prittwitz-says-antisemitism-temporary-phase-hitler-not-voice-of-germany>. “A very young looking man for an ambassador, with a polite worldly manner, offered a statement to America, on his arrival to resume his duties as Ambassador, reassuring the citizens of the United States that any seeming disturbances in Germany were due only to the lack of economic stability and not to any untoward tendencies of the German public.”

Weeks, Theodor R. “Russians, Jews, and Poles: Russification and Antisemitism 1881-1914.” Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History 3 (July 2012). Quest.cdecjournal.it. Journal of Fondazione CDEC, July 2012. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/img/header.gif>. “Relations between Poles and Jews deteriorated significantly in the three decades leading up to World War I. Many reasons for this phenomenon can be given, for example: economic competition, a general atmosphere of acute nationalism, increased migration, perceived threats to traditional forms of life and religion. Exacerbating all of these factors, however, was the fact of Polish statelessness and the extreme sensitivity of Poles to perceived threats to their culture and nation. In particular within the Russian Empire, Poles perceived the very future of their nation at risk. In such circumstances the continued existence of Jewish cultural difference combined with the development of specifically Jewish forms of national awakening (e.g., the Bund and Zionism) were understood by many in Polish society as ingratitude and collaboration with the Russian occupier.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “The Foundation of Antisemitism: We Want to Kill Too.” Sixmillioncrucifixions.com. 2011. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://sixmillioncrucifixions.com/The_Foundation_of_Antisemitism_-_We Want _to_Kill_Too.html>. “No one should be too surprised that these people kill with a clean conscience, given that they never heard from their pope, bishops, or parish priests that murdering Jews and stealing their property was a crime and a mortal sin, and that participation in mass murder would condemn their souls to hell.”

Wistrich, Robert S. “Kristallnacht Redux? Anti-Semitism Flourishes in Middle East.” Louisville Courier-Journal. 6 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <http://www.courier-journal.com/article/20111106/OPINION04/311060030/Kristallnacht-redux-Anti-Semitism-flourishes-Middle-East?odyssey=mod%7Cnewswell%7Ctext%7CHome%7Cs>. In the Middle East the hatred of Jews burns fiercely. There is insistence of the reality of the ‘Jewish conspiracy for world domination.’ There is also a revival of the medieval Christian blood-libel against the Jews.”

Zdiara, Kevin. “The Portuguese Dreyfus.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 14 Oct. 2012. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/5217/features/the-portuguese-dreyfus/>. “In 1894, the Jewish Captain Alfred Dreyfus was wrongly convicted of treason by an anti-Semitic French military court. It took 10 years before that injustice was rectified. The world remembers Dreyfus. It should also remember the Jewish military officer Artur Carlos de Barros Basto, wrongly convicted by an anti-Semitic Portuguese military court in 1937. The injustice suffered by Barros Basto took much longer to correct. The Portuguese government overturned his conviction only this year.”

 

 

Adolf Eichmann “Chief Executioner of the Third Reich”

516px-WP_Adolf_Eichmann_1942

“For the dispatch of each train by the Accused [Eichmann] to Auschwitz, or to any other extermination site, carry one thousand human beings, meant that the Accused was a direct accomplice in one thousand premeditated acts of murder . … we have found that the Accused acted out of an inner identification with the orders that he was given and out of a fierce will to achieve the criminal objective … This Court sentences Adolf Eichmann to death.” Judge Moshe Landau, December 15, 1961.

 

Aarons, Mark, and John Loftus. Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, the Nazis, and the Swiss Banks. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1998. Print. “Written in rivetings fashion by the coauthors of The Secret War Against the Jews, Unholy Trinity tells one of the darkest tales of World War II. After the war had ended, fearing a surge of Soviet growth, the Papacy entered into an espionage alliance with British and American intelligence agents. Subsuming justice to the nascent Cold War ideology, these three powers ferreted Nazi criminals out of Europe so that they could be used in the supposedly greater fight against Communism. The Vatica’s Nazi smuggling network was penetrated by Prince Anton Turkul, the great Soviet double agent who turned the operations into a sting for his masters in the Kremlin.

“Adolf Eichmann.” History Learning Site: Adolf Eichmann. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/adolf_eichmann.htm>. “Adolf Eichmann is labeled as the man who masterminded the actual organisation of the Holocaust. Adolf Eichmann was a SS officer who planned with meticulous detail the sending of Jews and other groups to death camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka and Sobibor. Such work was to earn Eichmann the title ‘Chief Executioner of the Third Reich’.”

“Adolf Eichmann Nazi Files Will Stay Secret – for Now.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 3 July 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://forward.com/articles/179781/adolf-eichmann-nazi-files-will-stay-secret-for-n/>. “A German court rejected a German newspaper’s bid to view files related to Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, ruling they should remain classified. The Bild Zeitung newspaper, which sued in 2011 to see the files, could try to appeal the June 28 [2013] decision by the Federal Administrative Court to Germany’s Supreme Court, according to reports. The administrative court determined that the foreign intelligence agency was within its rights to black out passages from the documents.”

“Adolf Eichmann.” The Nizkor Project. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/e/eichmann-adolf/>. “SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer Karl Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962) was head of the Department for Jewish Affairs in the Gestapo from 1941 to 1945 and was chief of operations in the deportation of three million Jews to extermination camps.”

Aharoni, Zvi, and Wilhelm Dietl. Operation Eichmann: The Truth about the Pursuit, Capture and Trial. New York: J. Wiley, 1997. Print. “Operation Eichmann, as the pursuit, capture, and trial of the notorious Nazi official was known, stunned the world. Its success was due largely to the unceasing efforts of one man, Zvi Aharoni, an experienced Mossad operative who was a skilled investigator and interrogator. He tracked Eichmann to Argentina, secured photographs that established his identity, and was a key player in the plot to kidnap the exiled war criminal and bring him to trial. Above all, as the sole person to interrogate ‘the architect of the Final Solution’ after his capture, and the man who convinced Eichmann to admit his identity and face trial in Israel, Zvi Aharoni is the only one who knows firsthand what Eichmann actually said—a controversial subject often misrepresented in previous accounts.”

Aloff, Mindy. “What We Know, and Don’t, About Eichmann.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 23 June 2006. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://forward.com/articles/829/what-we-know-and-donet-about-eichmann/>. “Most of what we know – or think we know – about Adolf Eichmann, a notorious Nazi functionary, may be wrong. Or so readers will surmise from ‘Becoming Eichmann,’ David Cesarani’s monumental biography of the man who made the trains run to Auschwitz and, through other enthusiastic bureaucratic decisions and initiatives, effected the deaths of millions. The book arrives wreathed in appreciative notices for its exhaustive, Javert-like research — much of it incorporating sources unavailable until the 1990s — and for its overturning of long-held presumptions concerning Eichmann’s antisemitism, intelligence and motivations for his deeds.”

Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem; a Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: Viking, 1963. Print. “Originally appearing as a series of articles in The New Yorker, Hannah Arendt’s authoritative and stunning report on the trial of Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann sparked a flurry of debate upon its publication. This revised edition includes material that came to light after the trial, as well as Arendt’s postscript directly addressing the controversy that arose over her account. A major journalistic triumph by an intellectual of singular influence, Eichmann in Jerusalem is as shocking as it is informative—an unflinching look at one of the most unsettling (and unsettled) issues of the Twentieth Century. This edition includes an introduction by Amos Elon.”

Ashman, Charles R., and Robert J. Wagman. The Nazi Hunters. New York: Pharos, 1988. Print. “Focuses on the Nazi hunters Simon Wiesenthal, the Klarsfelds, Edgar Bronfman, Elan Steinberg, Israel Singer of the World Jewish Congress, Rabbi Marvin Hier, Neal Sher, and the Justice Department’s Office of Special Investigations.”

The Attorney-General of the Government of Israel v. Eichmann. 56 The American Journal of International Law 805-845. 17 Sept. 2013. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “Judicial Decisions by Covey Oliver of the Board of Editors. Jurisdiction of Israel to try Eichmann–international law in relationship to the Israeli Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law.”

Baade, Hans W. “The Eichmann Trial: Some Legal Aspects.” Duke Law Journal 1961.3 (1961): 400-20. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “In Israel, Mr. Eichmann was charged with ‘crimes against the Jewish people’ and ‘crimes against humanity’ under the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law of August I, 1950. He is presently being tried under these charges by the District Court of Jerusalem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the legality of the Eichmann trial under Israeli law and under international law. While this discussion necessarily has to proceed from the assumption that the factual allegations of the prosecution are substantially correct and susceptible to legal proof, no opinion is expressed as to the facts. It need hardly be added that this would be highly improper at the present time.”

Bascomb, Neal. Hunting Eichmann: How a Band of Survivors and a Young Spy Agency Chased down the World’s Most Notorious Nazi. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009. Print. “When the Allies stormed Berlin in the last days of the Third Reich, Adolf Eichmann shed his SS uniform and vanished. Following his escape from two American POW camps, his retreat into the mountains and out of Europe, and his path to an anonymous life in Buenos Aires, his pursuers are a bulldog West German prosecutor, a blind Argentinean Jew and his beautiful daughter, and a budding, ragtag spy agency called the Mossad, whose operatives have their own scores to settle (and whose rare surveillance photographs are published here for the first time). The capture of Eichmann and the efforts by Israeli agents to secret him out of Argentina to stand trial is the stunning conclusion to this thrilling historical account, told with the kind of pulse-pounding detail that rivals anything you’d find in great spy fiction.”

Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale?: Nazi-Jewish Negotiations, 1933-1945. New Haven: Yale UP, 1994. Print. “In this riveting book, a leading Holocaust scholar examines the dramatic attempts to negotiate with the Nazis for the release of Jews in exchange for money, goods, or political benefits, and explores the moral issues raised by the negotiations.”

Black, Ian, and Benny Morris. Israel’s Secret Wars: A History of Israel’s Intelligence Services. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991. Print. “This is the first documented, comprehensive history of all three of Israel’s intelligence services, from their origins in the 1930s, through Israel’s five wars, up to the present, with a new chapter updating the book through the Gulf War. Highly readable and exhaustively researched, it provides the most balanced view yet of this controversial subject.”

Braham, Randolph L., and Scott Miller. The Nazis’ Last Victims: The Holocaust in Hungary. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1998. Print. “The Nazis’ Last Victims articulates and historically scrutinizes both the uniqueness and the universality of the Holocaust in Hungary, a topic often minimized in general works on the Holocaust. The result of the 1994 conference at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on the fiftieth anniversary of the deportation of Hungarian Jewry, this anthology examines the effects on Hungary as the last country to be invaded by the Germans. The Nazis’ Last Victims questions what Hungarians knew of their impending fate and examines the heightened sense of tension and haunting drama in Hungary, where the largest single killing process of the Holocaust period occurred in the shortest amount of time. Through the combination of two vital components of history writing—the analytical and the recollective—The Nazis’ Last Victims probes the destruction of the last remnant of European Jewry in the Holocaust.”

Braham, Randolph L. Eichmann and the Destruction of Hungarian Jewry. New York: World Federation of Hungarian Jews; Distributed by Twayne, 1961. Print.

Brayard, Florent. “Grasping the Spokes of the Wheel of History.” History & Memory 20.1 (2008): 48-88. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “Since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the access to new archives previously kept secret by the Soviet Union, historians of Nazism have had a growing tendency to believe that the historical narrative should be based exclusively on archives and refrain from using eyewitness testimonies, which are such fragile sources. This article argues, on the basis of the case of Adolf Eichmann’s involvement in Zyklon B deliveries to the extermination camps, that such an approach is unsatisfactory. Without eyewitness testimonies, neither Eichmann’s implication in this activity (which he of course always denied) nor the role played by Kurt Gerstein could be narrated. Taking into account only what is documented in archives would, therefore, mean relinquishing the aim of creating as complete a picture of the past as possible. In the case discussed in the article, this would mean forfeiting information that can alter the usual perception of Eichmann, Gerstein, or the workings of the RSHA.”

Breitman, Richard. “Plans for the Final Solution in Early 1941.” German Studies Review 17.3 (1994): 483-93. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “In the last fifteen years historians have felled many trees debating whether the Nazi regime had long planned or hastily improvised the Holocaust. This controversy has often focused on a seemingly small matter of timing: determination of the date when the SS moved to a continentwide program of mass murder, which they euphemistically called the Final Solution of the Jewish Question. The date of a decision to embark on the Final Solution is not only of interest in itself, but also because it helps us establish with greater precision the range of influences on, and participants in, the process-in laymen’s terms, the causes and the villains.” Adolf Eichmann had a big part in the Final Solution.

Breton, Albert, and Ronald Wintrobe. “The Bureaucracy of Murder Revisited.” Journal of Political Economy 94.5 (1986): 905. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “The paper reexamines the question of the guilt of subordinates in large organizations, a question posed with special force by Hannah Arendt in her book on Adolf Eichmann. He consistently claimed innocence on the ground that he was only following orders. Arendt accepted this picture of the regime but nevertheless indicted him for ‘crimes against humanity.’ The paper suggests that this model of the Nazi bureaucracy is false: in the Nazi bureaucracy of murder, as in other large bureaucracies, subordinates competed with each other to advance the goals of superiors they trusted. In this context, their guilt is easily established.”

Cesarani, David. “Adolf Eichmann: The Mind of a War Criminal.” BBC News. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/genocide/eichmann_01.shtml>. “Adolf Eichmann systematically applied the logistics of commerce to the annihilation of Jews during the Holocaust. David Cesarani examines the mind of a Nazi war criminal.”

Cohen, Roger. “Why? New Eichmann Notes Try to Explain: [Biography].” New York Times 13 Aug. 1999. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “So, early on in memoirs published today by the German daily Die Welt, does Adolf Eichmann seek to explain his central role in the killing of six million European Jews by the Nazis. The statement, part of an attempt by Eichmann to portray himself as a man driven by a visceral sense of duty rather than hatred to organize the mass murder of Jews, appears on page 6 of 127 pages of handwritten reflections that Die Welt said it found at the Center for Research on Nazi Crimes in the southern German town of Ludwigsburg. The photocopied pages in Ludwigsburg — whose authenticity was confirmed by several German historians and has not been contested by Eichmann’s family — appear to be a synopsis of, or an introduction to, the larger body of Eichmann’s writings that Israel has said it intends to release.”

Donovan, John. Eichmann, Man of Slaughter. New York: Avon Book Division, Hearst, 1960. Print.

Draper, G.I.A.D. “THE EICHMANN TRIAL A JUDICIAL PRECEDENT.” International Affairs 38.4 (1962): 485-93. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “‘IF there is any regret in their hearts it is because the loathsome work was not completed. If there is sorrow, it is because the means chosen were not effective enough to complete the task.’ In these words the Israeli Attorney-General described to the judges of the District Court of Jerusalem the present state of mind of those Germans, many of whom are still alive and thriving, who made possible and carried out mass murders on a scale and in a manner more frightful than the world has ever had the misfortune to know. The occasion was the trial of Adolf Eichmann, a former S.S. police official who, from his desk in Berlin, put in motion, operated and controlled the extermination of some six millions of European Jews. This trial has made reflecting men and women aware, everywhere and for ever, that the limits of man’s inhumanity to man are solely those of time, opportunity, and scientific knowledge. The rate of expansion of the latter needs no description.”

Eichmann, Adolf, Jochen Von. Lang, and Claus Sibyll. Eichmann Interrogated: Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1983. Print. “As head of the Gestapo’s ‘Jewish Evacuation Department,’ Lieutenant Colonel Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962) was the driving force in the impoverishment, deportation, and extermination of millions of Jews. In 1945 he escaped with a Vatican passport and fled to South America. In May 1960 the Israelis located and kidnapped Eichmann from Argentina, and brought him to trial in Israel, where he was convicted and hanged, his remains cremated and scattered. For nearly a year prior to his trial Eichmann was interrogated by Captain Avner W. Less, a German Jew whose father and numerous relatives perished in Nazi concentration camps. Eichmann Interrogated is a superbly edited condensation of their 275-hour exchange, representing ten percent of the 3,564-page total. Amid his lies, distortions, evasions, half-truths, and startling admissions, Eichmann fully acknowledges the reality of the Holocaust while attempting to minimize his central role in its execution. As his life from traveling salesman to mass murderer unfolds, Eichmann’s defense becomes a chilling self-indictment and a warning of Evil’s often unassuming visage.”

Goñi, Uki. The Real Odessa: How Perón Brought the Nazi War Criminals to Argentina. London: Granta, 2002. Print. “Drawing on American and European intelligence documents, Uki Goni shows how from 1946 onward a Nazi escape operation was based at the presidential palace in Buenos Aires, harboring such war criminals as Adolf Eichmann and Josef Mengele. Goni uncovers an elaborate network that relied on the complicity of the Vatican, the Argentine Catholic Church, and the Swiss authorities. The discoveries made in this meticulously researched book reveal the entangled web of the Nazi regime and its sympathizers and has prompted Argentine officials to demand closed files on the Nazi era from their current government.”

Harel, Isser, and Shlomo J. Shpiro. The House on Garibaldi Street. London: Frank Cass, 1997. Print. “This is the true story of the kidnapping of Adolf Eichmann in Argentina by the Mossad, Israel’s secret intelligence serviceunder the leadership of Isser Harel. This is his account, revised and updated, with the real names and details of all Mossad personnel.”

Harris, Whitney R. Tyranny on Trial: The Trial of the Major German War Criminals at the End of World War II at Nuremberg, Germany, 1945-1946. Dallas: Southern Methodist UP, 1999. Print. “Tyranny on Trial relates the full story of the historic Nuremberg Trial. In this classic work, now in revised and expanded edition, Whitney R. Harris presents indisputable evidence of the horrific crimes of Adolph Hitler and Nazism, and irrefutable proof of the realities of the Holocaust.”

Kerr, Peter. “Man Who Seized Eichmann Recalls Secret Role.” New York Times 28 Apr. 1986, Late Edition East Coast ed.: B2. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “‘Here I see a man like you and me,’ said Mr. [Peter Malkin], staring into the distance as he envisioned the bedroom of the villa where [Adolf Eichmann] was manacled by the leg to a bed. ‘I had held his hand and I wondered, ‘How could this be?’ I tried to imagine six million, a row of six million waiting for their trains. It didn’t work. I couldn’t see it. It wasn’t real.’ Mr. Malkin describes his occupation today as a consultant with expertise in ‘security and antiterrorism.’ He is 58 years old and barrel-chested. He speaks English with a Hebrew accent, and when interviewed, he chain-smoked cigarettes and sipped Perrier water through a straw. ‘I told him, ‘You have a beautiful boy – I saw him through the window,’ Mr. Malkin recalled. ‘He reminds me of another boy that could be have been his brother. It was my sister’s son. The only difference is that this boy is dead.’ ‘He said, ‘It’s not my fault; he was Jewish!’ Mr. Malkin recalled. ‘He said, ‘I have nothing against the Jews. On the contrary, I love Jews.’ ”

Kraft, Jessica. “The Eichmann Trial – My Jewish Learning.” Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/1914-1948/The_Holocaust/Aftermath/Eichmann_Trial.shtml>. “Eichmann was found guilty on all counts and sentenced to death. On June 1, 1962 he was hanged. This was the only time that the death penalty was used in the history of the state of Israel. Eichmann was prosecuted under the provisions of the Nazi and Nazi Collaborators Punishment Law, established in 1950 by Ben Gurion’s government. The trial was only possible because a sovereign Jewish state with its own political structure, legal system, and intelligence and security agencies existed. For the first time in history, the Jewish people had the means to bring about justice to those who persecuted them. Ben Gurion and other founders of the state saw this as an intrinsic value of Israel’s national identity.”

Lasok, D. “The Eichmann Trial.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 11.2 (1962): 355-74. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “THE trial of Adolf Eichmann will go down in history as a trial without precedent not only because of the enormity of the charges but mainly because it is likely to perpetuate and deepen the controversy provoked by the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal.’ Reference had already been made to Eichmann at Nuremberg and the account of his activities recorded in a two-volume report of the Polish War Crimes Commission. But the drama unfolded with his seizure by Israeli agents and abduction from Argentina in May 1960. From the reaction of the Argentinian government to this obvious act of violation of Argentina’s sovereignty one might have expected a repetition of the Jacob-Salomon Case in reverse, but history did not repeat itself and Eichmann had no alternative but to go into the glass cage provided for him at the Jerusalem court.”

Levin, Meyer. “Eichmann’s Last Victim.” Coronet July 1961: 98+. Old Magazine Articles. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/Rudolf_Kastner_Article_pdf>. The tragic fate of Dr. Rudolf Kastner, Eichmann’s last victim is explored. He was a Hungarian Jewish underground leader who negotiated with the Nazis and saved many of his people from extermination.

“The Long Road to Eichmann’s Arrest: A Nazi War Criminal’s Life in Argentina.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 1 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/the-long-road-to-eichmann-s-arrest-a-nazi-war-criminal-s-life-in-argentina-a-754486.html>. “Before his arrest by Israel’s Mossad intelligence service, Adolf Eichmann boasted openly to other foreigners in Argentina of the war crimes he had committed. He confided in one journalist that his only mistake was not having murdered all the Jews. ‘We didn’t do our work correctly,’ he said.”

Mulisch, Harry. Criminal Case 40/61, the Trial of Adolf Eichmann: An Eyewitness Account. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2005. Print. “The trial of Adolf Eichmann began in 1961 under a deceptively simple label, ‘criminal case 40/61.’ Hannah Arendt covered the trial for the New Yorker magazine and recorded her observations in Eichmann in Jerusalem: The Banality of Evil. Harry Mulisch was also assigned to cover the trial for a Dutch news weekly. Arendt would later say in her book’s preface that Mulisch was one of the few people who shared her views on the character of Eichmann. … Mulisch modestly called his book on case 40/61 a report, and it is certainly that, as he gives firsthand accounts of the trial and its key players and scenes (the defendant’s face strangely asymmetric and riddled by tics, his speech absurdly baroque). Eichmann’s character comes out in his incessant bureaucratizing and calculating, as well as in his grandiose visions of himself as a Pontius Pilate-like innocent. As Mulisch intersperses his dispatches from Jerusalem with meditative accounts of a divided and ruined Berlin, an eerily rebuilt Warsaw, and a visit to the gas chambers of Auschwitz, Criminal Case 40/61, the Trial of Adolf Eichmann becomes as a disturbing and highly personal essay on the Nazi extermination of European Jews and on the human capacity to commit evil ever more efficiently in an age of technological advancement.”

Rein, Raanan. “The Eichmann Kidnapping: Its Effects on Argentine-Israeli Relations and the Local Jewish Community.” Jewish Social Studies 7.3 (2001): 101-30. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “This article will examine the consequences of the Eichmann kidnapping for the Jewish community of Argentina and for Buenos Aires’ relations with Jerusalem. The contrast between the very speedy resolution of the crisis in Israeli-Argentine relations and the affair’s long-lasting effects on Argentina’s Jews indicates once again that the interests of the local Jewish community and those of the state of Israel-which defined itself on the day of its birth as ‘the Jewish state’-are not completely congruent and involve, at times, different dynamics. It also indicates that Argentine authorities were too often unwilling or unable to put a stop to antisemitic attacks by nationalist groups. Instead, they opted for closer relations with the Jewish state, hoping in this way to prevent such attacks from blackening Argentina’s image in Western public opinion in general and in the American media in particular. Securing U.S. support and economic cooperation was, after all, a prime goal for all Argentine governments in the post-World War II era.”

Rohter, Larry. “Half-century Later, a New Look at Argentine-Nazi Ties.” New York Times 4 Apr. 2005: A8. Pro. Web. “That scores of fugitive Nazis found their way to Argentina after World War II, aided and abetted by Gen. Juan D. Peron, is no secret. But according to a book just published here [Buenos Aires] that draws extensively on archival material only now being made available to researchers, his government also offered a haven for the profits of German companies that had been part of the Nazi war machine and whose assets the victorious Allies would otherwise have seized.” “The German Connection: The Laundering of Nazi Money in Argentina’ by Gaby Weber.

Scott, Shane. “C.I.A. Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show.” New York Times 7 June 2006: A3. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “The Central Intelligence Agency took no action after learning the pseudonym and whereabout of the fugitive Holocaust administrator Adolf Eichmann in 1958, according to C.I.A. document released Tuesday that shed new light on the spy agency’s of of former Nazis as informants after World War II.”

“‘Vatican Aided Eichmann’s Escape’” Www.JPost.com. 14 Mar. 2010. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/International/Vatican-aided-Eichmanns-escape>. “Campaigners in Germany are challenging the 50-year secrecy order that binds files on Adolf Eichmann’s flight from Germany after World War II, the Daily Mail reported on Sunday. According to the dissenters, led by German journalist Gabriele Weber, the dossier may contain information that shows Eichmann’s post-war escape from the country was aided by the Vatican and by German officials.”

Weitz, Yechiam. “In the Name of Six Million Accusers: Gideon Hausner as Attorney-General and His Place in the Eichmann Trial.” Israel Studies 14.2 (2009): 26-49. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “The article examines Gideon Hausner’s (1915-1990) appointment as attorney-general and later chief prosecutor in the Eichmann trial, his attitude towards the main issues that arose during the trial, his position on the issue of Jewish heroism during the Holocaust, how he became the definitive personification of the trial, and Shmuel Tamir’s opposition to the trial.”

Wiegrefe, Klaus. “West Germany’s Efforts to Influence the Eichmann Trial.” SpigelOnline. 15 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/the-holocaust-in-the-dock-west-germany-s-efforts-to-influence-the-eichmann-trial-a-756915.html>. “The 1961 trial in Israel of Holocaust organizer Adolf Eichmann was a global sensation. But it made West Germany nervous. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was afraid the trial could expose the Nazi pasts of government officials in Bonn. And his government did everything it could to influence the proceedings.”

 

 

Recent Nonfiction Books

 

Adelman, Jonathan R. Hitler and His Allies in World War II. London: Routledge, 2007. Print. “In an area where in-depth studies of Hitler’s relations with Nazi Germany’s allies, and the failure of Nazi Germany to make more effective use of them during the war, are scant, this is a survey that looks at the Soviet Union, Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Romania and Hungary and their relationship to Nazi Germany.”

“‘Angry Days’ Shows An America Torn Over Entering World War II.” NPR. 26 Mar. 2013. Web. 1 Aug. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/2013/03/26/175288241/angry-days-shows-an-america-torn-over-entering-world-war-ii>. “During the debate over whether to invade Iraq, or whether to stay in Afghanistan, many people looked back to World War II, describing it as a good and just war — a war the U.S. knew it had to fight. In reality, it wasn’t that simple. When Britain and France went to war with Germany in 1939, Americans were divided about offering military aid, and the debate over the U.S. joining the war was even more heated. It wasn’t until two years later, when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and Germany declared war against the U.S., that Americans officially entered the conflict. … Olson’s new book, Those Angry Days, shines the spotlight on the national debate over whether to go to war in Europe. President Franklin Roosevelt led the interventionist charge, while aviator Charles Lindbergh became an unofficial leader of the isolationist movement.”

Bacque, James. Crimes and Mercies: The Fate of German Civilians under Allied Occupation, 1944-1950. Toronto: Little, Brown and (Canada), 2006. Print. “More than 9 million Germans died as a result of deliberate Allied starvation and expulsion policies after World War II—one quarter of the country was annexed, and about 15 million people expelled in the largest act of ethnic cleansing the world has ever known. Over 2 million of these alone, including countless children, died on the road or in concentration camps in Poland and elsewhere. That these deaths occurred at all is still being denied by Western governments.”

Baranowski, Shelley. Strength through Joy: Consumerism and Mass Tourism in the Third Reich. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 2004. Print. “The giant Nazi leisure and tourism agency, Strength through Joy (KdF)’s low cost cultural events, factory beautification programs, organized sports, and, especially, mass tourism mitigated the tension between the Nazi regime’s investment in rearmament and German consumers’ desire for a higher standard of living. Shelley Baranowski reveals how Strength through Joy de-emphasized the sacrifices of the present while its programs presented visions of a prosperous future–that would materialize as soon as ‘living space’ was acquired. As an agency open to racially acceptable Germans only, it segregated the regime’s victims from the Nazi ‘racial community.’”

Beaumont, Roger A. The Nazis’ March to Chaos: The Hitler Era through the Lenses of Chaos-complexity Theory. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000. Print. “Rather than a technical treatise based on equations, this study of the Hitler era in Germany from the standpoint of chaos-complexity theory is a narrative history based on a non-linear perspective. After defining basic chaos-complexity concepts and terms, like sensitivity to initial conditions and fractals, the book explores the Third Reich as a chaotic system; the clash between the image of Nazi technical prowess and the anti-modernism in National Socialist ideology; and German and Nazi military tactics and doctrine as ways of coping with the chaos of war and imposing it upon the enemy.

Berhahn, V. R. “The Big Lie.” New York Times: Books. New York Times, 10 Dec. 2000. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/12/10/reviews/001210.10berghat.html>. “Since then [1960s] there have been any number of Hitler biographies and histories of the Third Reich. Now, with ”The Third Reich: A New History,” Michael Burleigh successfully adds another interpretation, one that, as he puts it, tells a ”very 20th-century story” about the ”almost total, moral collapse of an advanced industrial society at the heart of Europe’ and about ‘sections of the German elites and masses of ordinary people’ who ‘chose to abdicate their individual critical faculties in favor of a politics based on faith, hope, hatred and sentimental collective self-regard for their own race and nation.”’

Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2004. Print. “Karel Berkhoff provides a searing portrait of life in the Third Reich’s largest colony. Under the Nazis, a blend of German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and racist notions about the Slavs produced a reign of terror and genocide. But it is impossible to understand fully Ukraine’s response to this assault without addressing the impact of decades of repressive Soviet rule. Berkhoff shows how a pervasive Soviet mentality worked against solidarity, which helps explain why the vast majority of the population did not resist the Germans. He also challenges standard views of wartime eastern Europe by treating in a more nuanced way issues of collaboration and local anti-Semitism.”

Best, Nicholas. Five Days That Shocked the World: Eyewitness Accounts from Europe at the End of World War II. New York: Thomas Dunne /St. Martin’s, 2012. Print. “In the momentous days from April 28 to May 2, 1945, the world witnessed the death of two Fascist dictators and the fall of Berlin. Mussolini’s capture and execution by Italian partisans, the suicide of Adolf Hitler, and the fall of the German capital signaled the end of the four-year war in the European Theater. In Five Days That Shocked the World, Nicholas Best thrills readers with the first-person accounts of those who lived through this dramatic time.”

Blood, Philip W. Hitler’s Bandit Hunters: The SS and the Nazi Occupation of Europe. Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 2006. Print. “An original and thought-provoking work grounded in extensive research in German archives, Hitler’s Bandit Hunters focuses on this counterinsurgency campaign, the anvil of Hitler’s crusade for empire. Bandenbekämpfung portrayed insurgents as political and racial bandits, criminalized to a greater degree than enemies of the state; moreover, violence against them was not constrained by the prevailing laws of warfare. Philip Blood explains how German forces embraced the Bandenbekämpfung doctrine, demonstrating the equal culpability of both the SS police forces and the ‘heroic’  Waffen-SS combat arm and shattering the contrived postwar distinctions between them.”

Breitman, Richard, and Allan J. Lichtman. FDR and the Jews. Belknap of Harvard UP, 2013. Print. “Nearly seventy-five years after World War II, a contentious debate lingers over whether Franklin Delano Roosevelt turned his back on the Jews of Hitler’s Europe. Defenders claim that FDR saved millions of potential victims by defeating Nazi Germany. Others revile him as morally indifferent and indict him for keeping America’s gates closed to Jewish refugees and failing to bomb Auschwitz’s gas chambers.”

Campt, Tina. Other Germans: Black Germans and the Politics of Race, Gender, and Memory in the Third Reich. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2004. Print. “It’s hard to imagine an issue or image more riveting than Black Germans during the Third Reich. Yet accounts of their lives are virtually nonexistent, despite the fact that they lived through a regime dedicated to racial purity. Tina Campt’s Other Germans tells the story of this largely forgotten group of individuals, with important distinctions from other accounts. Most strikingly, Campt centers her arguments on race, rather than anti-semitism. She also provides oral history as background for her study, interviewing two Black Germans for the book.”

Citino, Robert Michael. Death of the Wehrmacht: The German Campaigns of 1942. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 2007. Print. “For Hitler and the German military, 1942 was a key turning point of World War II, as an overstretched but still lethal Wehrmacht replaced brilliant victories and huge territorial gains with stalemates and strategic retreats. In this major reevaluation of that crucial year, Robert Citino shows that the German army’s emerging woes were rooted as much in its addiction to the ‘war of movement’–attempts to smash the enemy in ‘short and lively’ campaigns–as they were in Hitler’s deeply flawed management of the war.”

Citino, Robert Michael. The Wehrmacht Retreats: Fighting a Lost War, 1943. Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, 2012. Print. “Throughout 1943, the German army, heirs to a military tradition that demanded and perfected relentless offensive operations, succumbed to the realities of its own overreach and the demands of twentieth-century industrialized warfare. In his new study, prizewinning author Robert Citino chronicles this weakening Wehrmacht, now fighting desperately on the defensive but still remarkably dangerous and lethal.”

Connelly, John. From Enemy to Brother: The Revolution in Catholic Teaching on the Jews, 1933-1965. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2012. Print. “In 1965 the Second Vatican Council declared that God loves the Jews. Yet the Church had taught for centuries that Jews were cursed by God, and had mostly kept silent as Jews were slaughtered by Nazis. How did an institution whose wisdom is said to be unchanging undertake one of the largest, yet most undiscussed, ideological swings in modern history?”

De, Zayas Alfred M. A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Print. “This book covers a part of history that many either do not know or would prefer to forget, in this case the forced expulsion of Ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe in the months following the end the World War Two. The book is balanced and has dozens of first-person accounts as well as archive material. It is a heartbreaking read. Highly recommended for those with any interest in human rights and opposing war crimes or crimes against humanity.”

DiNardo, Roichard L. Germany and the Axis Powers: From Coalition to Collapse. Lawrence, Kan.: Univ. of Kansas, 2005. Print. “It seemed that whenever Mussolini acted on his own, it was bad news for Hitler. Indeed, the Führer’s relations with his Axis partners were fraught with an almost total lack of coordination. Compared to the Allies, the coalition was hardly an alliance at all. Focusing on Germany’s military relations with Italy, Romania, Hungary, and Finland, Richard DiNardo unearths a wealth of information that reveals how the Axis coalition largely undermined Hitler’s objectives from the Eastern Front to the Balkans, Mediterranean, and North Africa.”

Douglas, R. M. Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War. New Haven [Conn.: Yale UP, 2012. Print. “Immediately after the Second World War, the victorious Allies authorized and helped to carry out the forced relocation of German speakers from their homes across central and southern Europe to Germany. The numbers were almost unimaginable—between 12,000,000 and 14,000,000 civilians, most of them women and children—and the losses horrifying—at least 500,000 people, and perhaps many more, died while detained in former concentration camps, while locked in trains en route, or after arriving in Germany exhausted, malnourished, and homeless.”

Edsel, Robert M. Saving Italy: The Race to Rescue a Nation’s Treasures from the Nazis. New York: W.W. Norton &, 2013. Print. “Saving Italy is an astonishing account of a little known American effort to save Italy’s vast store of priceless monuments and art during World War II. While American warriors were fighting the length of the country, other Americans were courageously working alongside to preserve the irreplaceable best of Italy’s culture. Read it and be proud of those who were on their own front lines of a cruel war.” (Tom Brokaw)

Fritzsche, Peter. Life and Death in the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2008. Print. “On January 30, 1933, hearing about the celebrations for Hitler’s assumption of power, Erich Ebermayer remarked bitterly in his diary, ‘We are the losers, definitely the losers.’ Learning of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, which made Jews non-citizens, he raged, ‘hate is sown a million-fold.’ Yet in March 1938, he wept for joy at the Anschluss with Austria: ‘Not to want it just because it has been achieved by Hitler would be folly.’”

Grier, Howard D. Hitler, Dönitz, and the Baltic Sea: The Third Reich’s Last Hope, 1944-1945. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 2007. Print. “The popular conception of Hitler in the final years of World War II is that of a deranged Fuhrer stubbornly demanding the defense of every foot of ground on all fronts and ordering hopeless attacks with nonexistent divisions. To imply that Hitler had a rational plan to win the war flies in the face of widely accepted interpretations, but historian Howard D. Grier persuasively argues here that Hitler did possess a strategy to regain the initiative in 1944-45 and that the Baltic theater played the key role in his plan.”

Hansen, Randall. Fire and Fury: The Allied Bombing of Germany, 1942-1945. New York: New American Library, 2008. Print. “During the Second World War, Allied air forces dropped nearly two million tons of bombs on Germany, destroying some 60 cities, killing more than half a million German citizens, and leaving 80,000 pilots dead. But the terrible truth is that much of the bombing was carried out against the expressed demands of the Allied military leadership, leading to the needless deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians.”

Hoffmann, Peter. Behind Valkyrie: German Resistance to Hitler : Documents. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 2011. Print. “While the ‘Valkyrie’ plot by Nazi officers to kill Adolf Hitler is the best known instance of German opposition to his dictatorship, there were many other significant acts of resistance. Behind Valkyrie collects documents, letters, and testimonies of Germans who fought Hitler from within, making many of them available in their entirety and in English for the first time. Peter Hoffmann assembles the words of citizens protesting the National Socialists’ dismantling of the first democratic German republic, socialists and conservatives arguing for civil liberties, and dissatisfied senior military officials. Behind Valkyrie’s first-hand accounts of reactions to crimes by the SS, mistreatment of millions of Soviet prisoners of war, mass murder of Jews, and the mismanagement of military campaigns show that attempts to maintain freedom, justice, and human rights often came from unexpected sources.”

Ingrao, Christian, and Andrew Brown. Believe and Destroy: Intellectuals in the SS War Machine. Polity. Print. “For a study of intellectuals, Believe and Destroy remains curiously coy about who or what intellectuals are and why we might expect their personal and professional experiences to be distinctive in the first place. We thus find ourselves back with Arendt’s Eichmann and Tarantino’s Landa, unsure who is the greater villain: the bland functionary or the brilliant careerist. If Ingrao’s book invites us to reflect on our own prejudices about education, erudition, and moral agency, it only hints at what a more thoroughgoing exposition of the foundational relationships between knowledge, power, and violence might look like.”

Jones, Michael K. The Retreat: Hitler’s First Defeat. New York: Thomas Dunne /St. Martin’s, 2010. Print. “At the moment of crisis in late 1941 on the Eastern Front, with the forces of Hitler massing on the outskirts of Moscow, the miraculous occurred: Moscow was saved. Yet this feat of endurance was a prelude to a long and arduous retreat in which Soviet troops, inspired by deep beliefs in the sacred Motherland, pushed back German forces steeled by the vision of the Ubermensch—the iron-willed fighter. Supported by tanks and ski battalions, Soviet troops engaged in this desperate struggle in the harshest Russian weather.”

Kershaw, Ian. The End: The Defiance and Destruction of Hitler’s Germany, 1944-1945. New York: Penguin, 2011. Print. “Countless books have been written about why Nazi Germany lost the Second World War, yet remarkably little attention has been paid to the equally vital questions of how and why the Third Reich did not surrender until Germany had been left in ruins and almost completely occupied. Drawing on prodigious new research, Ian Kershaw, an award-winning historian and the author of Fateful Choices, explores these fascinating questions in a gripping and focused narrative that begins with the failed bomb plot in July 1944 and ends with the death of Adolf Hitler and the German capitulation in 1945. The End paints a harrowing yet enthralling portrait of the Third Reich in its last desperate gasps.

Kershaw, Ian. Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich: Bavaria 1933 – 1945. Oxford: Clarendon, 2005. Print. “Now updated with a new introduction and bibliography, Kershaw’s classic study of popular responses to Nazi policy and ideology explores the political mentality of ‘ordinary Germans’ in one part of Hitler’s Reich. Basing his account on many unpublished sources, the author analyzes socioeconomic discontent and the popular reaction to the anti-Church and anti-Jewish policies of the Nazis, and reveals the bitter divisions and dissent of everyday reality in the Third Reich, in stark contrast to the propaganda image of a ‘National Community’ united behind its leaders.”

Kitchen, Martin. Rommel’s Desert War: Waging World War II in North Africa, 1941-1943. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2009. Print. “”Rommel’s Desert War brings fresh sources and a fresh perspective to the North African campaign. Kitchen’s skillful blend of policy and strategy, operations and tactics, pulls no punches. His stringent, well-documented critique of Rommel’s performance in particular makes this a significant contribution to the literature on the Second World War.”

Kochavi, Arieh J. Confronting Captivity: Britain and the United States and Their POWs in Nazi Germany. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2005. Print. “How was it possible that almost all of the nearly 300,000 British and American troops who fell into German hands during World War II survived captivity in German POW camps and returned home almost as soon as the war ended? In Confronting Captivity, Arieh J. Kochavi offers a behind-the-scenes look at the living conditions in Nazi camps and traces the actions the British and American governments took–and didn’t take–to ensure the safety of their captured soldiers.”

Koker, David, R. J. Van Pelt, Michiel Horn, and John Irons. At the Edge of the Abyss: A Concentration Camp Diary, 1943-1944. Evanston, IL: Northwestern UP, 2012. Print. “David Koker’s diary is one of the most notable accounts of life in a German concentration camp written by a Jew during the years of the Holocaust. First brought to attention when the Dutch historian Jacob Presser-Koker’s history teacher in high school-quoted from Koker’s diary in his monumental history, published in English as The Destruction of the Dutch Jews (1968), the diary itself became a part of the Dutch literary canon when it was published in 1977.”

Laqueur, Walter. “Hitler’s Jews: Max Von Oppenheim and the Myth of German Jewish Guilt.” Tablet Magazine. 21 Aug. 2013. Web. 21 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/141788/hitler-jews-oppenheim>. “New biographies shed light on the cohort of Germans of Jewish descent who historians have portrayed as having served the Nazis.”

Lineberry, Cate. The Secret Rescue: An Untold Story of American Nurses and Medics behind Nazi Lines. New York: Little, Brown, 2013. Print. “The compelling untold story of a group of stranded U.S. Army nurses and medics fighting to escape Nazi-occupied Europe. When 26 Army nurses and medics-part of the 807th Medical Air Evacuation Transport Squadron-boarded a cargo plane for transport in November 1943, they never anticipated the crash landing in Nazi-occupied Albania that would lead to their months-long struggle for survival. A drama that captured the attention of the American public, the group and its flight crew dodged bullets and battled blinding winter storms as they climbed mountains and fought to survive, aided by courageous villagers who risked death at Nazi hands to help them.”

Lowe, Keith. Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II. New York: St. Martin’s, 2012. Print. “A graphic and chilling account of the murderous vengeance, terroristic reprisals, and ferocious ethnic cleansing that gripped Europe following—and often as a direct continuation of—the Second World War. Keith Lowe’s excellent book paints a little-known and frightening picture of a continent in the embrace of lawlessness, chaos, and unconstrained violence.”

Ludewig, Joachim. Rückzug: The German Retreat from France, 1944. Lexington: University of Kentucky, 2012. Print. “The Allied invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, marked a critical turning point in the European theater of World War II. The massive landing on France’s coast had been meticulously planned for three years, and the Allies anticipated a quick and decisive defeat of the German forces. Many of the planners were surprised, however, by the length of time it ultimately took to defeat the Germans.”

Lunde, Henrik. Finland’s War of Choice: The Troubled German-Finnish Alliance in World War II. Casemate, 2011. Print. “This book describes the odd coalition between Germany and Finland in World War II, and their joint military operations from 1941 to 1945. This is a topic often missing in English, though in stark contrast to the numerous books on the shorter and less bloody Winter War. That conflict represented a gallant fight of a democratic ‘David’ against a totalitarian ‘Goliath’ that caught the imagination of the world. The story of Finland fighting alongside a ‘Goliath’ of its own has not brought pride to that nation and was a period many Finns would rather forget.”

Marks, Leo. Between Silk and Cyanide: A Codemaker’s War, 1941-1945. New York: Free, 1998. Web. “In 1942, Leo Marks left his father’s famous bookshop, 84 Charing Cross Road, and went off to fight the war. He was twenty-two. Soon recognized as a cryptographer of genius, he became head of communications at the Special Operations Executive (SOE), where he revolutionized the codemaking techniques of the Allies and trained some of the most famous agents dropped into occupied Europe, including ‘the White Rabbit’ and Violette Szabo. As a top codemaker, Marks had a unique perspective on one of the most fascinating and, until now, little-known aspects of the Second World War.”

Megargee, Geoffrey P. War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006. Print. “On June 22, 1941, Hitler began what would be the most important campaign of the European theater. The war against the Soviet Union would leave tens of millions of Soviet citizens dead and large parts of the country in ruins. The death and destruction would result not just from military operations but also from the systematic killing and abuse that the German army, police, and SS directed against Jews, Communists, and ordinary citizens.”

Melvin, Mungo. Manstein: Hitler’s Greatest General. New York: Thomas Dunne /St. Martin’s, 2011. Print. “Among students of military history, the genius of Field Marshal Erich von Manstein (1887–1973) is respected perhaps more than that of any other World War II soldier. He displayed his strategic brilliance in such campaigns as the invasion of Poland, the Blitzkrieg of France, the sieges of Sevastopol, Leningrad, and Stalingrad, and the battles of Kharkov and Kursk.”

Mikies, David. “Hollywood’s Creepy Love Affair With Adolf Hitler, in Explosive New Detail.” Tablet Magazine. 10 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/134503/hollywood-nazi-urwand>. Book – The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact with Hitler, Harvard University Press, 2013. “As it turns out, Hitler’s love for American movies was reciprocated by Hollywood. A forthcoming book by the young historian Ben Urwand, to be published by Harvard University Press …  presents explosive new evidence about the shocking extent of the partnership between the Nazis and major Hollywood producers. Urwand … takes the subject personally: His parents were Jewish refugees from Egypt and Hungary. Digging through archives in Berlin and Washington, D.C., he has unearthed proof that Hollywood worked together with the Nazis much more closely than we ever imagined. Urwand has titled his riveting book The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact With Hitler, and as you turn its pages you realize with dismay that collaboration is the only fitting word for the relationship between Hitler and Hollywood in the 1930s. Using new archival discoveries, Urwand alleges that some of the Hollywood studio heads, nearly all of whom were Jewish, cast their lot with Hitler almost from the moment he took power, and that they did so eagerly—not reluctantly. What they wanted was access to German audiences.”

Mitcham, Samuel W. Defenders of Fortress Europe: The Untold Story of the German Officers during the Allied Invasion. Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 2009. Print. “Yet, as the Wehrmacht retreated, Germans still had hope. If the men of the Western Front could repulse the great invasion, dozens of units—including panzer divisions, SS regiments, and paratrooper formations—would arrive to thwart the Red advance. German scientists needed at least another year to develop their ‘wonder weapons,’ such as V-2 rockets, submarines, jet airplanes, and perhaps even an atomic bomb. Everything depended on the Western Front’s warlords. ”

Mitcham, Samuel W. The Men of Barbarossa: Commanders of the German Invasion of Russia, 1941. Philadelphia: Casemate, 2009. Print. “The story of history’s greatest military operation and the commanders who nearly led it to success … This book not only tells the story of Operation Barbarossa but describes the expertise, skills, and decision-making powers of the men who directed it. The result is an illuminating look at the personalities behind the carnage, as summer triumph turned to winter crisis, including new insights into the invasion’s many tactical successes, as well as its ultimate failure.”

Mosier, John. Deathride: Hitler vs. Stalin : The Eastern Front, 1941-1945. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2010. Print. “The German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, began a war that lasted nearly four years and created by far the bloodiest theater in World War II. In the conventional narrative of this war, Hitler was defeated by Stalin because, like Napoleon, he underestimated the size and resources of his enemy. In fact, says historian John Mosier, Hitler came very close to winning and lost only because of the intervention of the western Allies. Stalin’s great triumph was not winning the war, but establishing the prevailing interpretation of the war. The Great Patriotic War, as it is known in Russia, would eventually prove fatal, setting in motion events that would culminate in the collapse of the Soviet Union.”

Neiberg, Michael S. The Blood of Free Men: The Liberation of Paris, 1944. Basic, 2012. Print. “As the Allies struggled inland from Normandy in August of 1944, the fate of Paris hung in the balance. Other jewels of Europe—sites like Warsaw, Antwerp, and Monte Cassino—were, or would soon be, reduced to rubble during attempts to liberate them. But Paris endured, thanks to a fractious cast of characters, from Resistance cells to Free French operatives to an unlikely assortment of diplomats, Allied generals, and governmental officials. Their efforts, and those of the German forces fighting to maintain control of the city, would shape the course of the battle for Europe and color popular memory of the conflict for generations to come.”

O’Brien, Mary-Elizabeth. Nazi Cinema as Enchantment: The Politics of Entertainment in the Third Reich. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2004. Print. “Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh have long been exalted as two of the greatest American icons of the twentieth century. Now award-winning journalist Max Wallace uncovers groundbreaking and astonishing revelations about the poisonous effect these two so-called American heroes had on Western democracy and how the two of them—acting in league with the Nazis—almost brought democratic Europe to the verge of extinction.”

Ossian, Lisa L. The Forgotten Generation: American Children and World War II. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri, 2011. Print. “Two days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt addressed the nation by radio, saying, ‘We are all in it—all the way. Every single man, woman, and child is a partner in the most tremendous undertaking of our American history.’ So began a continuing theme of the World War II years: the challenges of wartime would not be borne by adults alone. Men, women, and children would all be involved in the work of war.”

Paterson, Lawrence. Black Flag: The Surrender of Germany’s U-boat Forces. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith/MBI Pub., 2009. Print. “On the eve of Germany’s surrender in May 1945, Grossadmiral Karl Dönitz commanded thousands of loyal and active men of the U-boat service. Still fully armed and unbroken in morale, enclaves of these men occupied bases stretching from Norway to France, where cadres of Uboat men fought on in ports that defied besieging Allied troops to the last. At sea U-boats still operated on a war footing around Britain, the coasts of the United States and as far as Malaya.”

Payne, Stanley G. Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II. New Haven: Yale UP, 2008. Print. “Was Franco sympathetic to Nazi Germany? Why didn’t Spain enter World War II? In what ways did Spain collaborate with the Third Reich? How much did Spain assist Jewish refugees?”

“Putting a Human Face to Hitler.” Ginger Musings. 6 July 2013. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://milambc.wordpress.com/2013/07/06/putting-a-human-face-to-hitler/>. “The Reader” by Bernhard Schlink. “Something that fascinates me with respect to one’s understanding of history is tangibility. I have yet to see a work of literature tackle that subject better than Bernhard Schlink’s The Reader. The main character, Michael Berg, struggles with history in two ways. 1.) He’s a German, so he struggles with the intimacy with which he is interlocked with his country’s history, even if he wasn’t literally there to have made the history; it’s still very much his as a German citizen. 2.) Juxtapose to that intimacy is the idea of distance or related to my idea, tangibility. That is, Berg has a difficult time truly understanding the events of the Holocaust and the extent of what the Nazis did, as Germans. In a bit of irony, Michael talks about how movies and books have shaped his perception of the Holocaust and in that perception manifest the distance he feels to the Holocaust.”

Reese, Roger R. Why Stalin’s Soldiers Fought: The Red Army’s Military Effectiveness in World War II. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas, 2011. Print. “Inept leadership, inefficient campaigning, and enormous losses would seem to spell military disaster. Yet despite these factors, the Soviet Union won its war against Nazi Germany thanks to what Roger Reese calls its ‘military effectiveness’: its ability to put troops in the field even after previous forces had been decimated.”

Rigg, Bryan Mark. Lives of Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers: Untold Tales of Men of Jewish Descent Who Fought for the Third Reich. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 2009. Print. “They were foot soldiers and officers. They served in the regular army and the Waffen-SS. And, remarkably, they were also Jewish, at least as defined by Hitler’s infamous race laws. Pursuing the thread he first unraveled in Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, Bryan Rigg takes a closer look at the experiences of Wehrmacht soldiers who were classified as Jewish. In this long-awaited companion volume, he presents interviews with twenty-one of these men, whose stories are both fascinating and disturbing.”

Rosenfeld, Gavriel David. Munich and Memory: Architecture, Monuments, and the Legacy of the Third Reich. Berkeley: University of California, 2000. Print. “Munich, notorious in recent history as the capital of the Nazi movement, is the site of Gavriel Rosenfeld’s stimulating inquiry into the German collective memory of the Third Reich. Rosenfeld shows, with the aid of a wealth of photographs, how the city’s urban form developed after 1945 in direct reflection of its inhabitants’ evolving memory of the Second World War and the Nazi dictatorship. In the second half of the twentieth century, the German people’s struggle to come to terms with the legacy of Nazism has dramatically shaped nearly all dimensions of their political, social, and cultural life.”

Schoonover, Thomas David. Hitler’s Man in Havana: Heinz Lüning and Nazi Espionage in Latin America. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 2008. Print. “When Heinz Lüning posed as a Jewish refugee to spy for Hitler’s Abwehr espionage agency, he thought he had discovered the perfect solution to his most pressing problem: how to avoid being drafted into Hitler’s army. Lüning was unsympathetic to Fascist ideology, but the Nazis’ tight control over exit visas gave him no chance to escape Germany. He could enter Hitler’s army either as a soldier… or a spy. In 1941, he entered the Abwehr academy for spy training and was given the code name ‘Lumann.’ Soon after, Lüning began the service in Cuba that led to his ultimate fate of being the only German spy executed in Latin America during World War II. Lüning was not the only spy operating in Cuba at the time. Various Allied spies labored in Havana; the FBI controlled eighteen Special Intelligence Service operatives, and the British counterintelligence section subchief Graham Greene supervised Secret Intelligence Service agents.”

Staff, NPR. “‘Guns At Last Light’ Illuminates Final Months Of World War II.” NPR. 14 May 2013. Web. 01 Aug. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/2013/05/14/182269189/guns-at-last-light-illuminates-final-months-of-world-war-ii>. “In December 1944, the Nazis looked like a spent force: The U.S. and its allies had pushed Hitler’s armies across France in the fight to liberate Europe from German occupation. The Allies were so confident that the Forest of Ardennes, near the front lines in Belgium, became a rest and recreation area, complete with regular USO performances. … The Guns at Last Light is the final volume of Atkinson’s trilogy about World War II and covers the events between D-Day and the final Allied victory.”

Stansky, Peter. The First Day of the Blitz: September 7, 1940. New Haven: Yale UP, 2007. Print. “On September 7, 1940, the long-feared and anticipated attack by the German Luftwaffe plunged London into a cauldron of fire and devastation. This compelling book recreates that day in all its horror, using rich archival sources and first-hand accounts, many never before published. Eminent historian Peter Stansky weaves together the stories of people who recorded their experiences of the opening hours of the Blitz. Then, exploring more deeply, the author examines what that critical day meant to the nation at the time, and what it came to mean in following years.”

Thacker, Toby. The End of the Third Reich: Defeat, Denazification & Nuremburg January 1944 – November 1946. Stroud: Tempus, 2006. Print. “This book is an interesting, albeit not complete, account of this period of history, covering roughly the time of the buildup for the D-Day landings to the surrender of Germany to the denazification efforts, including the Nuremberg trials, whereby the Allies efforts to destroy Nazism culminated in the trials of those of its remaining leaders who could still be found, of whom many were executed.”

Tuszyńska, Agata. Vera Gran: The Accused. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2013. Print. This book discusses “the nature of the accusations made against Gran, and about the slow process of discovery that has followed from Tuszyńska’s learning, at age 19, that her mother was a Jew.”

Waite, Robert G. L. Kaiser and Führer: A Comparative Study of Personality and Politics. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1998. Print. “Thoroughly documented and engagingly written this is a classic work of scholarship that will fascinate historians, psychologists, and general readers alike.”

Wallace, Max. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the Rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin’s, 2003. Print. “Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh have long been exalted as two of the greatest American icons of the twentieth century. Now award-winning journalist Max Wallace uncovers groundbreaking and astonishing revelations about the poisonous effect these two so-called American heroes had on Western democracy and how the two of them—acting in league with the Nazis—almost brought democratic Europe to the verge of extinction.”

Additional Holocaust, Jews

Pasted Graphic

Sachsenhausen at Oranienburg, where from 1936 to the end of the war 200,000 people were locked up, beaten, hanged, shot and worked to death, ground down by pitiless slave labor and gassed.

 

“4,000 Jewish Survivors of Nazi Camps Issue Manifesto to World, Ask Justice for Jews.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 1 Aug. 1945. Web. 28 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1945/08/01/archive/4000-jewish-survivors-of-nazi-camps-issue-manifesto-to-world-ask-justice-for-jews?utm_source=Newsletter%20subscribers&utm_campaign=974b681e79-TWJH_2013_6-08&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-974b681e79-26652337>. “An appeal to ‘all the free peoples of the world’ for justice for the Jews, in the form of a manifesto which will soon be published throughout the world, was completed here today by representatives of 4,000 surviving victims of the concentration camps of Buchenwald, Bergen-Belsen, Dachau, Auswitz, Theresienstadt and Mauthausen, who are now in Switzerland.”

“Belgium Reported Not Anxious to Encourage Return of Jewish Diamond Dealers.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 1 Aug. 1945. Web. 28 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1945/08/01/archive/belgium-reported-not-anxious-to-encourage-return-of-jewish-diamond-dealers>. “There is little like lihood [sic] that the Belgian Government will offer any inducement to encourage the return of Jewish diamond dealers who fled abroad after the Nazi occupation, it was learned here today. … Antwerp, incidentally, is known for having saved the smallest number of Jews during the occupation and as the city where large numbers of Jews were denounced to the Gestapo by Belgian collaborationists.”

Bonish, Georg. “Nazi Atrocities, Committed by Ordinary People.” Spiegel Online. SPIEGELnet GmbH, 18 Mar. 2008. Web. 07 Aug. 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/everyday-murder-nazi-atrocities-committed-by-ordinary-people-a-542245.html>. “From doctors to opera singers, teachers to truant schoolchildren, the extermination of European Jews was the work of roughly 200,000 ordinary Germans and their helpers. Years of research — not yet complete — reveal how sane members of a modern society committed murder for an evil regime.”

Brice, James S. “German Holocaust Literature: Trendencies.” Diss. Universitat Konstanz, 20006. Konstanzer Online-Publikations-System (KOPS), 12 Jan. 2006. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. <http://kops.ub.uni-konstanz.de/handle/urn:nbn:de:bsz:352-opus-58461>. A 391 page dissertation in English in a pdf. “The development of German Holocaust literature is traced from the war to the present. Basic concepts and definitions relevant to the study are presented. A variety of texts from the sub- jects of history, social science, memoirs, and creative literature are used to illustrate key de- velopments. Memory, silence, trauma and representation are also considered. The trends and tendencies are placed in the context of social and political developments, alongside trends in historiography and social science.”

(Bruno) Bar-On, D. “Holocaust Perpetrators and Their Children: A Paradoxical Morality.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 29.4 (1989): 424-43. Print. “Thru study attempts to trace evidence of a suppressed moral conflict in perpetrators of the extermination process during the Third Reich and in perpetrators’ children.”

Chandler, Adam. “What We’ve Learned from the St. Louis.” Tablet Magazine. 4 June 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/scroll/133871/what-weve-learned-from-the-st-louis>. “One of the most grievous emblems of the world’s indifference to the rise of Nazi Germany and its persecution of European Jews is the MS St. Louis, a German ocean liner that brought nearly 1,000 Jewish passengers across the Atlantic, only to be denied entry by the United States, Cuba, and Canada. As it’s well-known, the St. Louis had little choice but eventually turn around and return to Europe, where roughly a quarter of the passengers perished. By many accounts, it was June 4, 1939, when the refugee ship was officially denied entry to the United States while it idled near the coast of Florida, taunted by the lights of Miami.”

Cohen, Patricia. “Italian Praised for Saving Jews Is Now Seen as Nazi Collaborator.” The New York Times 19 June 2013. The New York Times. 20 June 2013. Web. 20 June 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/20/arts/an-italian-saint-in-the-making-or-a-collaborator-with-nazis.html?nl=todaysheadlines>. He [Giovanni Palatucci] has been called the Italian Schindler, credited with helping to save 5,000 Jews during the Holocaust. Giovanni Palatucci, a wartime police official, has been honored in Israel, in New York and in Italy, where squares and promenades have been named in his honor, and in the Vatican, . . . But at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, the tale of his heroic exploits is being removed from an exhibition after officials there learned of new evidence suggesting that, far from being a hero, he was an enthusiastic Nazi collaborator involved in the deportation of Jews to Auschwitz.”

Edelheit, Abraham J., and Hershel Edelheit. History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder: Westview, 1994. Print. “The scholarly and well-organized presentation of the material notably fulfills the Edelheits’ stated purpose of providing a concise overview of Jewish history during the Nazi era, a comprehensive Holocaust glossary, and a tabular and graphic presentation of applicable information.”

Engelmayer, Juda. “Film-maker Chronicles Holocaust Connections of Multinational I.G. Farben.” Spero News. 20 May 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.speroforum.com/a/YUCWCUTFMQ25/74015-Filmmaker-chronicles-Holocaust-connections-of-multinational-IG-Farben>. “I.G. Farben was perhaps the first true ‘multinational corporation’; it was the very model of a modern major conglomerate: brilliant, inventive, diversified—and ruthless in its pursuit of the bottom line. As the largest company in Europe during World War II, its rise and fall provides a shocking example of a profit-driven culture run amok. … Gruber’s film, tentatively entitled A Deal with the Devil, is based on the seminal book The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben by Joseph Borkin. It traces the company’s remarkable history from the middle of the 19th century to the present day. Gruber’s production company, Black Eye Productions, is fundraising for an imminent aspect of the film—to interview Holocaust survivor Branko Lustig, who was a slave laborer at I.G. Farben’s infamous Auschwitz concentration camp.”

“Exploring the Vilnius Ghetto.” ReVilna. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.revilna.org/>. “reVilna is a digital mapping project dedicated to understanding how the residents of the Ghetto lived, how the ghetto functioned — even, given the circumstances, flourished — how it emerged, and how, ultimately, it was liquidated. Using geographical science and technology, reVilna seeks to reimagine the Vilna Ghetto.”

“Faces of World’s Most Wanted Nazis: The Last Chance to Bring Third Reich War Criminals to Justice.” Mail Online. 27 July 2013. Web. 28 July 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2380039/Nazi-war-criminals-Faces-worlds-wanted-Nazis.html>. “These are the faces of some of the most wanted war criminals of the Third Reich who have been named by Nazi hunters in a bid to bring them to justice. The Simon Wiesenthal Center is offering rewards of £20,000 for information to help with the last round-ups of up to 60 Nazis who committed atrocities during the Second World War. Among those identified is Danish-born SS officer Soren Kam, 91, who is accused of murdering a journalist in 1943 and is currently believed to live in Bavaria, Germany.”

First, Alan. “Sad Missions.” Tablet Magazine. 14 Oct. 2010. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/47203/sad-missions>. “The spy novelist rediscovers Menahem Bader’s Aliyah B book, about the brave men and women who smuggled Jews from prewar Europe to Mandate Palestine. Not the usual book review, maybe, a book you can’t buy. At all, I thought initially, but it can apparently be downloaded from Google Books, so at least it can be read. The book is Sad Missions, by Menahem Bader—he is “Menachem” in his Wikipedia article—translated from Hebrew, copyright by Sifriat Poalim and printed in Israel by Hidakel Press in 1979. . . . I’m a veteran of the hard-to-find book war, but at this I had to work hard, because the book had practically disappeared. Eventually, I managed.”

“Fishermen Establish Regular Ferry Service for Refugees Between Denmark and Sweden.” JTA Jewish News Archive. 6 Oct. 1943. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/11/2860931/fishermen-establish-regular-ferry-service-for-refugees-between-denmark-and-sweden>. “[Eight?] hundred Danish Jews were landed in Sweden yesterday and another 800 reached here on Friday. German naval vessels continue to patrol Danish waters, however, and four of the ships carrying refugees have been sunk. Several Danish fishermen have also been arrested.”

Friedlander, Albert. “Is Forgiveness Possible?A Jewish Perspective.” BBC – History – World Wars. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/genocide/forgive_01.shtml>. A rabbi explores the question “Can Jewish people forgive the atrocities of the Holocaust?”

“Full Text of AJC Letter to Minister.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 4 Dec. 1934. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1934/12/04/archive/full-text-of-ajc-letter-to-minister>. “On November 22, 1934, a committee of the American Jewish Congress consisting of Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Professor Horace M. Kallen, Dr. Samuel Margoshes, Nathan D. Perlman and Dr. Joshua Goldberg, had the honor of calling upon you by appointment for the purpose of expressing to you, and asking you to transmit to your government, the deep concern of the officers and members of the American Jewish Congress over the increasing disabilities imposed upon the Jewish citizens of Austria.”

Glazer, Susan D. “Ghettos under the Nazis.” My Jewish Learning. Web. 04 Aug. 2013. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/1914-1948/The_Holocaust/War/Ghettos.shtml>. “During World War II, the Nazis established more than 400 ghettos for the purpose of isolating and controlling the Jews. The term “ghetto” originated in sixteenth-century Venice where it was used to refer to the Jewish quarter. As medieval restrictions on Jewish residence spread across Italy and beyond to central and western Europe, the word ‘ghetto’ followed, referring to the section of the city where Jews were forced to live. The following article chronicles the Nazis’ use of the medieval concept of ghettos to isolate Jews during World War II.”

Goss, Jennifer L. “Evian Conference.” About.com 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/a/Evian.htm>. “From July 6 to 15, 1938, representatives from 32 countries met at the resort town of Evian-les-Bains, France, at the request of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, to discuss the issue of Jewish immigration from Nazi Germany. It was the hope of many that these countries could find a way to open their doors to allow more than their usual quotas of immigrants into their countries. Instead, although they commiserated with the plight of the Jews under the Nazis, every country but one refused to allow in more immigrants; the Dominican Republic was the only exception. In the end, the Evian Conference showed Germany that no one wanted the Jews, leading the Nazis to a different solution to the ‘Jewish question’ – extermination.”

Gross, Jan T. “The Treblinka Gold Rush.” Tablet Magazine. 21 May 2013. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/99982/the-treblinka-gold-rush>. “After World War II, Polish peasants hunted for jewels and gold amid the human remains at former Nazi death camps. . . . We are in the middle of Europe right after World War II. The peasants in the photograph are standing atop the ashes of 800,000 Jews gassed and cremated in the Treblinka extermination camp between July 1942 and October 1943. The peasants have been digging through remains of Holocaust victims, hoping to find gold and precious stones that their Nazi executioners may have overlooked.”

Grunwald-Spier, Agnes. The Other Schindlers: Why Some People Chose to save Jews in the Holocaust. Stroud: History, 2010. Print. “Thanks to Thomas Keneally’s book Schindler’s Ark, and the film based on it, Schindler’s List, people have become more aware of the fact that, in the midst of Hitler’s extermination of the Jews, courage and humanity could still overcome evil. While six million Jews were murdered by the Nazi regime, some were saved through the actions of non-Jews whose consciences would not allow them to pass by on the other side, and many are honored by Israel’s official memorial to Jewish Holocaust victims, Yad Vashem, as ‘Righteous among the Nations’ for their actions. As a baby, Agnes Grunwald-Spier was herself saved from the horrors of Auschwitz by an unknown official, and is now a trustee of the Holocaust Memorial Day Trust. She has collected the stories of 30 individuals who rescued Jews, providing a new insight into why these people were prepared to risk so much for their fellow men and women.”

“Hidden from Nazis, Ancient Jewish Headstones Unearthed in Vienna.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 11 July 2013. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/07/11/news-opinion/world/hidden-from-nazis-ancient-jewish-headstones-unearthed-in-vienna>. “Twenty ancient headstones that were hidden in the ground during the Nazi occupation were discovered during renovation work at Vienna’s oldest Jewish cemetery.”

Kaiser, Menachem. “A New Interactive Map of the Vilna Ghetto Asks: What Good Is History If It Isn’t Told?” Tablet Magazine. 20 June 2013. Web. 20 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/135233/revilna?utm_source=tabletmagazinelist>. “The history of the Vilna Ghetto usually goes something like this. On June 22, 1941, the German army invaded Soviet-occupied Lithuania and, within days, captured the capital, Vilna (today’s Vilnius). By July, the German military administration had seized control of all major civilian institutions; and on Sept. 6, 1941, 40,000 Jewish inhabitants were driven into two ghettos. The smaller Ghetto 2 was liquidated on Oct. 21. Ghetto 1—whose population by early 1942 had stabilized at about 15,000 to 20,000 Jews—was liquidated in September 1943. There were very few survivors. … reVILNA, a just-launched digital mapping project of the Vilna Ghetto, is the response: a virtual reclamation of the space. Using filters and a search function, visitors to the site can explore the ghetto on their own, or follow built-in storylines—sort of like virtual tours—which are either chronological or topical in nature and include resistance, health, education, government, art and culture, and more.”

Kershaw, I. “The Persecution of the Jews and German Popular Opinion in the Third Reich.” The Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 26.1 (1981): 261-89. Leobaeck.orfordjournals.org. Leo Baeck Institute. Web. 5 July 2013. <http://leobaeck.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/1/261.extract#>. “To what extent did antisemitism serve to integrate the German people an mobilize them behind the Nazi leadership during the Third Reich? That is the central question which this article seeks to answer.”

Klemperer, Victor, and Martin Chalmers. I Will Bear Witness 1942-1945: A Diary of the Nazi Years. New York: Modern Library, 2001. Print. “This second volume of Klemperer’s diary of the Nazi years confirms its place alongside Anne Frank’s diary and Elie Wiesel’s Night in the pantheon of Holocaust literature. Yet in many ways it is a more valuable source for the historian and general reader, as Klemperer gives the most finely detailed and intricately delineated portrait of the Nazi era for the man-in-the-street. Granted, as a Jew married to an “Aryan” woman, and with his incredible capacity to see what his fellow Germans couldn’t or wouldn’t see, Klemperer was no ordinary German. Rather, he was an ordinary man in his desire to live freely–and in his empathy. The defining characteristic of the diary is how he maintains a capacity for the human in the face of the barbaric.”

Kuttler, Hillel. “Seeking Kin: Photo Brings Desperate Hope for a Holocaust Miracle.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/06/06/life-religion/photo-brings-desperate-hope-for-a-holocaust-miracle>. “Picking up her mail about a year ago, 88-year-old Rose Goteiner stopped in her tracks upon seeing the photo on a newsletter cover. Posing shortly after the Holocaust ended, 21 people were standing before a truck marked “American Joint Distribution Committee” — the relief organization later known as the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. There were young children and teenagers, plus a few adults. In the middle of the front row was a girl wearing a light-colored dress, hands at her sides and staring into the camera.”

“Letters to Afar at the Museum of the History of Polish Jews.” YIVO. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.yivoinstitute.org/about/index.php?tid=154&aid=1172>. “Letters to Afar Museum of the History of Polish Jews May 18 – September 30, 2013 Video installation by Péter Forgács with music by The Klezmatics, commissioned by the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw and the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research in New York The audiovisual installation Letters to Afar is based on home movies made by Jewish immigrants from the United States visiting their hometowns in Poland during the 1920s and 30s. Filming for their families back in America, they recorded relatives and friends in their daily surroundings, capturing unique moments that allow the viewer to be at once ‘there’ and ‘now.’ These films also provide a glimpse of the autonomy and richness of Jewish life in interwar Poland—a snapshot of the diversity of school, youth, self-help and cultural organizations that existed even in the smallest towns. This broad social panorama can be discerned best in the films made by members of American landsmanshaftn, organizations of immigrant Jews from the same locality that often tried to organize help for their former communities in Poland.”

Medina, Jennifer. “Many Holocaust Survivors Living in Poverty, Report Says.” The New York Times. 16 Apr. 2007. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/world/africa/16iht-web-holocaust16.5309346.html>. “JERUSALEM — Every year here, Holocaust Memorial Day is marked with a solemn focus. The cafés close early. Air raid sirens are blasted throughout the country for two full minutes. Television stations devote hours of programs to commemorate the killing of six million Jews. But another number received a laser-sharp focus Monday: Nearly one-third of the estimated 260,000 Holocaust survivors here are now living in poverty.”

Medoff, Rafel. “Tarzan and The Holocaust.” JNS.org. 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/9/10/tarzan-and-the-holocaust.html>. “In one of the Hebrew novellas, Tarzan helps smuggle Jewish refugees out of Europe and past the British naval blockade of Palestine. At one point in the story, Tarzan is captured by the British and imprisoned, although he later escapes. In real life, the Irgun Zvai Leumi underground militia in Palestine initiated the Aliyah Bet (unauthorized immigration) campaign in 1937. It brought an estimated 20,000 Jews to the Holy Land during the next four years. About 7,500 miles away, a handful of Jewish activists were looking for donors in Hollywood to help bankroll the Aliyah Bet operations.”

Memory of the Camps. Frontline. PBS, 3 May 2005. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/camp/>. “For more than thirty years this film of the death camps had been stored in a vault of the Imperial War Museum, London. Today it is recognized as one of the most definitive and unforgettable records of the 20th century’s darkest hour.”

“New York Museums Have Not Returned Nazi-seized Art.” New York Post. 7 Oct. 2012. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/that_nazi_loot_art_is_mein_18eatpbSRGsvvvUlrDROII>. “Between 1933 and 1945, the Nazis seized an estimated 650,000 works of art, taking them from Jewish families and grabbing so-called ‘degenerate’ art — including works by Picasso, Matisse, Chagall and van Gogh — off the walls of German museums. Many of the plundered paintings and other works were destroyed, but others were sold abroad with the cash going back to the Nazi war machine. It took 50 years, but Jewish families thought they might finally receive some justice for this massive theft.” But they haven’t.

Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. “Holocaust Reparations: The Back Story.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/4734/features/holocaust-reparations-the-back-story/>. “On July 10th [2012], dignitaries from the U.S., German, and Israeli governments attended a curious ceremony at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. The gathering marked the 60th anniversary of the first agreement by the West German government with the Israeli government and the Jewish ‘Claims Conference’ to grant modest financial compensation for the Holocaust. Some of the Jews in the room had spent the years since the agreement in seemingly interminable haggling.”

Playing for Time. Dir. Daniel Mann. Perf. Vanessa Redgrave. Szygzy Productions, 1980. IMDb. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0081344/?ref_=sr_1>. “Female prisoners in a Nazi concentration camp (Auschwitz) are spared from death in return for performing music for their captors.”

“Poster Collection Looted by Nazis to Be Auctioned.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 5 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/11/05/3111096/poster-collection-looted-by-nazis-to-go-on-sale>. “The more than 4,300 posters collected by Hans Sachs and looted by the Nazis will be auctioned at Guernsey’s in New York on Jan. 18 [2013], though the auction house is seeking to sell the entire collection to one buyer. The posters are worth about $5.8 million, according to Bloomberg.”

“Rescue.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia: Rescue. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 29 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005185>. “Despite the indifference of most Europeans and the collaboration of others in the murder of Jews during the Holocaust, individuals in every European country and from all religious backgrounds risked their lives to help Jews.”

“Rescuers of Jews.” Traces.org Website. Northwest Minnesota Center, Minnesota State University Moorhead. Web. 09 May 2011. <http://www.traces.org/>. This website’s purpose is help people “to learn more about the subjects of Jewish Refugees and the Holocaust.” Herman Stern, an American German-Jewish immigrant, helped 125 Jews flee Nazi Germany, during the depression with proceeds from his business to “buy the lives of individuals who otherwise might have perished.”

Rosenberg, Anat. “Holocaust Graphic Novels Give Israelis a Way To Connect to a Past Not Quite Theirs.” Tablet Magazine. 31 July 2013. Web. 31 July 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/139468/holocaust-graphic-novels?utm_source=tabletmagazinelist>. “With two recent publications, Israel has further embraced the form of the Holocaust-related graphic novel: The first is Michel Kichka’s memoir Second Generation: Things I Never Told My Father, which was originally released in French and, like Maus, recounts growing up in the shadow of a Holocaust survivor. The second is Rutu Modan’s The Property, a fictional account of a young Israeli woman and her grandmother who travel to Poland to reclaim an apartment belonging to the family before the war, published simultaneously in Hebrew and English.”

Rosensaft, Menchem Z. “A Meditation on Remembrance.” The Washington Post. 25 June 2013. Web. 1 July 2013. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/on-faith/wp/2013/06/25/a-meditation-on-remembrance/>. While attending a multi-media program on the “Lost Music of the Holocaust” the author was startled to see “the photograph of my father, Josef Rosensaft, as a young man standing near the castle in his hometown of Będzin. At that moment I remembered the lyrics of a song by the Yiddish poet Yosef Papiernikov and I could almost hear my father singing it in his beautiful tenor voice: Zol zayn az ikh boy in der luft mayne shlesser Zol zayn az mayn Got iz ingantsn nishto In troym iz mir heller, in troym iz mir besser In kholem – der himl – nokh bloyer fun bloy.”

Roth, Mtthue. “Bambi…and the Holocaust.” Jewniverse. My Jewish Learning, 24 June 2013. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://thejewniverse.com/2013/bambi-in-the-holocaust/>. “In 1936 … Bambi was banned by the ruling Nazi party because of its ‘political allegory on the treatment of Jews in Europe.’ Burnings of the book were organized across Nazi states.”

Rupnow, Dirk. “Racializing Historiography: Anti-Jewish Scholarship in the Third Reich.” Patterns of Prejudice 42.1 (2008): 27-59. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. “Despite continued debates about the role of German historians in the Third Reich, current scholarship views the work that was conducted under National Socialism under the rubric of Judenforschung (research on Jews as a marginal and pseudo-scientific phenomenon.”

“Russian Lawmaker Wants to Strip Holocaust Survivors of Privileges.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/11/04/3111056/russian-lawmaker-wants-to-strip-holocaust-survivors-of-priviliges>. ” A Russian lawmaker from President Vladimir Putin’s ruling United Russia party reportedly opposed making public transportation free for Holocaust survivors.”

Sacks, Sam. “Vasily Grossman: Loser, Saint.” The New Yorker. 25 June 2013. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2013/06/vasily-grossman-loser-saint.html>. “There were two major acts in the life of Jewish-Russian writer Vasily Grossman, and in each he played a different role. The first is bound up in the epochal events of the twentieth century: the battles of Stalingrad, Kursk, and Berlin; the genocides at Treblinka and Auschwitz. In the travel memoir he wrote late in his life, published for the first time in English earlier this year, under the title ‘An Armenian Sketchbook,’ Grossman brushes the surface of his experiences in the Second World War: ‘I crossed the Volga more than once under German fire. I experienced both massive bombing raids and barrages of mortar and artillery fire.’ He was the star correspondent for the Red Army, and his dispatches for the newspaper Red Star documented with thrilling immediacy the Nazi lightning attack upon the U.S.S.R., the decisive reversal at Stalingrad, and the Soviet’s slow, bloody bulldozer-march to the German capital. That westward advance took him through the Nazi camps in Poland and his 1944 report ‘The Hell Called Treblinka”’was the first article about a death camp ever published. It remains one of the finest, providing firsthand forensic documentation—Grossman meticulously lays out the physical dimensions of the camp, down to the square footage—and then icily explaining the engineering of genocide.”

Schorsch, Ismar. “From Reparations to Atonement.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 28 Jan. 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/5832/features/from-reparations-to-atonement-the-stages-of-germanys-coming-to-terms-with-its-past/>. “Ismar Schorsch, former chancellor of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, delivered these remarks in German more than a year ago, in Hanover, where he was born and where his father served for 11 years as rabbi. He repeated them yesterday, on International Holocaust Remembrance Day, in Esslingen, his mother’s birthplace. They are presented here in his translation.”

Schorsch, Ismar. “Today’s Germans Atone for the Holocaust.” Letter. 23 July 1994. The New York Times. Nytimes. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/1994/07/23/opinion/l-today-s-germans-atone-for-the-holocaust-752487.html>. ISMAR SCHORSCH Chancellor, Jewish Theological Seminary of America New York, July 13, 1994. “The Germany of 1994 is not the Germany of 1944, and American Jews ought not to allow the spectacular and deserved success of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington to perpetuate this destructive myth. The widespread initiatives by Germans at the local level amount to a form of spiritual restitution that surely warrants tempering the feelings of hatred on the other side.”

Shriver Jr., Donald W. “Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust.” Rev. of Bystanders. Christian Century 2 Aug. 2000: 812. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Aug. 2012. “Bystanders is a powerful argument against such moral-empirical flippancy. Victoria Barnett, a consultant for the Department of Church Relations of the Holocaust Museum, explores an area that has received relatively scant attention in Holocaust studies. Her thesis matches Bauer’s: ‘In the long term, Nazism was powerful not just because of the numbers of party stalwarts, but because millions of Germans were prepared to inform on one another, obey orders, and remain passive while others became victims.’”

Smith, Jordan M. “Life inside the Camps.” Tablet Magazine. 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/95282/life-inside-the-camps>. “Dutch Jew David Koker’s extraordinary diary, a clear-eyed and sensitive account of life inside a concentration camp, is finally available in English. … At the Edge of the Abyss: A Concentration Camp Diary, 1943-1944, was first published in Dutch in 1977 as Diary Written in Vught. Despite immediately being recognized as a classic in the Netherlands, it has never seen publication in English, until now.”

Snyder, Donald. “After Decades, Family Unravels Holocaust Mystery.” NBC News. 14 Apr. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/04/14/17723483-after-decades-family-unravels-holocaust-mystery>. “While Israel recently marked its annual Holocaust Remembrance Day dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Warsaw ghetto uprising, it’s hard to imagine that anyone could still just be learning the fate of their loved ones from that tragic era. But that’s exactly what happened to Amos Cohen, a shipbuilder living in Haifa, Israel. He only recently learned the fate of his long-lost relative Rose Kobylinski, who died in a German death march and was buried in a Roman Catholic cemetery in a small village in Poland.”

Steal a Pencil for Me. Dir. Michele Ohayon. 2007. IMDb. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1045889/plotsummary?ref_=tt_ov_pl>. “Director Michèle Ohayon’s moving documentary chronicles the unshakeable romance between Jack Polak and Ina Soep of Amsterdam, who met and fell in love despite their deportation to Nazi concentration camps during the war. As they corresponded with love letters composed on any scrap of paper they could find, the couple’s blossoming relationship coincided with the horrors of the Holocaust and their internment in Westerbork and Bergen-Belsen.”

“Stefan Terlezki.” Telegraph.com. Telegraphic Media Group, 27 Feb. 2006. Web. 2 Aug. 2012. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1511541/Stefan-Terlezki.html>. “Stefan Terlezki, who died on February, aged 78, endured an appalling youth as a slave of the Nazis during the Second World War, and even survived being rescued by the Russians …”

Steinfeld, Irena. “Tracing the Memory of Goodness.” Ehri-project-eu. European Holocaust Research Infrastructure. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.ehri-project.eu/drupal/tracing-goodness>. “The Righteous Among the Nations program is an unprecedented attempt by victims to pay tribute to people who stood by them at a time of persecution and tragedy. Its purpose is to single out, within the nations of perpetrators, collaborators, and bystanders, individuals who bucked the general trend and protected Jews from death and deportation.”

Surghroue, Lorri. “From Hell to Here — Southwest Nebraska Helped Death Camp Survivor Start New Life.” McCook Daily Gazette. 14 June 2013. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://www.mccookgazette.com/story/1978273.html>. “A recently-deceased survivor of Nazi death camps began a new life in America more than 60 years ago, thanks to an American GI from Lebanon, Nebraska. Benny Hochman was 89 when he passed away May 29 in Sidney, Nebraska, a life marked with atrocities he suffered in Auschwitz and Buchenwald but ending with an untiring love of his adopted country.”

“Swiss Banks’ Holocaust Fund Has Paid out $1.24 Billion.” JTA.org. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 15 July 2013. Web. 16 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/07/15/news-opinion/world/swiss-banks-holocaust-fund-has-paid-out-1-24-billion?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=11d83f1049-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_18_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-11d83f1049-26652337>. “Holocaust survivors and victims’ heirs have received $1.24 billion from a Swiss fund set up in 1998 following a scandal over dormant accounts of Jews killed in World War II, according to a Jewish weekly.”

“Underground Tunnel Discovered at Sobibor.” JTA.org. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/06/06/news-opinion/world/underground-tunnel-discovered-at-sobibor>. “Polish and Israeli archaeologists discovered traces of an underground tunnel at the site of the former death camp in Sobibor. The tunnel, whose discovery was announced on Wednesday, ran from a barracks to outside the camp fence. It may have been dug by the prisoners of the Sonderkommando who worked in the camp burning the corpses of murdered Jews.”

“Victor Klemperer: ‘I Am German, the Others Are Un-German’” SPIEGEL ONLINE. Spiegel.de, 11 Feb. 2005. Web. 21 May 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/victor-klemperer-i-am-german-the-others-are-un-german-a-341147.html>. “The Nazis made Victor Klemperer’s life a living hell. Baptized Christian but of Jewish descent, Hitler’s henchmen labeled him ‘un-German.’ In a bizarre twist of fate, Klemperer could essentially thank a catastrophe — the bombing of Dresden sixty years ago — for saving him from the terror of the Nazi regime.”

“Voice/Vision Holocaust Survivor Oral History Archive.” Holocust.umd.umich. University of Michigan. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://holocaust.umd.umich.edu/>. “Since 1981, Dr. Sidney Bolkosky, Professor of History at the University of Michigan-Dearborn, has interviewed Holocaust survivors. The University’s Mardigian Library has been the repository of these interviews. It has been our privilege to provide a forum for those voices, ‘listening ears,’ as one survivor notes, and the facilities to record the testimonies. As a University of distinction, the campus has demonstrated its dignity and character because of the respect it has accorded the tapes and the people who made them.”

Ward, Lucy. “Kindertransport: ‘To My Dying Day, I Will Be Grateful to This Country’” The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 26 May 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/britain-at-war/10080264/Kindertransport-To-my-dying-day-I-will-be-grateful-to-this-country.html>. “Seventy-five years after the first evacuation to Britain of Jewish children from Nazi Europe – known as the Kindertransport – we hear from some of those rescued who made a new life here.”

Wygoda, Mark, ed. Shadow of the Swaskita. Chicago: University of Illinois, 1998. Print. This book tells the story of a Polish Jew whose harrowing wartime adventures reached their amazing end when he received the American Bronze Star in June 1946.

Zeltserman, Lea. “Ghosts of Soviet Holocaust Cinema Finally Escape From the Censors’ Files.” Tablet Magazine. 12 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/134722/soviet-holocaust-cinema>. “Olga Gershenson, a professor of Judaic and Near Eastern Studies at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and the preeminent name in Soviet Holocaust film history. Wherever a Soviet Holocaust movie is screened, Gershenson is there, leading the discussion and translating the Soviet messaging for contemporary audiences. Her third book, The Phantom Holocaust: Soviet Cinema and Jewish Catastrophe, which will be released next week, traces the story of a shadow Soviet film industry that only rarely managed to represent the tragedy that filmmakers, directors, and screenwriters sought to warn against or memorialize. While films like Schindler’s List are often the way Westerners are first exposed to the Holocaust, there are no parallels in Soviet/Russian culture—Professor Mamlock was shown briefly after Hitler invaded the USSR, but had disappeared from Soviet theaters by the end of the 1940s.”

 

Additional Righteous, Saviors, Searchers

                                    Righteous of the Nations

90px-Irena_Sendlerowa_1942_Color_Restore

 

120px-2005.02.13._Irena_Sendlerowa_Foto_Mariusz_Kubik_01

 Irena Sendler (1910-2008), Polish social worker and activist, Righteous Among the Nations. Above in 1942. Below in 2005.

120px-Polish_Righteous_Józef_and_Wiktoria_Ulma

 Józef and Wiktoria Ulma, Polish World War II heroes named Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem.

 

 Most rescuers were ordinary people. Some acted out of political, ideological or religious convictions; others were not idealists, but merely human beings who cared about the people around them. In many cases they never planned to become rescuers and were totally unprepared for the moment in which they had to make such a far-reaching decision. They were ordinary human beings, and it is precisely their humanity that touches us and should serve as a model. So far Yad Vashem recognized Righteous from 44 countries and nationalities; there are Christians from all denominations and churches, Muslims and agnostics; men and women of all ages; they come from all walks of life; highly educated people as well as illiterate peasants; public figures as well as people from society’s margins; city dwellers and farmers from the remotest corners of Europe; university professors, teachers, physicians, clergy, nuns, diplomats, simple workers, servants, resistance fighters, policemen, peasants, fishermen, a zoo director, a circus owner, and many more.  Yad Vashem

 http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/about.asp

 

 

Aleksiun, Natalia. “Huberman, Bronisław.” YIVO. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/printarticle.aspx?id=1723>. “In the early 1930s, Huberman took on the responsibilty of creating a symphony orchestra in Palestine. To that end, he organized the American Association of Friends of the Palestine Orchestra, with Albert Einstein as its chair, and in 1936 founded the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra in Tel Aviv with refugees from Europe. The orchestra made its debut under Huberman’s leadership. Huberman left for America in 1940. He returned to tour Europe after the war and died at Nant-sur-Corsier in Switzerland. His archives were placed in the Central Music Library in Tel Aviv.”

“American Lois Gunden Named Righteous Gentile.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 July 2013. Web. 18 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/07/08/news-opinion/israel-middle-east/american-woman-named-righteous-gentile>. “Lois Gunden, an American Mennonite who helped save Jewish children in France during the Holocaust, was recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations.”

Bildner, Elisa S. “Shining a Light on the Holocaust Saga of Bronislaw Huberman.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 18 Oct. 25012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/10/18/3109661/shining-a-light-on-the-holocaust-saga-of-bronislaw-huberman>. “This is the Holocaust story you don’t know. Almost guaranteed. Bronislaw Huberman, a Polish-Jewish violin prodigy from the late 19th into the 20th century, is the protagonist, joined by familiar names such as Albert Einstein and the acclaimed (non-Jewish) conductor Arturo Toscanini. It is the tale of the founding in 1936 of what would become the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and how Huberman, its founder, saved more than 1,000 Jews in the process.”

Block, Gay, and Malka Drucker. Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1992. Print. “A welcome addition to Holocaust literature, this work presents a series of 49 personal reminiscences of non-Jewish citizens in various European nations who risked their lives to hide resident Jews from the Nazi horror. Most of those interviewed felt their actions were done out of friendship and for people caught in a web of hatred and anti-Semitism. They did not feel that they were acting heroically but that they were doing what was right. Portraits by Block of each of the rescuers accompany the text. These 49 are representative of the 9,295 rescuers honoured at the Yad Vashem in Israel. This is recommended reading for general readers as well as for college and university libraries.”

The Children of Chabannes. By Lisa Gossels and Dean Wetherell. Good Egg Productions: Wetherell & Associates, 1999. IMDb. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0202831/>. “This uplifting documentary that premiered on HBO recounts a small miracle in the midst of sweeping tragedy. Between 1939 and ’42, more than 400 Jewish children were given sanctuary at Château de Chabannes, a school in an outlying region of France.”

Cohen, Patricia. “Italian Praised for Saving Jews Is Now Seen as Nazi Collaborator.” The New York Times 19 June 2013. The New York Times. 20 June 2013. Web. 20 June 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/20/arts/an-italian-saint-in-the-making-or-a-collaborator-with-nazis.html?nl=todaysheadlines>. He [Giovanni Palatucci] has been called the Italian Schindler, credited with helping to save 5,000 Jews during the Holocaust. Giovanni Palatucci, a wartime police official, has been honored in Israel, in New York and in Italy, where squares and promenades have been named in his honor, and in the Vatican, where Pope John Paul II declared him a martyr, a step toward potential sainthood. But at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, the tale of his heroic exploits is being removed from an exhibition after officials there learned of new evidence suggesting that, far from being a hero, he was an enthusiastic Nazi collaborator involved in the deportation of Jews to Auschwitz.”

“Escape from the Third Reich; the Harrowing True Story of the Largest Rescue Effort inside Nazi Germany (Book Review).” Highbeam. Reference & Research Book News, 1 Nov. 2010. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-241136121.html>. Review: Escape from the Third Reich; the harrowing true story of the largest rescue effort inside Nazi Germany. Persson, Sune. Trans. by Graham Long. Skyhorse Pub. Co. 2009 “Persson’s engaging narrative recounts the daring rescue of some 17,000 concentration camp prisoners from the heart of Germany towards the end of the Second World War. The Red Cross expedition, sponsored by the Swedish government . . . carried the prisoners to the safety of Sweden between March and May of 1945.”

Grunwald-Spier, Agnes. The Other Schindlers: Why Some People Chose to save Jews in the Holocaust. Stroud: History, 2010. Print. “Thanks to Thomas Keneally’s book Schindler’s Ark, and the film based on it, Schindler’s List, people have become more aware of the fact that, in the midst of Hitler’s extermination of the Jews, courage and humanity could still overcome evil. While six million Jews were murdered by the Nazi regime, some were saved through the actions of non-Jews whose consciences would not allow them to pass by on the other side, and many are honored by Israel’s official memorial to Jewish Holocaust victims, Yad Vashem, as “Righteous among the Nations” for their actions. As a baby, Agnes Grunwald-Spier was herself saved from the horrors of Auschwitz by an unknown official, and is now a trustee of the Holocaust Memorial Day Trust. She has collected the stories of 30 individuals who rescued Jews, providing a new insight into why these people were prepared to risk so much for their fellow men and women. With a foreword by one of the leading experts on the subject, this is an ultimately uplifting account of how some good deeds really do shine in a weary world.”

Michaelson, Elizabeth. “The Knight Who Saved 700 Jews.” Jewniverse. 24 July 2013. Web. 25 July 2013. <http://thejewniverse.com/2013/the-knight-who-saved-700-jews/>. “Nicky’s Family, a new film by Slovak director Matej Mináč, tells the story of a 20th-century hero you probably don’t know, but should: A British stockbroker named Nicholas Winton who rescued nearly 700 Jewish children from Nazi-occupied Sudetenland.”

Minder, Raphael. “In Portugal, a Protector of a People Is Honored.” The New York Times. 9 July 2013. Web. 18 July 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/10/world/europe/in-portugal-a-protector-of-a-people-is-honored.html?pagewanted=all>. “For his efforts, Mr. Sousa Mendes received some acknowledgment after his death, starting with Israel, where the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial honored him as a “Righteous Among the Nations” in 1966. But the search for those who received his visas or their descendants began in earnest only much more recently, as part of a building campaign to grant him the recognition he deserves, particularly in his own country, where he remains relatively unknown.”

O’Rourke, John. “How Bulgaria Saved Its Jews.” BU Today. Jewish Ideas Daily, 26 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/c158f?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=a83976c75e-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “While the Holocaust claimed the lives of six million Jews living across Europe, one country was able to shield nearly all of its Jewish citizens from deportation and death. That newly revealed godsend is the subject of a provocative exhibition at BU’s Florence and Chafetz Hillel House Rubin-Frankel Gallery. The Power of Civil Society: The Fate of Jews in Bulgaria During the Holocaust, 1940–1944 chronicles the courageous refusal of that country’s citizenry to comply with government plans to surrender its Jews to Germany.”

“Rescue.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia: Rescue. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 29 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005185>. “Despite the indifference of most Europeans and the collaboration of others in the murder of Jews during the Holocaust, individuals in every European country and from all religious backgrounds risked their lives to help Jews.”

“Rescuers of Jews.” Traces.org Website. Northwest Minnesota Center, Minnesota State University Moorhead. Web. 09 May 2011. <http://www.traces.org/>. This website’s purpose is help people “to learn more about the subjects of Jewish Refugees and the Holocaust.” Herman Stern, an American German-Jewish immigrant, helped 125 Jews flee Nazi Germany, during the depression with proceeds from his business to “buy the lives of individuals who otherwise might have perished.”

Rewald, Ilse. “Berliners Who Helped Us to Survive the Hitler Dictatorship.” Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand. German Resistance Memorial Center, 1990. Web. 02 May 2011. <http://www.gdw-berlin.de/index-e.php>. The author uses her war diary to recount the brave Berliners who helped her and her husband survive the Holocaust.

Steinfeld, Irena. “Tracing the Memory of Goodness.” Ehri-project-eu. European Holocaust Research Infrastructure. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.ehri-project.eu/drupal/tracing-goodness>. “The Righteous Among the Nations program is an unprecedented attempt by victims to pay tribute to people who stood by them at a time of persecution and tragedy. Its purpose is to single out, within the nations of perpetrators, collaborators, and bystanders, individuals who bucked the general trend and protected Jews from death and deportation.”

Tzur, Nissan. “Poles Finally Learn about Their Holocaust Whistleblower.” The JC.com. 12 May 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/news/world-news/48808/poles-finally-learn-about-their-holocaust-whistleblower>. ”The late Jan Karski is a national hero in Poland for his role as a resistance fighter during the Second World War. Few, however, knew that he was also one of the first eyewitnesses of the Holocaust and documented the horrors of the Warsaw Ghetto – despite having been recognised as ‘Righteous Among the Nations’ by Yad Vashem in 1982.”

“The Woman Who Smuggled Children From the Ghetto.” Jewniverse. 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 25 July 2013. <http://thejewniverse.com/2013/the-woman-who-smuggled-children-from-the-ghetto/>. “When Nazi tanks rolled into Warsaw in 1939, a 29-year-old Catholic woman named Irena Sendler made a decision: she would not stand by as her country’s Jews were persecuted. Despite smuggling approximately 2500 Jewish children out of the Warsaw Ghetto, Sendler lived in relative obscurity until her death in 2008. But just 2 years ago, PBS released a moving documentary that brought her posthumous fame … Irena Sendler: In the Name of Their Mothers.”

 

Additional Hitler

429px-Gitler-vizvolitel

Nazi propaganda poster made for the Reichskommissariat Ukraine with the portrait of Hitler and the inscription reading in Ukrainian language HITLER THE LIBERATOR.

 In Mein Kampf  Hitler … promised,  ”to do away with the idea that what he does with his own body is each individiual’s own business.”

“Beer Hall Putsch.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 03 July 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/beer-hall-putsch>. “From November 8 to November 9, 1923, Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and his followers staged the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, a failed takeover of the government in Bavaria, a state in southern Germany. Since 1921, Hitler had led the Nazi Party, a fledgling political group that promoted German pride and anti-Semitism and was unhappy with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the peace settlement that ended World War I (1914-18) and required many concessions and reparations from Germany. In the aftermath of the failed ‘putsch,’ or coup d’état, Hitler was convicted of treason and sentenced to five years in prison.”

Bessel, Richard. The Hidden Hitler: Richard Bessel Reviews the Controversial New Book by Lothar Machtan. Perseus. History Today. Web. 19 May 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/richard-bessel/hidden-hitler>. “Opening his biography of Adolf Hitler nearly three decades ago, Joachim Fest observed: ‘Hardly any other prominent figure in history so covered his tracks, as far as his personal life was concerned.’ With his new book on The Hidden Hitler, Lothar Machtan offers a fascinating picture of what the Nazi dictator may have been trying to hide: a history of homosexual relationships beginning during his spell as a young man in Vienna, extending through his wartime military service, and continuing into his early postwar years in Munich.”

Deutsch, Harold C. Hitler and His Generals; the Hidden Crisis, January-June 1938. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1974. Print. This book “focuses on sensational events centering about Hitler’s successful efforts to oust Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, the War Minister, and Colonel General Baron von Fritsch, the Army commander in chief, in order to consolidate control of the military in his own hands.”

“Did Hitler Ban Gun Ownership?”. 16 June 2000. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/1791/did-hitler-ban-gun-ownership>. “I’ve seen references to, and bumper stickers stating, that Hitler took all the guns away from law abiding Germans in 1936. The inference is that this led to the disarming of the populace and its fall into a dictatorship. I’ve read extensively about the Third Reich and have never seen a mention of this.”

Eberle, Henrik, ed. The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Hitler’s Personal Aides. New York: Public Affairs, 2005. Print. “Even after Hitler’s death, Stalin remained so intrigued by his nemesis that he commissioned a top-secret dossier detailing every aspect of the late dictator’s private life, political behavior and personality. The result—File No. 462a, now known as The Hitler Book—was discovered hidden in the Soviet archives just two years  [2007] ago by Uhl, of the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich and Berlin, who presents it with Eberle, a historian at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg.”

Evans, Richard J. Hitler’s Philosophers by Yvonne Sherrratt. Yale UP, 2013. Print. “An effort to blame German thinkers for Nazism revives a discredited tradition, says Richard J. Evans.”

Fawcett, Bill. Trust Me, I Know What I’m Doing: 100 More Mistakes That Lost Elections, Ended Empires, and Made the World What It Is Today. New York: Berkley, 2012. Print. Hitler’s mistakes are #53 to #78. If he hadn’t made these errors, the world would be in worst shape now.

Hall, Allan. “Hitler’s Confidantes Describe His Last Days in Extraordinary Never-before-seen Interviews.” Mail Online. Web. 20 May 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2317588/Adolf-Hitlers-confidantes-days-extraordinary-seen-interviews.html>. “Remarkable interviews with the circle of confidantes who surrounded Adolf Hitler in the days before his suicide have been shown for the first time on German television. In testimony from beyond the grave, the group of aides, secretaries and friends described life in the squalid bunker retreat beneath the Reich Chancellery in Berlin as Russian troops moved in. They revealed intimate domestic details of Hitler’s favourite tea, the love letters from his admirers and the love song that he and Eva Braun, the woman he married in the underground hide, listened to over and over again. ”

Haltenborn, Hans V., and Adolf Hitler. “An Interview with Hitler.” The Wisconsin Magazine of History 50.4 (1967): 283-90. JSTOR. Web. 3 May 2011. From previously unpublished documents on Nazi Germany.

Herzog, Dagmar. The Great Mediocrity. Rev. of Hitler by A. N. Wilson. The New York Times 22 June 2012. Print. “A. N. Wilson’s ‘Hitler’ ultimately falls short as a satisfactory substitute for something more substantial.”

“Hitler Becomes Fuhrer.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/hitler-becomes-fuhrer>. “With the death of German President Paul von Hindenburg, Chancellor Adolf Hitler becomes absolute dictator of Germany under the title of Fuhrer, or ‘Leader.’ The German army took an oath of allegiance to its new commander-in-chief, and the last remnants of Germany’s democratic government were dismantled to make way for Hitler’s Third Reich. The Fuhrer assured his people that the Third Reich would last for a thousand years, but Nazi Germany collapsed just 11 years later.”

“Hitler Receives an Ultimatum, 1939.” EyeWitnesstoHistory. 2004. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/ultimatum.htm>. “Hitler’s aggressive acquisition of territory began in 1936 when he ordered his army to reoccupy the Rhineland district of Germany. Bordering France, the Rhineland had been designated as a demilitarized zone by the Versailles Treaty ending World War I. It was a high-risk endeavor for Hitler. The German troops were unprepared, poorly equipped and had orders to retreat if the French offered any resistance. In the end, the maneuver went smoothly without any hindrance. Encouraged by this result, Hitler went on to absorb Austria and the German dominated Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia into the German Third Reich in 1938. In March of the next year he occupied the remainder of Czechoslovakia.” The radio report of the surrender of Germany May 8, 1945 is included.

“Hitler Sworn in As German Chancellor; Names Nazi Aides to Two Key Cabinet Positions.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 31 Jan. 1933. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1933/01/31/archive/hitler-sworn-in-as-german-chancellor-names-nazi-aides-to-two-key-cabinet-positions>. “Defying all forecasts that the strength of the Nationalist Socialist Party was on the wane, would not attain executive power, following its loss of 35 seats in the last November’s election, Adolph Hitler today realized a boast of three years and became Chancellor of Germany. … With the appointment of Hitler the Jewish population of Germany are faced with their worst fears that now the Nazis will put into effect the threats they have been levelling ever since their Parliamentary victory in 1930 made them a leading party in the German republic.”

“Hitler’s Bride Eva Braun’s Farewell Letters Unveiled.” Business Standard. 11 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/hitler-s-bride-eva-braun-s-farewell-letters-unveiled-113061100227_1.html>. “Hitler’s bride Eva Braun spoke about her days with the Nazi leader in her farewell letters, before they committed suicide in a Berlin bunker.”

“Hollywood, Adolf Hitler And The Book ‘The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact With Hitler’ The Young Historian Ben Urwand: The Movies Nazis Loved and Hated [SLIDESHOW].” Entertainment & Stars. Inernational Business Times, 2 Aug. 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2013. <http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/496288/20130802/hollywood-adolf-hitler-movies-nazis-loved-hated.htm>. “Adolf Hitler loved Hollywood movies. Every night at about 9:00, after the Fuehrer had tired out his listeners with his hours-long monologues, he would lead his dinner guests to his private screening room. The lights would go down, and Hitler would fall silent, probably for the first time that day. He laughed heartily at his favorites Laurel and Hardy and Mickey Mouse, and he adored Greta Garbo: Camille brought tears to the Fuehrer’s eyes. Tarzan, on the other hand, he thought was silly.”

Hurst, Fabienne. “Hitler Food Taster Margot Wölk Speaks about Her Memories.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 2 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/hitler-food-taster-margot-woelk-speaks-about-her-memories-a-892097.html>. “Each meal could have been her last, but Adolf Hitler’s food taster Margot Wölk lived to tell her story. Forced to test the Nazi leader’s meals for more than two years, the 95-year-old tells SPIEGEL ONLINE that she lived in constant fear.”

“If Hitler Should Become German President: Nazi Official Election Programme Issued: Jen [Jews] Cannot Be Cit[izens].” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 1 Mar. 1932. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1932/03/01/2793041/if-hitler-should-become-german-president-nazi-official-election-programme-issued-jen-cannot-be-citizen-and-will-be-placed-under-alien-laws-then-there-is-shortage-of-food-states-first-duty-is-to-its-ci>. “With Hitler in the field as a candidate against President Hindenburg in the presidential election, in which ballotting takes place on March 13th., the Nazi Party is to-day distributing to all houscholders the official Nazi programme, outlining the policy which would be pursued under the Hitlerist regime if Hitler should be elected President.”

Jeltsen, Melissa. “These Photos Of Adolf Hitler After Prison Release Are Unbelievable.” Huffington Post. 11 July 2013. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/11/hitler-photos_n_3579507.html?utm_hp_ref=mostpopular&utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=200b15c15d-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_18_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-200b15c15d-26652337>. “These are the private photographs Adolf Hitler didn’t want anyone to see. Taken by photographer Heinrich Hoffmann, the extraordinary pictures show Hitler rehearsing while listening to a recording of one of his own speeches. They were reportedly taken in 1925, soon after Hitler was released from a nine-month stint in prison during which he dictated his autobiography, Mein Kampf. After seeing the photographs, Hitler requested that Hoffmann destroy the negatives, but he did not. They were published in his memoir, Hitler Was My Friend, which came out in 1955.”

“Jewish News & Israel News – JNS.org.” JNS.org. Jewish News & Israel News. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2013/3/11/grim-75th-anniversary-hitlers-dream-austrian-jewrys-nightmare>. “Adolf Hitler had long dreamed of making his native Austria a part of Germany and subjecting Austria’s Jews to the same fate he had in mind for the Jews of Germany. Seventy-five years ago this month, he made his move.”

Jones, Nigel. “The Fuhrer Was Not Amused.” Spectator Blogs. The Spectator, 6 Nov. 2012. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://blogs.spectator.co.uk/books/2012/11/the-fuhrer-was-not-amused/>. “‘The German sense of humour,’ Mark Twain famously observed, ‘Is no laughing matter.’ Although many Greeks, stretched on the Euro’s rack at Berlin’s behest, may be inclined to agree, Rudolph Herzog’s intriguing study of humour in and against Hitler’s Germany, ‘Dead Funny: Telling Jokes in Hitler’s Germany,’ proves conclusively that the Teutonic funny bone, while it may be difficult to locate, definitely exists.”

Kershaw, Ian. “Hitler Kept Himself Aloof from the Dirtiest Work.” Telegraph.com. 23 Jan. 2005. Web. 2 Aug. 2012. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1481809/Hitler-kept-himself-aloof-himself-aloof-from-the-dirtiest-work.html>. “He never visited a single death camp and would not speak openly about his plans to annihilate the Jews, but the Fuhrer’s indelible imprint can be found at every stage of the ‘Final Solution’, writes Professor Ian Kershaw.”

“Killing Hitler: Assassination Attempts.” Hitler’s Third Reich and World War II in the News . Web. 15 June 2013. <http://hitlernews.cloudworth.com/killing-hitler-assassination-attempts.php>. Links to many articles about assassination attempts on Adolf Hitler. A section of “Welcome to World War II News.”

Kreis, Steven. “Lecture 11: Hitler and World War Two.” The History Guide. 11 Dec. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://www.historyguide.org/Europe/lecture11.html>. “Because of his experiences in Vienna, World War One, the Münich putsch and in prison, Adolf Hitler dreamed of building a vast German Empire sprawling across Central and Eastern Europe. Lebensraum could only be obtained and sustained by waging a war of conquest against the Soviet Union: German security demanded it and Hitler’s racial ideology required it. War, then, was essential. It was essential to Hitler the man as well as essential to Hitler’s dream of a new Germany.”

Lorenzi, Rosella. “Hitler Used Cocaine and Had Semen Injections.” Discovery News. 4 May 2012. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://news.discovery.com/history/hitler-medical-records-120504.htm>. “Adolf Hitler farted uncontrollably, used cocaine to clear his sinuses, ingested some 28 drugs at a time and received injections of bull testicle extracts to bolster his libido. The startling revelations come from Hitler’s medical records, now up for auction at Alexander Historical Auctions of Stamford, Conn.”

Lorenzi, Rosella. “Proof That Hitler Had An Illegitimate Son?” Discovery News. 18 Feb. 2012. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://news.discovery.com/history/hitlers-illefitimate-son-120218.htm>. “New evidence has emerged to support the controversial claim that Hitler had a son with a French teenager, the French magazine LePoint reported on Friday. The man, Jean-Marie Loret, claimed to be the Fuhrer’s son in 1981, when he published an autobiography called ‘Your Father’s Name Was Hitler.’ He died four years later aged 67, not being able to prove his family line.”

May, Ernest R. Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000. Print. “Strange Victory, a riveting study not only of those crucial six weeks [Germany's conquest of France] but of the years and days leading up to the German invasion, makes it clear how Hitler, though a lazy, illformed psychopath, outguessed his own experts as to how French and British leaders would respond to german actions.”

Medoff, Rafael. “A World Series Warning About Hitler.” JNS.org. 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/10/15/a-world-series-warningabout-hitler.html>. “The 1936 Olympics, scheduled to be held in Nazi Germany, marked the first time basketball would be part of the competition. The Long Islanders stood a strong chance of being chosen to represent the U.S. in Berlin—until the players’ consciences got the better of them. In March 1936, on the eve of the qualifying tournament at Madison Square Garden, university president Tristram Metcalfe shocked the sports world with his announcement that the Blackbirds had decided to boycott Hitler’s Olympics. In view of Hitler’s anti-Jewish abuses, Metcalfe explained, the players decided ‘that the United States should not participate in Olympic Games … ”

Megargee, Geoffrey P. Inside Hitler’s High Command. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 2000. Print. “Hitler emerges from these pages as an adept manipulator. He took full advantage of the tensions in the command structure to divide it and focus it on himself. But he took the officers nowhere they were not at least ready, if not immediately willing, to go.”

“NAZI RANKS SPLIT, REICH SURVEY SAYS.” New York Times 17 June 1934: 20. Print. “Adolf Hitler is still a ‘Messiah’ to the majority of the German people, according to a report on ‘The Political Structure of the Third Reich’ published today by the Foreign Policy Association. The report was prepared by Mildred B. Wertheimer and the research staff of the organization.”

Noakes, Jeremy. “Hitler and ‘Lebensraum’ in the East.” BBC History. BBC, 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 03 July 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/hitler_lebensraum_01.shtml>. “Between 1921 and 1925 Adolf Hitler developed the belief that Germany required Lebensraum (‘living space’) in order to survive. The conviction that this living space could be gained only in the east, and specifically from Russia, formed the core of this idea, and shaped his policy after his take-over of power in Germany in 1933. So where did he get this idea from? And why did he envisage his country’s future living space lying in the east?”

Olden, Rudolf. Hitler, the Pawn. London: V. Gollancz, 1936. Print. “The author’s conversations with a large number of German politicians–until March 1st, 1933, in Germany and subsequently in other countries–have contributed largely to the volume of historical material here presented. The conditions under which these politicians live, both in Germany and outside, make it inadvisable to give their names as evidence and confirmation.”

Peck, Patrice. “Did Hitler Really Snub Jesse Owens at 1936 Berlin Olympics?” BET.com. 3 Aug. 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2013. <http://www.bet.com/news/global/2013/08/03/did-hitler-really-snub-jesse-owens-at-1936-berlin-olympics.html>. “On Aug. 3, 1936, Jesse Owens launched his way into sports stardom at the Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he racked up his first of four gold medals in the 100 meter sprint. As legend goes, German leader Adolf Hitler snubbed the African-American athlete for humiliating Germany and the Aryan athletes whom he had defeated on the track. However, some have claimed to debunk this supposed myth. Veteran sports reporter Siegfried Mischner told the Daily Mail that Owens had a photograph of the Nazi leader shaking his hand at the sports event.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Hitler Facts.” About.com 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 24 July 2012. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/hitleradolf/a/Hitler-Facts.htm>.

Strupp, Christopher. “‘Only a Phase’: How Diplomats Misjudged Hitler’s Rise.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/marking-eighty-years-since-hitler-took-power-in-germany-a-880565.html>. “‘The political situation now is so complicated and is subject to so many psychological factors that it is impossible to make any definite forecast,’ George S. Messersmith, the United States consul general in Berlin from 1930 to 1934, wrote in a dispatch to the State Department on Feb. 3, 1933. … ‘It may, I believe, be accepted,’ wrote Messersmith, ‘that whether the Hitler regime lasts for a few months or for a longer period, it is only a phase in the development towards more stable political conditions and that this government will be followed by one which will show greater elements of stability than any which Germany has had for some years. The people are politically tired.’”

Sundberg, Walter. “Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis.” First Things. Mar. 2001. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/article/2007/01/hitler-1936-1945-nemesis-8>. “The question Ian Kershaw faces in the second volume of his massive biography is whether Hitler’s life has a coherent meaning for us, or whether it is as fragmented and partial as his earthly remains. His first volume, Hitler 1889–1936: Hubris (1998), covered Hitler’s early life and rise to power. In that volume the ultimate significance of Hitler’s life was not the urgent question. This final volume tells Hitler’s story from the height of his acclaim in March 1936, after German troops occupied the Rhineland, to his ‘extinction’ (Kershaw’s word) in his bunker in Berlin in April 1945. Kershaw, Professor of History at the University of Sheffield, summarizes the historical meaning of Hitler’s life at the outset: ‘Hitler’s legacy,’ he writes in the Preface, ‘is one of utter destruction.’”

Uzan, Elad. “Wagner and Hitler: Active or Passive Influence?” JPost.com. The Jerusalem Post, 20 Dec. 2012. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Magazine/Opinion/Wagner-and-Hitler-Active-or-passive-influence>. “The year 2013 marks the bicentennial of Richard Wagner’s birth. Once every several years, the debate ensues in Israel over whether or not this composer’s music should be performed publicly. … So, in order to properly examine the connection between Wagner and Hitler, it is imperative to create order in the time line. Wagner died 50 years before Hitler’s rise to power in 1933. However, I argue there is evidence to support the claim that Wagner’s anti-Semitism affected Hitler through indirect channels.”

Waldman, Simon. “At Home with the Fuhrer.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 02 Nov. 2003. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/nov/03/secondworldwar.blogging>. “Simon Waldman came across a copy of Homes and Gardens from 1938 which featured an article about Hitler’s house, and posted it to his weblog. This started a bizarre series of events that saw him embroiled in legal wrangles and denounced as a Nazi sympathiser.”

“When Did Hitler Lose The War ?” 2worldwar2. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.2worldwar2.com/when-hitler-lost.htm>. “When did Adolf Hitler lose the chance to win World War 2 ? What was the moment in time that before it he could still possibly win the war, and after it his defeat was a matter of time ? (and long continued fighting that still cost so many lives). When was it? How early or late was it ?”

 

After the Third Reich #2

 Bundesarchiv_Bild

“177 Nuremberg Jews Survived; Unabie [sic] to Secure Return of Homes Occupied by Nazis.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 13 July 1945. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/07/13/2867643/177-nuremberg-jews-survived-unabie-to-secure-return-of-homes-occupied-by-nazis>. “Of the 10,000 Jews who lived in this citadel of Nazism, from which the infamous anti-Jewish racial laws derived their name, only 177 have survived – 37 in concentration camps and 140 who succeeded in remaining hidden throughout the Hitler regime.”

Aciman, Alexander. “Still Hunting Nazis.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 27 Nov. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/117824/still-hunting-nazis>. “To take what was denied, obfuscated, and forgotten and make it inescapably visible has been a great part of Serge Klarsfeld’s job as a Nazi hunter. The same dedication that drove Klarsfeld to go after Brunner manifested itself when he spent countless months copying, by hand, the names of the more than 10,000 children, like Georgy, who died in Auschwitz.”

Adler, Libby. “Rage and Critique: One Jewish Girl’s Story.” Harvard Journal of the Legal Left 1.No. 1 (2005): 1-14. Social Science Research Network. Web. 2 Feb. 2013. <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1991994>. “This essay recounts an experience of researching, writing and teaching about restitution for the corporate use of slaves during the Third Reich. It is a tale of integration of deeply invested moral outrage and detached critical legal analysis.”

“Alleged Anti-Semitism of Rome Team’€™s Soccer Fans to Be Investigated.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 8 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/08/3116341/rome-soccer-team-fans-anti-semitism-to-be-investigated>. “European soccer authorities have opened disciplinary proceedings against the Rome soccer team Lazio for the alleged anti-Semitism of its fans. The action follows alleged racist chanting and other racist and anti-Semitic behavior on the part of hardcore fans at a match with London’s Tottenham Hotspur team in Rome in November.”

Alperin, Michele. “A Tale of Mutual Empathy: Jewish Refugee Scholars at Historically Black colleges.” Jns.Org.13 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2013/1/13/a-tale-of-mutual-empathy-jewish-refugee-scholars-at-historic.html>. “In Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love, an exhibition aptly opening on Martin Luther King Day will highlight a historical moment of mutual respect and cooperation between the African American and Jewish communities. Although their relationship has often been tense, especially after the rise of the black power movement and its expressions of anti-Semitism, the hiring of Jewish refugee scholars in the 1930s by historically black colleges stands as a beacon to the potential for common ground between the two groups.”

“American Nazi Party Registers First Washington Lobbyist.” BBC News. BBC, 14 Apr. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-17710570>. “The American Nazi Party has registered its first lobbyist in Washington DC. John Bowles, 55, told US media he wanted to address political rights and ballot access and he expected congressmen would accept meetings. Lobbying was something the party would ‘try out for the first time and see if it flies,’ Mr Bowles told ABC News. He registered as a lobbyist this week [April 13, 2012].”

Anderson, Clive. “The Bizarre Nazi Book Craze.” BBC News. BBC, 17 Mar. 2011. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-12752501>. “Books about the Third Reich throng the British bestseller lists, but is it a matter of genuine historical interest or odd fetish, asks Clive Anderson.”

“Anti-Semitic Videos to Keep Halimi Killer in Jail for 7 More Years.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 19 Feb. 2013. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/02/18/3119826/anti-semitic-videos-keep-ilan-halimi-killer-in-jail-for-7-more-years?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=15459197d3-JTA_Daily_Briefing_02_19_2013&utm_medium=email>. The leader of the gang that tortured and killed Ilan Halimi was sentenced to an additional seven years in prison for making anti-Semitic videos in jail. A correctional court in Moulins found Youssouf Fofana, head of the Gang of Barbarians, guilty of propagating terrorism and inciting racial hatred, the Le Monde newspaper reported.”

“Austrian Jewish Leader Warns of Rising Anti-Semitism.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 7 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/07/3116141/austrian-jewish-leader-warns-of-rising-anti-semitism>. “The number of anti-Semitic incidents documented in 2012 by Austria’s Jewish community doubled from the previous year, the leader of Vienna’s Jewish community said. Oskar Deutsch told the Kurier newspaper that the Jewish community registered 135 such incidents last year, compared to 71 in 2011. Still, Jews increasingly are immigrating to Austria from neighboring Hungary because of anti-Semitism in that country, he said.

Axelrod, Toby. “Last Effort to Hunt Down Nazis Seeks Help from Local Witnesses.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 26 May 2004. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/2004/05/26/2921558/last-effort-to-hunt-down-nazis-seeks-help-from-local-witnesses>. “It could be a tip leading to an old Nazi who has escaped justice. More likely, it’s another crank caller making anti-Semitic comments. ‘Why don’t you leave our grandparents alone? The Jews are guilty of everything,’ Schindler has heard. ‘There is one Nazi murderer: Ariel Sharon,’ is another line, or, ‘Austrians have paid enough for the Jews.’ ‘Although I expected such calls, I did not know how stressful it would be,’ said Schindler, a volunteer for the Simon Wiesenthal Center’s Operation Last Chance. The program constitutes the center’s last-ditch effort to find and prosecute Nazi war criminals before they die. Schindler works at the Vienna-based Documentation Center for Austrian Resistance, and she has been answering the hot line for several months. The Wiesenthal Center rewards successful tips — those that lead to a conviction — with $10,000.

Axelrod, Toby. “Sixty Years After Nuremberg, Germans Grapple with Lessons.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 29 Nov. 2005. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/2005/11/29/2929391/sixty-years-after-nuremberg-germans-grapple-with-lessons>. “Their faces stare out in black and white: the defendants of Nuremberg. Today, the rain-spattered images hang outdoors at the Topography of Terror Exhibition and Documentation Center in Berlin. Sixty years ago, the men behind these pallid masks were tried for crimes against humanity. Many were executed. Some committed suicide in their cells. The Nuremberg Trials, which opened with the reading of charges against 24 defendents in Berlin on Oct. 18, 1945 and reconvened in Nuremberg on Nov. 20, confronted Germans with the reality of what had been done in their name. It was the beginning of a process of reckoning and repentance that continues to this day. How do the stories of those men, and the judges who tried them, resonate for Germans now?”

Beck, Ludwig, and Carl F. Goerdeler. Plans for a Government: Governmental Declaration by Beck/Goerdeler Draft, Summer 1944. Rep. German Resistance Center. Print. “The original is missing: the present version was reconstructed from the documents of the Special Commission for Investigating the Assassination Attempt against Hitler of July 20, 1944.”

Beke, Matthew. “First Things: The Big Lie Continured.” First Things. Feb. 1994. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/article/2009/03/001-the-big-lie-continued-3>. “Ever since the end of World War II there have been people who deny, or at least minimize, the enormous crimes of Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich. The most outrageous claim by these deniers—or ‘revisionists,’ as they style themselves—is that there never was a Holocaust (or Shoah) in which six million Jews were systematically murdered by the Nazis. … Until recently, scholars and Jewish organizations practiced a discreet silence toward the deniers, on the theory that responding in effect concedes a certain stature and seriousness to their claims. … Such an approach is no longer possible, however, because over the last decade or so Holocaust deniers have managed to be heard beyond the lunatic fringe.”

Bohr, Felix. “New Book Explores How So Many Nazis Escaped Justice in South America.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. Trans. Christopher Sultan. 24 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/new-book-explores-how-so-many-nazis-escaped-justice-in-south-america-a-879101.html>. “After World War II, dozens of Nazi criminals went into hiding in South America. A new study reveals how a ‘coalition of the unwilling’ on both sides of the Atlantic successfully stymied efforts to hunt and prosecute these criminals for decades. … Historian Daniel Stahl has conducted research in European and South American archives in the process of writing a new book entitled “Nazi Hunt: South America’s Dictatorships and the Avenging of Nazi Crimes.” The work supplies a certain and disgraceful answer to what has long been suspected: that there was a broad coalition of people — across continents and within the courts, police, governments and administrations — that was unwilling to act or even thwarted the prosecution of Nazi criminals for decades.”

Boulouque, Clemence. “A Growing Fear in France.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc., 23 May 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/131798/a-growing-fear-in-france>. “In March [2013], an alleged anti-Semitic attack by a group of young Arabs against an Israeli movie director at a film festival in the south of France led to a welter of conflicting accounts. The version that circulated first, mostly on Israeli and American media, sounded only too plausible in light of recent events involving hate crimes in France: Yariv Horowitz had been beaten up by a gang of young Arabs for being Israeli. As Tablet magazine reported last month, eyewitnesses, however, hastened to debunk the story, and the director himself soon offered a more careful reappraisal of the facts: Some isolated intoxicated individual punched him after asking him for a cigarette. Immediately following these denials, anti-Zionist websites sought to further discredit the director and, at the same time, emphasize the Jews’ promptness to spread lies and fictions of victimhood.”

Bowlby, Chris. “Austria Still Haunted by Nazi Past.” BBC – News. BBC. Web. 30 May 2011. <http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7283899.stm>. The guilty past in Austria “was either ignored, or proved too painful to face.”

Carin, Michael. The Future Jew. Montreal: MRW, 2001. Print. “The future Jews are those who have read the writing on the wall of reality. And they are the Jews who hold resolutely to zachor, remembrance. They refuse to forget the European genocide of the 1940s and they take instruction from it.”

Chandler, Adam. “A World War II Bomb Delays Berlin Trains.” The Scroll. Tablet Magazine, 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.easybib.com/cite/view/list/1354256541d02cc5ce-fbb0-4664-9ef0-6ab13a87bb93/style/mla7>. “The bomb was found by munitions experts conducting a routine search of a site in preparation of construction work. Unexploded bombs from the Allied bombardment of Germany during World War II are still frequently found. The munitions are getting more difficult and dangerous to defuse because their fuse mechanisms have corroded and become less stable over time.”

“Claims Conference Offers Last Chance for East Germany Property Heirs.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 19 Feb. 2013. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/02/19/3119901/claims-conference-offers-last-chance-for-east-germany-property-heirs?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=15459197d3-JTA_Daily_Briefing_02_19_2013&utm_medium=email>. “Jews who owned property seized by the Nazis in what became East Germany have a last chance to receive compensation for it. For the first time in a decade, the Claims Conference has agreed to review new claims by potential heirs to Jewish-owned properties in the former East Germany.”

Clark, Alexis. “A Black Nurse, a German Soldier and an Unlikely WWII Romance.” City Room. The New York Times, 15 May 2013. Web. 17 May 2013. <http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/15/a-black-nurse-a-german-soldier-and-an-unlikely-wwii-romance/>. “The nurse and the soldier may never have met – and eventually married – had it not been for the American government’s mistreatment of black women during World War II.”

Cohen, Patricia, and Tom Mashberg. “Rosenberg Family’s Quest to Regain Art Stolen by Nazis.” The New York Times. N.p., 27 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/27/arts/design/rosenberg-familys-quest-to-regain-art-stolen-by-nazis.html?pagewanted=all>. “Inside, the French found the cargo the Germans had been guarding, crates jammed with artwork: sculptures, drawings and framed paintings, some stacked against one another like bread slices, their signatures visible. … Since that day, three generations of Rosenbergs have been engaged in a painstaking search for hundreds of artworks that were looted from their family by the Nazis. This month their hunt led to Norway, where the family is negotiating for the return of a Matisse that has hung for 45 years in the Henie Onstad Arts Center, a museum founded by the skater Sonja Henie and her husband.”

Connelly, John. “The Noble and the Base: Poland and the Holocaust | The Nation.” The Nation. 4 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.thenation.com/article/171262/noble-and-base-poland-and-holocaust>. “Earlier this year, while conferring a posthumous Presidential Medal of Freedom on the Polish hero Jan Karski, Barack Obama inadvertently touched off the greatest crisis in US-Polish relations in recent memory. The man he honored had served as a courier for the Polish resistance against Hitler, and in 1942 Karski traveled across occupied Europe to tell Western leaders about the Nazi war crimes being committed in Poland, including the Holocaust. Karski had been sent on this secret mission, Obama explained, after fellow underground fighters had told him that ‘Jews were being murdered on a massive scale and smuggled him into the Warsaw Ghetto and a Polish death camp to see for himself.’ It was late evening in Warsaw when Obama spoke, but within minutes Polish officials were demanding an apology for his use of the phrase ‘Polish death camp,’ which they thought scandalous.”

Dalin, David G. “First Things: Hitler’s Mufti.” First Things. Sept. 2005. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/article/2007/01/hitler8217s-mufti-29>. “In his 2004 book The Return of Anti-Semitism, Gabriel Schoenfeld declared that ‘the ancient and modern strands of anti-Semitism’ have been ‘successfully fused today’ in the Muslim world, ‘and from there the hatred of Jews receives its main propulsion outward.’ In the 2003 Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism, Abraham Foxman added, ‘Virulent anti-Semitism is widespread throughout the Arab Middle East. . . . Anti-Semitism is tolerated or openly endorsed by Arab governments, disseminated by the Arab media, taught in [Muslim] schools and universities, and preached in mosques. No segment of [Islamic] society is free of its taint.’ And in the 1999 Semites and Anti-Semites, Bernard Lewis concluded, ‘Classical anti-Semitism is an essential part of Arab intellectual life at the present time.’”

DeJong, David. “Nazi Goebbels’ Step-Grandchildren Are Hidden Billionaires.” Bloomberg. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-01-27/nazi-goebbels-step-grandchildren-are-hidden-billionaires.html>. “In the spring of 1945, Harald Quandt, a 23-year-old officer in the German Luftwaffe, was being held as a prisoner of war by Allied forces in the Libyan port city of Benghazi when he received a farewell letter from his mother, Magda Goebbels — the wife of Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels. … Quandt was released from captivity in 1947. Seven years later, he and his half-brother Herbert — would inherit the industrial empire built by their father, Guenther Quandt, which had produced Mauser firearms and anti-aircraft missiles for the Third Reich’s war machine. Among their most valuable assets at the time was a stake in car manufacturer Daimler AG. (DAI).”

Derkacz, Evan. “The Pope’s Dubious Holocaust Remembrance.” Rd Magazine. Religion Dispatches, 02 Feb. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.religiondispatches.org/dispatches/theeditors/6792/the_pope_s_dubious_holocaust_remembrance/>. “Sunday sundown signals the start of this year’s Yom HaShoah, or ‘Holocaust Remembrance Day,’ marking the 68th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz. First, in the name of optimism, let’s point out that it’s a good sign that we live in an age when the pope is expected to make a statement like the one B16 [Pope Benedict] made today: The memory of this immense tragedy, which above all struck so harshly the Jewish people, must represent for everyone a constant warning so that the horrors of the past are not repeated, so that every form of hatred and racism is overcome, and that respect for, and dignity of, every human person is encouraged.”

“Dershowitz Says Contender for Papacy an Anti-Semite.” The Jewish Press. 17 Feb. 2013. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/dershowitz-says-contender-for-papacy-is-an-anti-semite/2013/02/17/>. “In a letter to the editor of the Miami Herald, Harvard law professor Alan Dershowitz said that one of the leading candidates to replace Pope Benedict XVI is an anti-Semite. Responding to a list published last week after the resignation of Benedict, which identified Cardinal Oscar Andres Rodriguez Maradiaga of Honduras as a possible successor to the current pope, Dershowitz wrote, ‘He has blamed the Jews for the scandal surrounding the sexual misconduct of priests toward young parishioners!’”

Dewsbury, Rick. “Half of GERMAN Schoolchildren Do Not Know Third Reich Was a Dictatorship – or That East Germany Was Communist.” Dailymail. Mail Online, 29 June 2012. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2166557/Half-GERMAN-schoolchildren-know-Third-Reich-dictatorship–East-Germany-Communist.html>. “Half of German schoolchildren do not know that the Third Reich was a dictatorship, a survey has found. … Despite being obliged to visit a concentration camp at least once in their schooldays and learning about Hitler’s seizure of power, German students showed a lack of knowledge about their roots.”

Diner, Hasia R. We Remember with Reverence and Love: American Jews and the Myth of Silence after the Holocaust, 1945-1962. New York: New York UP, 2009. Print. “A startling and passionate work of history. No one has written about the early American Jewish response to the Holocaust with more insight, sophistication, and sensitivity. Hasia Diner has not only recovered a Jewish world we have lost but etched one of the most probing portraits yet drawn of ethnic identity and community in post-World War II America.”

Dovere, Maxine. “50 Years Later, Impact of Eichmann Trial endures.” JNS.org. 20 Feb. 2012. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/2/20/50-years-later-impact-of-eichmann-trial-endures.html>. “The 1961 trial of Nazi arch criminal Adolf Eichmann changed the philosophy and future thinking of the state of Israel. Opening a window of understanding about the unimaginable horrors of the Nazi killing machine, the testimony given by those Eichmann sought to murder proved to be a turning point in Israel’s attitude toward those who survived—and those who were murdered—of the Shoah.”

“Dutch Nazi, 91, Charged with Murder of Resistance Fighter.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 27 Nov. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/11/27/3112956/dutch-nazi-91-charged-with-murder-of-resistance-fighter>. ” Siert Bruins, a former member of the Nazi Waffen SS, was charged with the 1944 murder of a Dutch Resistance fighter.”

Flres, Alexander. “The Arabs as Nazis? Some Reflections on ‘Islamofascism’ and Arab Anti-Semitism.” Welt Des Islams 52.3/4 (2012): 450-70. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. “One of the main constituents of the so-called Islamofascism is, in the eyes of those who subscribe to this conception, the close affinity of Arabs (and sometimes, Muslims) to Nazi ideology and possibly practice.”

“Former Jewish Neighbor of Hitler Writes Memoir.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 3 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/03/3115886/former-jewish-neighbor-of-hitler-writes-memoir>. “A former Jewish neighbor of Adolf Hitler in Munich has co-authored a book describing his childhood brushes with the dictator. Edgar Feuchtwanger, 88, wrote ‘My Neighbor Hitler: memories of a Jewish child’ with the French journalist Bertil Scali. The 320-page book is due out in French bookstores on Jan. 10 from Michel Lafon Publishing in Neuilly-sur-Seine.”

“France to Return Paintings Stolen by Nazis to Jewish Owners.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/15/france-art-theft>. “France has promised to return seven paintings taken from their Jewish owners during the second world war, part of efforts to give back hundreds of looted art that hangs in the Louvre and other museums. The works were stolen or sold under duress up to seven decades ago as their owners fled Nazi-occupied Europe. All seven were destined for display in the art gallery Adolf Hitler planned to build in his birthplace of Linz, Austria, according to a catalogue for the proposed museum. … The move to return the paintings ends years of struggle for the owners’ families, whose claims were validated by the French government last year.”

“Frankfurt Jews Faring Worse Under American Military Occupation Than Former Nazis.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 9 July 1945. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/07/09/2867601/frankfurt-jews-faring-worse-under-american-military-occupation-than-former-nazis>. “The ragged remnants of Frankfurt’s once flourishing, prosperous Jewish community have, up to now, fared worse under the American occupation than many Germans who discarded their Nazi party badges the day the city was taken. Those who have struggled home from concentration camps in the past two months returned ill and penniless, and, sometimes, on the verge of starvation. But they were bolstered by the hope that they would soon regain their homes, their possessions and their positions in the community. Their hopes have not been realized, a survey by a Jewish Telegraphic Agency correspondent discloses. The Jews have discovered that no machinery has been set up for restitution of their property, and many are living in squalor while Germans occupy their former homes.”

Gera, Vanessa. “Jewish Museum in Poland Unveils Synagogue Roof – WTOP.com.” WTOP. 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.wtop.com/1226/3248061/Jewish-museum-in-Poland-unveils-synagogue-roof>. “A Jewish history museum in Warsaw has unveiled a reconstructed synagogue roof with an elaborately painted ceiling modeled on a 17th-century structure, presenting the first object that will go on permanent display in the highly awaited museum.”

“Germany Rehabilitates Third Reich Wartime ‘traitors’” The Local. 8 Sept. 2009. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.thelocal.de/national/20090908-21789.html>. “The German parliament voted Tuesday to lift Nazi-era convictions of wartime ‘traitors’ whose names, 70 years after the fighting started, had still not been cleared.”

Gruber, Ruth E. “Ex-Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi Defends Some of Mussolini’s Policies.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/01/27/news-opinion/world/ex-italian-pm-silvio-berlusconi-defends-some-of-mussolinis-policies>. “During the inauguration of a Holocaust memorial in Milan, former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said Benito Mussolini’s fascist regime had carried out some positive policies. ‘The fact of the racial laws was the worst fault of a leader, Mussolini, who in many other ways did well,’ Berlusconi said in informal remarks to the media at the ceremony on Sunday, International Holocaust Remembrance Day. The memorial dedicated at Milan’s train station is located at Track 21, from which 700 Milan Jews were deported to Nazi camps.”

Gumbel, Peter. “Germanys Angst: A Countrys Culture Bumps Up Against Its Nazi Past Comments.” Time World. Time, 14 May 2013. Web. 17 May 2013. <http://world.time.com/2013/05/14/german-culture-bumps-painfully-up-against-the-countrys-nazi-past/>. “In the 68 years since the defeat of Hitler and the end of World War II, countless movie and theater directors, writers, dancers, poets and sculptors around the world have used themes from the Third Reich and the Holocaust as the backdrop for their work, from artist Gerhard Richter’s painting of his uncle Rudi in his German army uniform to Quentin Tarantino’s movie Inglourious Basterds.”

Hall, Alan. “Body Found at Hunting Lodge Owned by Hitler’s Deputy, Hermann Goering, Identified as the Dead Wife He Had Exhumed and Shipped from Sweden.” Mail Online. 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2256044/Wife-exhumed-Hitler-deputy-Hermann-Goering-FOUND-Nazi-hunting-lodge.html>. “Forensic scientists have identified the remains of a woman found buried at the estate of Hitler’s deputy Hermann Goering 21 years ago as those of his wife Carin. Carin, born Carin Fock in Sweden, died aged 42 in 1931 and was buried in her homeland. But as Goering rose through the Nazi ranks he had her body exhumed and transported to his massive hunting lodge outside of Berlin called Carinhall in her memory.” Pictures included.

“Head of Radical Catholic Sect Calls Jews €˜enemies of the Church.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/06/3116131/bishop-calls-jews-enemies-of-the-church>. ‘Jews are “enemies of the Church,’ the head of a radical Catholic sect said in Canada. Bishop Bernard Fellay, superior of the traditionalist Society of St. Pius X, made the remark during a Dec. 28 address at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Academy in New Hamburg, Ontario, about 90 minutes’ drive west of Toronto. He was reviewing the situation of the society, which opposes Catholic Church reforms decided by the Second Vatican Council and is not recognized by the Church.”

Hirsi, Ayaan. “Raised on Hatred.” The New York Times. 18 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/18/opinion/global/ayaan-hirsi-ali-morsis-comments-on-jews.html>. “EGYPT’S newly elected president, Mohamed Morsi, was caught on tape about three years ago urging his followers to ‘nurse our children and our grandchildren on hatred’ for Jews and Zionists. Not long after, the then-leader of the Muslim Brotherhood described Zionists as ‘bloodsuckers who attack the Palestinians,’ ‘warmongers’ and ‘descendants of apes and pigs.’”

“Imams Who Toured Auschwitz Denounce Holocaust Denial 44.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 5 June 2013. Web. 9 June 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/06/05/news-opinion/united-states/imams-denounce-holocaust-denial-after-auschwitz-tour?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=7ddfe2f4f4-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_6_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-7ddfe2f4f4-25413225>. “A group of imams who toured Auschwitz and Dachau said ‘denying the reality of the Holocaust’ was ‘unacceptable.’”

“In Malmo, Record Number of Hate Crimes Complaints but No Convictions.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 9 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/09/3116381/no-hate-crime-conviction-in-malmo-in-2010-2011>. “A record number of complaints about hate crimes in the Swedish city of Malmo has not resulted in any convictions for such offenses in more than two years. The Swedish court system did not convict anyone of hate crimes in 2010 and 2011 despite 480 complaints, the local daily Sydsvenskan reported Monday.”

Ingall, Marjorie. “Welcome Home?” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 8 Mar. 2010. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/search?q=Welcome+Home>. “My children are becoming German citizens, and I’m nuts. … Another part of my pain has to do not so much with them being German, but with me being an American. This was supposed to be the new Promised Land; American Jews have typically felt about America the way German Jews once felt about Germany. But nowadays, I’m growing increasingly concerned with the state of things. I’m not saying I see barbed wire and stone soap in our own futures; I’m not that kind of hyperbolic drama queen. But I haven’t felt this kind of despair about our country’s direction before. The joy I felt at Barack Obama’s election makes the anxiety I feel now that much more bitter.”

“Israeli Envoy Warns against Wearing Yarmulkes in Copenhagen.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/12/12/3114351/israeli-envoy-warns-against-wearing-yarmulkes-in-copenhagen>. “Israel’s ambassador to Denmark reportedly warned Jews to avoid being identified as such in Copenhagen. … Last month anti-Israel protesters vandalized the Israeli embassy in Denmark.”

“Jews Live in Fear in Europe,€™ European Parliament President Says.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Ideas Daily, 23 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/23/3117561/jews-live-in-fear-in-europe-european-parliament-president-says>. ” Martin Schulz, the president of the European Parliament, said the continent’s Jews are living in fear. ‘Yes, Jews are living in fear in Europe. Yes, there are threats,’ Schulz said. ‘But, ladies and gentlemen — why are we not [living in 1929]? Because there is a European Parliament. Because there are common European Institutions. Because a consequence was taken after the Second World War — after its deepest point of civilization represented by Auschwitz.’”

Jones, Gareth. “Germany Wrestles with Third Reich Legacy Again.” News.scotsman. 27 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.scotsman.com/news/international/germany-wrestles-with-third-reich-legacy-again-1-2911562>. “Germans’ interest in the darkest chapter of their history seems stronger than it has ever been as the country marks several key anniversaries this year [2013] linked to the Nazi era.”

Kirkpatrick, David D. “Morsi’s Slurs Against Jews Stir Concern.” The New York Times. 15 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/15/world/middleeast/egypts-leader-morsi-made-anti-jewish-slurs.html?_r=0>. “Nearly three years ago, a leader of the Muslim Brotherhood delivered a speech urging Egyptians to ‘nurse our children and our grandchildren on hatred’ for Jews and Zionists. In a television interview months later, the same leader described Zionists as ‘these bloodsuckers who attack the Palestinians, these warmongers, the descendants of apes and pigs.’ That leader, Mohamed Morsi, is now president of Egypt — and his comments may be coming back to haunt him. … Any attempt to retract, or even clarify, his slurs would expose him to political attacks by opponents who already accuse him of softness toward the United States and Israel.”

Kohl, Christiane. The Witness House: Nazis and Holocaust Survivors Sharing a Villa during the Nuremberg Trials. New York: Other, 2010. Print. “Kohl offers a glimpse of the Nuremberg trials refreshingly unlike that provided by standard histories.”

Kreder, Jennifer A. “Fighting Corruption of the Historical Record: Nazi-Looted Art Litigation.” SSRN. Social Science Research Network, 18 Apr. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2042116>. “Judicial opinions comprise part of the historical record. Thus, judicial attention to historical context is important, because it will influence how future generations interpret historical events. Generalist judges often have difficulty facing and interpreting difficult historical facts. The recent wave of litigation concerning Holocaust-era art demonstrates the phenomenon particularly well. Modern day judges deciding motions to dismiss under the Twombly and Iqbal standards must determine which claims are ‘plausible.’ They bring their common sense to the decision-making process. The problem is that the Third Reich was a time and place where common sense did not reign. Nor was the international art market during or after World War II. Thus, some claimants’ true narratives seem to be fantastical, rather than entirely plausible. This Article assesses the state of claims to Holocaust-era art, concludes that claims have been dismissed improperly because they did not reconcile with judicial notions of common sense, and recommends that judges actively seek the input of historians while remaining vigilant not to allow the historical record to become politicized and biased in the advocacy process.”

Kurbjeweit, Dirk. “Essay: The Return of the Ugly German.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. SPIEGELnet GmbH, 13 Dec. 2012. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/essay-the-return-of-the-ugly-german-a-872433.html>. “The 2006 World Cup in Germany seemed like a fairy tale come true for the country. Suddenly, years of troubling history seemed to lift amidst euphoria over the cosmopolitan twist fate had brought to the country. But this year, amid fresh debates over xenophobia, many are left wondering if the ugly German is back.”

Lieber, Chavie. “67 Years Later Holocaust Survivor Reunites with Rescuer.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article-print/2012/11/26/3112831/wwiii-era-archbishop-of-florence-recognized-as-righteous-gentile>. “Cardinal Elia Angelo Dalla Costa, the World War II-era Archbishop of Florence, has been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations. In an announcement issued Monday, Yad Vashem in Jerusalem said Dalla Costa was recognized as a righteous gentile earlier this year ‘for spearheading the rescue of hundreds of Jews in Florence during the Holocaust.’ Dalla Costa died in 1961 at the age of 89.”

Marquand, Robert. “Why 13 Percent of Germans Would Welcome a ‘Führer’” The Christian Science Monitor.15 Oct. 2010. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2010/1015/Why-13-percent-of-Germans-would-welcome-a-Fuehrer>. “A new survey in Germany shows that 13 percent of its citizens would welcome a ‘Führer’ – a German word for leader that is explicitly associated with Adolf Hitler – to run the country ‘with a firm hand.’ The findings signal that Europe’s largest nation, freed from cold-war strictures, is not immune from the extreme and often right-wing politics on the rise around the Continent.”

McGrane, Sally. “Diary of the Hitler Diary Hoax.” The New Yorker. 25 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2013/04/diary-of-the-hitler-diary-hoax.html>. “On April 25, 1983, Stern magazine—the German answer to Life—held a press conference to make a sensational announcement: their star reporter had discovered a trove of Hitler’s personal diaries, lost since a plane crash in 1945. Now Stern would begin publishing what he’d found … Two weeks later, the diaries were exposed as fakes—and not particularly good ones, written at great speed by Konrad Kujau, a small-time crook and prolific forger.”

Moynihan, Michael. “Hiding Judaism in Copenhagen.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/128077/hiding-judaism-in-copenhagen>. “Walking this length of Nørrebrogade, as I did on a freezing day last month, provides a street-level view of multicultural Denmark. It’s a perfectly pleasant experience, provided you are, like me, an unassuming gentile. For Jews exploring Nørrebro, it’s advisable to heed the advice of Israel’s ambassador to Denmark, Arthur Avnon, who last November suggested that Jews traveling in Copenhagen exercise extreme subtlety: Don’t speak Hebrew too loudly, cover up any visible Star of David jewelry, fold your kippot and slip them into your pockets. In other words, in certain areas of Copenhagen, it’s best to keep your Judaism to yourself.”

Murphy, Thomas R. “Hitlers Calculus.” America Magazine. 10 May 2010. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://americamagazine.org/issue/culture/hitlers-calculus>. “The Legacy of the Second World War” by John Lukacs is reviewed. “The title does not fit this book. John Lukacs has written a valuable account of the events of the period 1939 to 1945, particularly in Europe. But readers pondering how the world of 2010 actually bears the long-term influence of the war will not find much commentary on that issue beyond fears some issues could recur. The book remains valuable, however, for what it really is: a wise historian’s synthesis of his career work on World War II itself.”

“Muslim Brotherhood Tops Wiesenthal Center Anti-Semitism List.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 28 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/12/28/3115561/muslim-brotherhood-tops-swc-anti-semite-list>. “Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood produced the worst anti-Semitic and anti-Israel slurs this year, according to the Simon Wiesenthal Center. The center topped its annual Top Ten Anti-Semitic/Anti-Israel Slurs list with a quote from Mohammed Badie, the Muslim Brotherhood’s supreme guide, who lamented ‘Jewish control’ and ‘spreading of corruption on earth,’ and recommended ‘holy Jihad’ as a remedy.”

“Nazi Slogans Scrawled on Toulouse Wall.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 3 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/03/3115881/nazi-slogans-scrawled-on-toulouse-wall>. ” Anti-Semitic slogans were scrawled on the wall of an association of psychoanalysts in Toulouse, France, for the second time in three months. Unknown vandals wrote ‘SS’ and ‘get out of here,’ and painted a swastika on the outer wall of the Toulouse branch of the Psychoanalytic Society of Paris, the French news agency AFP reported Wednesday.”

“Nazi War Criminals Sentenced at Nuremberg.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, 1 Oct. 1946. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/nazi-war-criminals-sentenced-at-nuremberg>. “On October 1, 1946, 12 high-ranking Nazis are sentenced to death by the International War Crimes Tribunal in Nuremberg.”

Nuechterlein, James. “First Things: Pride and Patriotism.” First Things. N.p., May 2001. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/article/2007/01/pride-and-patriotism-45>. “A great many Americans, especially those of a certain age, cannot hear the German language being spoken—by anyone under any conditions—without instantly bringing to mind Hitler, the Nazis, the Holocaust. It’s not willed; it’s simply instinct. … More than a half century after the collapse of the Third Reich, a special moral burden rests on Germany and things Germanic. The question is, When if ever does the statute of limitations run out on that moral burden? For Nazism itself, of course, the answer is Never.”

“Obama: Israel Prevents Another Holocaust.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 22 Mar. 2013. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/03/22/3122811/obama-israel-prevents-another-holocaust>. “Israel does not owe its existence to the Holocaust, but its existence prevents another one from happening, President Obama said on the third and final day of his visit to Israel.”

Patterson, Tony. “Germans Claim ‘Third Reich’ Polish Property.” The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Limited, 15 Feb. 2004. Web. 2 Feb. 2013. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/poland/1454420/Germans-claim-Third-Reich-Polish-property.html>. “A German drive to repossess thousands of Third Reich-era properties confiscated by Poland after the Second World War threatens to provoke a blistering row between Berlin and Warsaw, and to overshadow Polish accession to the EU. More than nine million Germans were expelled from the territories of Pomerania, Silesia and Prussia – ceded to Poland in 1945 – and their homes seized by Warsaw’s communist authorities.”

Pinfold, Debbie. The Child’s View of the Third Reich in German Literature: The Eye among the Blind. Oxford: Clarendon, 2001. Print. “This book considers how and why German authors have used the child’s viewpoint to present the Third Reich. Given the popularity of this device, this study asks whether it is an evasive strategy, a means of gaining new insights into the era, or a means of discovering a new language. This raises issues central to the post-war German aesthetic.”

“Police: Neo-Nazis Vandalized German Holocaust Memorials.” JTA Jewish News. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 11 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/11/11/3111631/german-holocaust-memorials-vandalized>. “Neo-Nazis are behind the destruction of 11 ‘stumbling block’ Holocaust memorials, say police in the German city of Greifswald. The vandalism in the eastern Germany city was discovered Nov. 9, the 74th anniversary of the Kristallnacht pogrom against Jews.”

“Poster Collection Looted by Nazis to Be Auctioned.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 5 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/11/05/3111096/poster-collection-looted-by-nazis-to-go-on-sale>. “The more than 4,300 posters collected by Hans Sachs and looted by the Nazis will be auctioned at Guernsey’s in New York on Jan. 18 [2013], though the auction house is seeking to sell the entire collection to one buyer. The posters are worth about $5.8 million, according to Bloomberg.”

“Public Menorah Vandalized in Sicily.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/12/12/3114376/public-menorah-vandalized-in-sicily>. “For the second year in a row, vandals disrupted the public lighting of a Chanukah menorah in Catania, Sicily.”

Raske, Richard. “Domonique D’Ermo and the Plot to Kill Klaus Barbie.” Regardie’s Magazine 10.2 (1989): 92(22). General OneFile. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. Dominique D’Ermo had been a member of the French resistance during WWII. In the 1980s he joined a group of resisters who wanted to kill Nazi Klaus Barbie, the Butcher of Lyons, during his trial.

Ratner, Megan. “Recent German Films on the Third Reich.” BLFJ Blog. Bright Lights Film Journal, Aug. 2005. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://brightlightsfilm.com/49/reich.php>. “A great deal of how the Third Reich presented itself and how we have come to know it is visual. Early on, the Nazis understood the power of one or two well-documented incidents to suggest a sweeping movement, and soon the public followed their fabricated reality. The Nazis were especially helped by the rise of photography, whose ‘truth’ even in its then early stages could be slyly manipulated (it’s sobering to imagine what they’d have done with Photoshop). In fact, Nazism without photography, still and moving, is simply unimaginable.” Several recent Nazi movies are reviewed.

“Record 1.43 Million Visit Auschwitz in 2012.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/06/3116126/record-143-million-visit-auschwitz-in-2012>. “The Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp memorial and museum attracted a record number of visitors in 2012.”

Rising, David, and Randy Herschaft. “Documents Raise Doubts in Nazi Probe.” Statesman Journal. Gannett, 27 Dec. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.statesmanjournal.com/viewart/20121228/UPDATE/121228005/Documents-raise-doubts-Nazi-probe>. “The case of an 87-year-old Philadelphia man accused by Germany of serving as an SS guard at Auschwitz has largely centered on whether he was stationed at the part of the death camp used as a killing machine for Jews. Johann ‘Hans’ Breyer — while admitting he was an Auschwitz guard — insists he was never there. World-War II-era documents obtained by The Associated Press indicate otherwise. The files provided by the U.S. Department of Justice in response to an AP request are now in the hands of German authorities, and could provide the legal basis for charging him as an accessory to the murder of hundreds of thousands of Jews in the Nazi death camp.”

Robbins, Liz. “After Anti-Semitic Crimes, Revisiting the Nightmares Forever Within.” The New York Times. 19 Jan. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/20/nyregion/in-brooklyn-anti-semitic-crimes-bring-painful-memories.html?_r=0>. “They come to talk about their families, to laugh, to learn and to praise Hilda Weiss’s famous chocolate coffee cake. Other than Mrs. Weiss’s recipe from Hungary, they never liked to go on about the past — even if this was the reason that originally brought the women together in a weekly support group for Holocaust survivors. But in recent days, this fragile yet spirited community of elderly women in Borough Park, Brooklyn, found themselves revisiting details of that unspeakable horror, and haunted by events far too close to home.”

Rodman, Selden. “Forty Years After: The Nazi Heartland.” National Review 11 May 1979: 622+. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. “The article considers whether the European nations involved in World War II should feel guilty that they have contributed to the promotion of Nazism and antisemitism during Adolf Hitler’s time. According to the author, every country that Hitler penetrated had discovered a sense of racism just lying under almost every nation’s surface.”

Rubinger, Aaron D. “Deja Jew.” Www.JPost.com. Jerusalem Post, 22 Jan. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Magazine/Opinion/Article.aspx?id=254203>. “Over the course of 2 months, I visited Jewish communities in the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, France, Belgium and the UK and interviewed dozens of Jewish leaders as well as ‘laymen’ – both Jews and non-Jews. While attempting to determine the seriousness of contemporary European Anti-Semitism, I experienced what I would term ‘déjà Jew’ – the peculiar sense that we, the members of Jewish people, are reliving an experience from the past; that we have somehow time-traveled and are now re-experiencing occurrences that are all too familiar.”

“Russian Lawmaker Wants to Strip Holocaust Survivors of Privileges.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/11/04/3111056/russian-lawmaker-wants-to-strip-holocaust-survivors-of-priviliges>. ” A Russian lawmaker from President Vladimir Putin’s ruling United Russia party reportedly opposed making public transportation free for Holocaust survivors.”

Samuels, Shimon. “In the Shadow of Wannsee.” The JC.com. 20 Jan. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/62369>. “The 70th anniversary of the Wannsee Conference provides a valuable opportunity to reengage the battle for memory, for – unlike any other genocide – it provides, in the Wannsee Protocol, a clear and horrifyingly dispassionate roadmap to mass murder. Albeit marked ‘Top Secret’, the 16th duplicate of 30 copies survived the war.”

Shefler, Gilad. “Documents Show Venezuela Spying on Jewish Community.” Jewish Ideas Daily. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 4 Feb. 2013. Web. 06 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/02/04/3118711/venezuela-spy-agency-anne-frank-museum-is-a-mossad-spy-den>. “The Venezuelan human rights group Espacio Anna Frank says its goal is to promote tolerance by teaching the life story of the teenage diarist murdered by the Nazis. But is there something sinister lurking behind the organization’s benevolent facade? SEBIN, the Venezuelan intelligence service, seems to believe so. According to a dossier attributed to SEBIN, the Caracas-based group is actually part of an Israeli cloak-and-dagger operation aimed at undermining the leftist government of President Hugo Chavez.”

“Slovak Court Moves toward Imprisoning War Criminal in Hungary.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/03/29/3123221/slovak-court-moves-toward-imprisoning-hungary-war-criminal>. “A Slovak court commuted a death sentence against Laszlo Csatary, a war criminal whom Slovakia wants extradited from Hungary for his complicity in murdering thousands of Jews.”

Snyder, Don. “Nazi-Era Case Reopens Old Polish Wounds.” The Jewish Daily Forward.13 July 2012. Web. 6 July 2012. <http://forward.com/articles/158846/nazi-era-case-reopens-old-polish-wounds/?p=all>. “Poland has just reopened a 71-year-old case involving the rape and murder of 20 Jewish women. In the 1941 case — in the midst of World II, and two years after the Nazi invasion of Poland — six Poles allegedly beat the Jewish women to death with metal-tipped clubs outside the hamlet of Bzury, in northeastern Poland. Government prosecutor Radoslaw Ignatiew hopes to prosecute the killers, if they are still alive. He also hopes to discover the identities of the women and the location of their graves.”

“State Dept. Notes Anti-Semitism Spike, Israel’s Religious Pluralism Issues.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 20 May 2013. Web. 22 May 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/05/20/news-opinion/united-states/state-dept-notes-rise-in-anti-semitism?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=fc13f9404c-JTA_Daily_Briefing_5_21_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-fc13f9404c-25413225>. “The U.S. State Department’s religious freedoms report described ‘a continued global increase in anti-Semitism.’”

Stoltzfus, Nathan. “Postwar Germany: The Profits of Peace.” History Today. 13 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/keith-lowe/postwar-germany-profits-peace>. “Keith Lowe on the dilemmas faced by a victorious but financially ruined Britain in its dealings with postwar Germany.”

“Sweden to Honor Wallenberg with Annual Memorial Day.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/06/3116121/sweden-to-honor-wallenberg-with-annual-memorial-day>. “Sweden will honor World War II hero Raoul Wallenberg with an annual memorial day. Aug. 27 will be earmarked as the official Wallenberg day, …”

“Swiss Army Officer Slammed for Praising Nazi-era German General.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 13 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/12/13/3114346/swiss-officer-slammed-for-praising-nazi-era-german-general>. ” A Swiss army commander reportedly praised Nazi-era German general Erwin Rommel to a group of officers as a role model to emulate. According to a report in the Swiss newspaper Der Sonntag, the officer, a lieutenant colonel identified only as ‘PL,’ defended his words as ‘no praise for Rommel the person, but merely highlighting his leadership.”

“Synagogue Reopens in Polish Town without Jews.” The JC.com. 04 Apr. 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/47478>. “A Polish town where the Jewish population was almost entirely wiped out by the Nazis 72 years ago is to be home to a synagogue once again.”

Taube, Friedel. “German Fashion Label Hugo Boss Goes Public with Nazi past.” DW.DE. 25 Sept. 2011. Web. 17 May 2013. <http://www.dw.de/german-fashion-label-hugo-boss-goes-public-with-nazi-past/a-15414490>. “The fashion label Hugo Boss has joined a growing number of German companies that have voluntarily commissioned investigations into their former ties with the Nazi regime during the Second World War.”

Tercatin, Rossella. “Italian Jewish Fury after Yad Vashem Changes Description of Wartime Pope.” TheJC.com. 19 July 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/70233>. “A furious debate has broken out in Italy after the decision of Israel’s Holocaust Museum, Yad Vashem, to change the captions under the museum’s display on the wartime pope, Pius XII.”

Trevor-Roper, H. R. “The Germans Reappraise the War.” Foreign Affairs 31.2 (1953): 225-37. JSTOR. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. In 1953 the author examines literature concerning Nazi Germany and looks for “the evidence which it supplies of the changing political climate of Germany since Hitler’s death.”

“Ukrainian Officials Are Trying to Take over Jewish TV Station, Owner Alleges.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 23 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/23/3117566/owner-of-jewish-tv-station-says-ukrainian-officials-trying-to-control-it>. “Vadim Rabinovich, the owner of the Jewish international TV channel JN1, charged that Ukrainian officials are trying to take over the station and have threatened him.”

“U.S. Appeals Court Upholds Deportation Order for Accused Nazi.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/06/3116116/federal-appeals-court-upholds-deportation-order-for-accused-nazi>. “A U.S. appeals court upheld an immigration appeals board decision to deport an accused Nazi living in Michigan. The 6th Circuit Appeals Court in Cincinnati, Ohio, on Friday upheld the deportation of John (Ivan) Kalymon, 91, who allegedly rounded up and shot Jews as a member of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police during World War II.”

Whitty, Julia. “How Hitler’s U-Boats Are Still Attacking Us.” Mother Jones. 21 May 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2013/05/shipwrecks-world-war-ii-oil-leak-uboat>. “The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has some fresh news from World War II: 13 Merchant Marine ships sunk by the German navy in the Battle of the Atlantic threaten to release oil from their watery graves. The finding comes in an assessment presented to the Coast Guard that analyzed 20,000 shipwrecks in US waters, and identified 36 as posing a significant threat of oil pollution. Seventeen of those are recommended for further assessment, which could lead to missions to remove their fuel oil and oil cargo. Besides the Merchant Marine vessels, the worrisome ships include a barge lost in bad weather in 1936, two ships sunk in separate collisions in 1947 and 1952, and a tanker that exploded in 1984.”

“Witness Found in Trial of Hungarian War Criminal Csatary.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 10 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/10/3116506/witness-found-in-trial-of-hungarian-war-criminal-csatary>. “Slovak police reportedly have found a witness to corroborate charges against the Hungarian war criminal Laszlo Csatary. Csatary, 97, served during World War II as a Hungarian police commander in the Jewish ghetto of Kosice, then a part of Hungary and now in Slovakia.”

Yanover, Yori. “Bulgaria Commemorates 70 Years of Saving Its Jews.” The Jewish Press.10 Mar. 2013. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/bulgaria-commemorates-70-years-of-saving-its-jews/2013/03/10/>. “The 70th anniversary of the rescue of Bulgaria’s Jews in WW II is being commemorated with a number of solemn ceremonies in Bulgarian capital Sofia Sunday, Sofia News Agency reports. Unlike most other Nazi allies or Nazi -occupied countries, Bulgaria saved its entire Jewish population from deportation to concentration camps.”

Zahra, Tara. “A Brutal Peace: On the Postwar Expulsions of Germans.” The Nation. (2012): The Nation. 17 Dec. 2012. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thenation.com/article/171484/brutal-peace-postwar-expulsions-germans>. “It was one of many ugly episodes in 1945. On a summer day in Horní Moštenice, a small town in central Czechoslovakia, 265 people, including 120 women and seventy-four children, were dragged from a train, shot in the neck, and buried in a mass grave that had been dug beside the local railway station. It was a common enough scene in Central and Eastern Europe during World War II, when Nazi extermination policies threatened entire ethnic groups. But despite the similarity of means and ends, the massacre in Horní Moštenice was different. For one thing, it occurred on June 18, after the war in Europe had officially ended. Moreover, the perpetrators were Czechoslovak troops, and their victims were Germans who had been a presence in the region for centuries.”

Zlotowski, Michele. “Tour De France Snubs Velodrome Holocaust Memorial.” The JC.com. 12 July 12. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/69862>. “The Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), which runs the Tour de France, has said it is not the business of a sports organisation to commemorate the 1942 round-up of Paris’s Jews, despite the involvement of the cycling body’s former director in the mass-deportation. Jacques Goddet, director of the ASO from 1936 to 1986, was responsible for the Paris velodrome into which 8,000 Jews were herded by French police acting on Nazi orders.”

Righteous, Saviors, Searchers

                       The Righteous Among The Nations

474px-9-_Vilnius-Maison_verte-DSC05368-Chiune_Sugihara

Chiune Sugihara, vice-consul of Japan in Lithuania, saved thousands of Jews by emitting false visas to Shangai.

 

Attitudes towards the Jews during the Holocaust mostly ranged from indifference to hostility. The mainstream watched as their former neighbors were rounded up and killed; some collaborated with the perpetrators; many benefited from the expropriation of the Jews property.

In a world of total moral collapse there was a small minority who mustered extraordinary courage to uphold human values. These were the Righteous Among the Nations. They stand in stark contrast to the mainstream of indifference and hostility that prevailed during the Holocaust. Contrary to the general trend, these rescuers regarded the Jews as fellow human beings who came within the bounds of their universe of obligation. 

http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/about.asp

 

“The Jewish people have a special skill. They know

how to remember.” Kensset Member Moshe Feiglin

 

Aciman, Alexander. “Still Hunting Nazis.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 27 Nov. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/117824/still-hunting-nazis>. “To take what was denied, obfuscated, and forgotten and make it inescapably visible has been a great part of Serge Klarsfeld’s job as a Nazi hunter. The same dedication that drove Klarsfeld to go after Brunner manifested itself when he spent countless months copying, by hand, the names of the more than 10,000 children, like Georgy, who died in Auschwitz.”

Atwood, Kathryn J. Women Heroes of World War II: 26 Stories of Espionage, Sabotage, Resistance, and Rescue. Chicago: Chicago Review, 2011. Print. “Twenty-six engaging and suspense-filled stories unfold from across Germany, Poland, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Great Britain, and the United States, providing an inspiring reminder of women and girls’ refusal to sit on the sidelines around the world and throughout history.”

Block, Gay, and Malka Drucker. Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1992. Print. Narratives of the rescuers, the men and women who risked everything to save Jews marked for death during the Holocaust.

“British Spy Frank Foley Who Saved German Jews Honoured.” TheJC.com. 12 July 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/69876>. “A ‘true British hero’ of the Holocaust who risked his life to save 10,000 German Jews has had his bravery marked at a Jewish cemetery. The plaque honoring Major Frank Foley has been placed at the entrance to Hoop Lane cemetery in Golders Green.

Connelly, John. “The Noble and the Base: Poland and the Holocaust.” The Nation. 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.thenation.com/article/171262/noble-and-base-poland-and-holocaust>. “Earlier this year, while conferring a posthumous Presidential Medal of Freedom on the Polish hero Jan Karski, Barack Obama inadvertently touched off the greatest crisis in US-Polish relations in recent memory. The man he honored had served as a courier for the Polish resistance against Hitler, and in 1942 Karski traveled across occupied Europe to tell Western leaders about the Nazi war crimes being committed in Poland, including the Holocaust. Karski had been sent on this secret mission, Obama explained, after fellow underground fighters had told him that “Jews were being murdered on a massive scale and smuggled him into the Warsaw Ghetto and a Polish death camp to see for himself.” It was late evening in Warsaw when Obama spoke, but within minutes Polish officials were demanding an apology for his use of the phrase “Polish death camp,” which they thought scandalous.”

Darring, Gerald. “Righteous Gentiles.” WWW.shc.edu. Spring Hill College. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/10Righteous.htm>. “The term ‘Righteous Gentile’ or ‘Righteous among the Nations’ is used to name those non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust. The title is used informally as referring to anyone considered by the speaker or writer to be a savior of Jews, but it has an official role in the Israeli program of Holocaust remembrance administered by Yad Vashem.”

Davidzon, Vladislav. “Undercover at Auschwitz.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/126497/undercover-at-auschwitz>. “World War II hero Witold Pilecki infiltrated the death camp and reported to the Polish high command. … The same indomitable force of personality that had compelled Pilecki to break into and out of the most brutal death camp ever erected by mankind led him compulsively back into Poland in the autumn of 1945, after the war had ended, to gather intelligence and set up resistance networks under Gen. Anders’ orders for the foreseen struggle against the Russians.”

Doino, William. “Yad Vashem Honors Cardinal Who Fought for Jewish Lives.” First Things. 29 Dec. 2012. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. “The recent news that Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa has been recognized as ‘Righteous Among the Nations’ by Israel’s Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial is a welcome, and a much-deserved, honor. Dalla Costa, the archbishop of Florence during World War II, ‘played a central role in the organization and operation of a widespread rescue network,’ said Yad Vashem in its November announcement. He ‘recruited rescuers from among the clergy, supplied letters to his activists so that they could go to heads of monasteries and convents entreating them to shelter Jews, and sheltered Jews in his own palace.’”

Epstein, Angela. “I Broke into Auschwitz, I Had to See It for Myself.” The JC.com. 01 Sept. 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/53982>. The view from Denis Avey’s hill-top Derbyshire cottage is spectacular. Little wonder the sprightly 92-year-old loves relaxing in his favourite armchair and looking out over the fields and hills surrounding his lovely home. But despite the tranquillity, nothing can stop the stream of barbaric snapshots flashing into the mind of this former prisoner of war as he recalls what he witnessed when he broke into Auschwitz. Yes, that is broke in, not broke out. For as a British soldier incarcerated at a nearby work camp, Avey had heard of the horrors taking place at the nearby Nazi death camp. And he wanted to see it for himself.”

Glasner, Chaya. “Not Ordinary at All.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 25 Jan. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/5821/features/not-ordinary-at-all/>. “United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon dedicated this year’s International Holocaust Remembrance Day to rescuers of Nazi victims who were not famous heroes but little-known people living ‘ordinary’ lives. Yet some of those little-known rescuers lived anything but ordinary lives, like the extraordinary Berta Davidovitz Rubinsztejn.”

Glasner, Chaya. “Righteous Among Our Nation.” Jewish Ideas Daily. Jewish Ideas Daily, 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/1113/features/righteous-among-our-nation/>. “Even before visitors walk through the door of Yad Vashem, Israel’s Holocaust Museum, they see a powerful tribute to Holocaust heroism. Along the Avenue of the Righteous leading to the museum, thousands of trees bloom in honor of the approximately 21,000 ‘Righteous Among the Nations,’ courageous Gentiles who defied the Nazis and risked their lives to save Jews from deportation. There’s a memorial tree for Miep Gies, the woman who hid Anne Frank in the secret annex, and another for Oskar Schindler, the Nazi who rescued 1,200 Jews. … Such tributes are manifestly appropriate, but Holocaust museums generally omit another important group of rescuers: the 200 Jewish organizations within and outside Nazi Europe that worked to rescue fellow Jews from the Nazis.”

Hoffman, Allison. “Hollywood’s Unknown Rescuer.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 20 Feb. 2013. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/124664/hollywood-unknown-rescuer>. “But could the powerful Jewish moguls of Hollywood’s Golden Era … done more to save their co-religionists from the Holocaust? The answer is yes. Just how much more the Jews of Hollywood could have done is shown by the deeds of another studio boss whose personal sense of urgency and activism outstripped even that of the Warners, but who never made it into the history books as one of America’s most important Holocaust rescuers. His name was Carl Laemmle.”

Holmes, Marian. “Five Rescuers of Those Threatened by the Holocaust.” History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institute, Mar. 2009. Web. 08 Oct. 2011. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Five-Rescuers-of-Those-Threatened-by-the-Holocaust.html>. “Righteous good Samaritans came from across the world to save Jews and others from concentration camps.” They were Chiune Sugihara, Charles “Carl” Lutz, Feng-Shan Ho, Varian Fry, and Raoul Wallenberg.

Horn, Dara. “The Rescuer.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 17 Jan. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/88130/the-rescuer>. Book – “The Rescuer” “Between 1940 and 1941, working out of a hotel room and later a small office in the French port city of Marseille, Varian Fry rescued hundreds of artists, writers, musicians, composers, scientists, philosophers, intellectuals, and their families from the Nazis, taking enormous personal risks to bring them to the United States. Fry was one of the only American ‘righteous Gentiles,’ a man who voluntarily risked everything to save others, with no personal connection to those he saved.”

Lieber, Chavie. “67 Years Later Holocaust Survivor Reunites with Rescuer.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article-print/2012/11/26/3112831/wwiii-era-archbishop-of-florence-recognized-as-righteous-gentile>. “Cardinal Elia Angelo Dalla Costa, the World War II-era Archbishop of Florence, has been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations. In an announcement issued Monday, Yad Vashem in Jerusalem said Dalla Costa was recognized as a righteous gentile earlier this year ‘for spearheading the rescue of hundreds of Jews in Florence during the Holocaust.’ Dalla Costa died in 1961 at the age of 89.”

Lipman, Jennifer. “Nurses of Bergen Belsen Survivors Recognised in Research.” TheJC.com. 04 Oct. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/84665>. “The heroic efforts of nurses and other female aid workers in the immediate aftermath of the liberation of Bergen Belsen, including the aunt of broadcaster Esther Rantzen, have been highlighted in a new piece of research. Nearly 70 years after Allied troops entered the concentration camp to find 40,000 survivors on the brink of death, the true number of women who joined relief groups as nurses, social workers or cooks remains unclear.”

“The Maid Who Became a Rescuer: Erzsebet Fajo.” The Righteous Among the Nations. Yad Vashem, 2011. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. <http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/stories/fajo.asp>. “This is the story of Erzsebet Fajo who worked as a nursemaid for a Jewish family … decided to fight for the survival of her employers, and demonstrated enormous courage and resourcefulness.”

“Milena Jesenska – Righteous Among the Nations.” Righteous Among the Nations. Yad Vashem, 2013. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/stories/jesenska.asp>. Milena Jesenska, daughter of a Czech patriot, She sheltered and fed those who were escaping from the Nazis. She also provided false papers for these refugees. On December 14, 1994, Yad Vashem recognized Milena Jesenská as Righteous Among the Nations..

Nadler, Allan. “The Huguenot Connection.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 3 Jan. 2011. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/791/features/the-huguenot-connection/>. “In the darkest hours of the Holocaust, the safest place for Jews in occupied Europe may have been the southern French hamlet of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon. Inspired by the town’s Huguenot (that is, French-Protestant) pastor, the residents collaborated in the war’s best-organized and largest-scale rescue operation, hiding and saving the lives of some 5,000 Jews.”

“The Nanny That Kept Her Promise: Gertruda Bablinska.” The Righteous Among the Nations. Yad Vashem, 2011. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. <http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/stories/babilinska.asp>. After World War II ended, Gertruda Bablinska kept her promise to her former Jewish employer. She took her charge, a little boy, Michael, to the Land of Israel. She dedicated her life to keeping her promise even though it took many years.

Nicky’s Family. Dir. Matej Minac. Film. The Jerusalem Post, 20 Jan. 2011. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. <http://www.jpost.com/JewishWorld/JewishFeatures/Article.asp?=204557>. “Sir Nicholas Winton arranged 8 trains to carry 669 children, mostly Jewish, from Czechoslovakia to Britain at the outbreak of World War II.”

O’Donnell, Patrick K. They Dared Return: The True Story of Jewish Spies behind the Lines in Nazi Germany. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2009. Print. “[O’Donnell] fleshes out the tale of sacrifice, spies, courage and betrayal organized by the American Office of Strategic Services to take on Gestapo troops in a heavily fortified district, Alpine Redoubt…Armed with research in the National Archives, confidential documents and personal interviews, O’Donnell tells a heart-stopping tale of sabotage by men and women who placed everything on the line against a seemingly unstoppable tyranny.”

Oren, Ram. Gertruda’s Oath: A Child, a Promise, and a Heroic Escape during World War II. New York: Doubleday, 2009. Print. During WWII Gertruda, a Catholic nanny, promises a dying Jewish woman that she will take the mother’s son to Palestine and raise him as her own Jewish son. This book is “a story of extraordinary courage and moral strength in the face of horrific events.”

Paldiel, Mordecai. The Righteous among the Nations. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2007. Print. “In gripping narratives, we learn of the men, women, and even the children of different nationalities and faiths, who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust.”

“Polish Holocaust Rescuer Recognized.” Holocaust – Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust – Pictures – Stories. Holocaust Forgotten. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. <http://holocaustforgotten.com/bilecki.htm>. “Julian Bileckki was a skinny teenager in war-torn Poland when and his family helped hide 23 Jews in an underground bunker, saving them from Nazi death squads.”

“Profile: Sweden’s Holocaust Hero.” BBC – News. 12 Jan. 2001. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1113689.stm>. “Raoul Wallenberg is credited with saving the lives of tens of thousands of Jews, but was unable to save his own.”

“Queen Meets ‘Britain’s Schindler’” BBC – News -UK. 23 Oct. 2008. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7686060.stm>. “A British man [Sir William Winton] who saved hundreds of Jewish children from the Nazis ahead of World War II has met the Queen during her visit to Slovakia.”

“Rescue.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 29 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005185>. “Despite the indifference of most Europeans and the collaboration of others in the murder of Jews during the Holocaust, individuals in every European country and from all religious backgrounds risked their lives to help Jews.”

“The Rescue of Danish Jews.” Jewish Virtual Library – Homepage. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/denmark.html>. “Denmark was the only occupied country that actively resisted the Nazi regime’s attempts to deport its Jewish citizens. On September 28, 1943, Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz, a German diplomat, secretly informed the Danish resistance that the Nazis were planning to deport the Danish Jews. The Danes responded quickly, organizing a nationwide effort to smuggle the Jews by sea to neutral Sweden.”

“The Rescue of Denmark’s Jews.” The Righteous Among the Nations. Yad Vashem, 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/stories/historical_background/denmark.asp>. “This rescue operation by the Danish underground is exceptional because of the widespread agreement and resolve of many Danes from all walks of life – intellectuals, fishermen, priests, policemen, doctors, simple workers – to save the Jews. It was a national refutation of Nazi Germany and a reaffirmation of democratic and humanistic values.”

The Rescue of Denmark’s Jews. Vimeo, Video Sharing For You. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://vimeo.com/3915187>. “Short documentary for Holocaust Museum Houston by Leslie Meimoun – Writer/Producer. Co-Produced/Edited by Gotham Image Works, Inc. Video is part of the permanent multimedia exhibit at the Museum showcasing the story of how Denmark’s heroic citizens rescued over 7,200 Danish Jews from the Nazis by hiding and ferrying them across the Oresund Strait to neutral Sweden.”

“Righteous among the Nation.” Wikipedia.org. Wikipedia. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Righteous_among_the_Nations>. Righteous Gentiles is an honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. The term originates with the concept of “righteous gentiles,” a term used in rabbinical Judaism to refer to non-Jews, as ger toshav and ger zedek, who abide by the Seven Laws of Noah.

“The Righteous Among The Nations – Yad Vashem.” Yadvashem. Web. 21 Dec. 2011. <http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/about.asp>. “In a world of total moral collapse there was a small minority who mustered extraordinary courage to uphold human values. These were the Righteous Among the Nations. They stand in stark contrast to the mainstream of indifference and hostility that prevailed during the Holocaust. Contrary to the general trend, these rescuers regarded the Jews as fellow human beings who came within the bounds of their universe of obligation.”

“Righteous Persons.” Jewish Virtual Library – Homepage. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Web. 17 Jan. 2012. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/righteous.html>. Hundreds of thousands of Jews were saved by individuals who risked their lives in order to save Jews.

Schwartz, Terese P. “Courageous Women and Children of the Holocaust / The Children – Their Power Underestimated / The Women – Their Capabilities Underestimated.” Holocaust – Non-Jewish Victims of the Holocaust – Pictures – Stories. Holocaust Forgotten, 2008. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. <http://holocaustforgotten.com/realcourage.htm>. “The truly courageous [of the Holocaust] are the rescuers – the ones who risked their own lives …”

Senesh, Hannah. Hanna Senesh: Her Life and Diary. New York: Schocken, 1972. Print. “Israel’s national heroine, Senesh returned to her native Hungary in 1943 to help rescue Jews. She was captured by the Nazi’s and executed at the age of 23.”

Sporl, Gerhard. “Göring’s List: Should Israel Honor a Leading Nazi’s Brother?” SpiegelOnline. 7 Mar. 2013. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. <http://www.jidaily.com/44625?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=6e489d1e9f-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “Leading Nazi Hermann Göring was instrumental to Hitler’s reign of terror, but research suggests his brother Albert saved the lives of dozens of Jews. Israel must now decide whether he deserves to be honored as one of the ‘Righteous Among the Nations.’”

Szita, Szabolcs, and Sean Lambert. Trading in Lives?: Operations of the Jewish Relief and Rescue Committee in Budapest, 1944-1945. Budapest: Central European UP, 2005. Print. “Set in the tumultuous moments of 1944–45 Budapest, this work discusses the operations of the Budapest Relief and Rescue Committee. Drawing out the contradictions and complexities of the mass deportations of Hungarian Jews during the final phase of World War II, Szita suggests that in the Hungarian context, a commerce in lives ensued, where prominent Zionists like Dr. Rezso Kasztner negotiated with the higher echelons of the SS, trying to garner the freedom of Hungarian Jews.”

Thompson, Mike. “The British ‘Schindler’ Who Saved Austrian Jews.” BBC – News- World. 8 Aug. 2011. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-14390524>. “In March 1938, a Church of England chaplain (Reverend Hugh Grimes) set out to save the lives of hundreds of desperate Austrian Jews facing persecution by the Nazis by baptising them as Christians, to help them flee the country.”

Weisel, Eva. “Honoring All Who Saved Jews.” New York Times. 27 Dec. 2011. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/28/opinion/honoring-all-who-saved-jews.html>. The author was 13 when German troops occupied her hometown. An Arab Muslim man, Abdul Wahab saved her life and has been denied the recognition he deserves. Yad Vashem has denied him the “righteous” honor. The author believes it is because he was an Arab Muslim.

“Winton’s Children: Alf Dubs.” BBC – News -UK. 3 Sept. 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8227657.stm>. “Alf Dubs was six when the German army arrived in Prague, and his father abruptly left for London.That was March 1939, the month the first of Nicholas Winton’s trains carrying Jewish children to safety left Czechoslovakia.”

“Winton’s Children: Vera Gissing.” BBC – News -UK. 3 Sept. 2099. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8227334.stm>. “Vera Gissing is in no doubt that she owes her life to Nicholas Winton. She was put on a train out of German-occupied Prague in June 1939, shortly before her 11th birthday, and never saw her parents again.”

“With Fishing Boats to Sweden: Henry Christen and Ellen Margrethe Thomsen.” The Righteous Among the Nations. Yad Vashem, 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/stories/thomsen.asp>. Henry Christian Thomsen and his wife Ellen Margrethe helped an estimated 1,000 Danish Jews escape to Sweden. In 1968 Yad Vashem conferred the title of Righteous Among the Nations on them.

“World War II-era Archbishop of Florence Recognized as Righteous Gentile.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article-print/2012/11/26/3112831/wwiii-era-archbishop-of-florence-recognized-as-righteous-gentile>. “Cardinal Ella Angelo Dalla Costa, the World War II-era Archbishop of Florence, has been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.”

Yanover, Yori. “Bulgaria Commemorates 70 Years of Saving Its Jews.” The Jewish Press. 10 Mar. 2013. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/bulgaria-commemorates-70-years-of-saving-its-jews/2013/03/10/>. “The 70th anniversary of the rescue of Bulgaria’s Jews in WW II is being commemorated with a number of solemn ceremonies in Bulgarian capital Sofia Sunday, Sofia News Agency reports. Unlike most other Nazi allies or Nazi -occupied countries, Bulgaria saved its entire Jewish population from deportation to concentration camps.”

Holocaust, Jews #3


“Miriam Rosenthal was four-months pregnant, starving, bone-tired, cold, filthy and afraid when an SS officer in big black boots and a crisp uniform appeared before the barracks in Auschwitz with a loudspeaker in hand. ‘All pregnant women line up,’ he barked. ‘Line up, line up — your food portions are being doubled.’ ‘Can you imagine?’ Miriam asks. ‘Even women who were not pregnant stepped forward. I was standing with my younger cousin, but I wouldn’t go.’ She [her cousin] says, ‘Miriam, what are you doing?’ ‘Something was holding me back. Someone was watching over me. … Two hundred women stepped forward and 200 women went to the gas chamber. And I don’t know why I didn’t step forward.’”

Joe O’Connor. “Pregnant in Auschwitz.” August 25, 2012

 

“1,000,000 Jews in Hungary Being Gradually Eliminated from Economic, Cultural Life.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 16 Dec. 1941. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1941/12/16/2856099/1000000-jews-in-hungary-being-gradually-eliminated-from-economic-cultural-life>. Twenty page article: “The more than 1,000,000 Jews in Hungary are slowly being eliminated from the economic, cultural and social life of the country, it was stated today by Premier Lazlo De Bardossy in a report reviewing the situation of Hungarian minorities in other countries and the condition of national minorities within Hungary.”

“200 Gestapo Men Killed by Jews During Battle in Polish Extermination Camp€.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 Feb. 1944. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1944/02/08/2863008/200-gestapo-men-killed-by-jews-during-battle-in-polish-extermination-camp>. “More than 200 Gestapo agents and Ukrainian guards in the ‘Jewish extermination camp’ of Sobibor, in occupied Poland, were killed during a revolt of the Jewish internees organized with the aid of the underground movement, the Polish Government-in-Exile reported today.”

“6,000 Danish Jews Reported Safe in Sweden; Two “prison Ships” Leave Denmark.” JTA Jewish News Archive. 13 Oct. 1943. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/13/2860952/6000-danish-jews-reported-safe-in-sweden-two-prison-ships-leave-denmark>. “Approximately 6,000 of the 8,000 native and refugee Jews of Denmark have succeeded in reaching Sweden, it is reported in the Swedish press today. Large numbers of Danish Jews have entered the country during the last two days.”

Aderet, Ofer. “Diary of a Love That Perished in Auschwitz.” Haaretz.com. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.haaretz.com/news/features/diary-of-a-love-that-perished-in-auschwitz.premium-1.468989>. “It took Alice Lehmann decades to dare to open the journals of her first love, Bernie Sapir, who was murdered in Auschwitz. Now the 88-year-old Jerusalemite has shared their tragic tale in a heartrending book.”

Alperin, Michele. “A Tale of Mutual Empathy: Jewish Refugee Scholars at Historically Black colleges – Latest News – JNS.org | News Service.” Jns.Org. 13 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2013/1/13/a-tale-of-mutual-empathy-jewish-refugee-scholars-at-historic.html>. “In Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love, an exhibition … will highlight a historical moment of mutual respect and cooperation between the African American and Jewish communities. Although their relationship has often been tense, especially after the rise of the black power movement and its expressions of anti-Semitism, the hiring of Jewish refugee scholars in the 1930s by historically black colleges stands as a beacon to the potential for common ground between the two groups.”

“Anti-jewish Terror Increasing Nazi-held Poland; Typhus Epidemic Raging.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 16 Dec. 1941. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1941/12/16/2856098/antijewish-terror-increasing-naziheld-poland-typhus-epidemic-raging>. “Anti-Jewish terror is increasing in the sections of Nazi-held Poland and Russia where Jews are concentrated, according to information reaching Polish Jewish circles here today.”

Applebaum, Stephen. “Meet the Catholic Priest with the Kippah.” The JC.com. 22 Mar. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/65503>. “What makes a Jew? This is the question at the heart of Israeli filmmaker Ronit Kerstner’s documentary ‘Torn’. The film … tells the story of Romuald-Jakub Weksler-Waszkinel (now known as Yaacov Weksler-Waszkinel), a Polish Catholic priest who discovered, 12 years after his ordination, that he was in fact the son of Jews killed in the Holocaust. To ensure his safety, his mother had given him up to be looked after by a Polish couple days after his birth.”

Aronson, Marc. Bomb: The Race to Build – and Steal – the Worlds Most Dangerous Weapon by SteveSheinkin; Beyond Courage:The Untold Story of Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust by Doreen Rappaport. Print. Review of two books for younger readers.

Baker, Leonard. Days of Sorrow and Pain: Leo Baeck and the Berlin Jews. New York: Macmillan, 1978. Print. “Leo Baeck has become a symbol, both of the Jews he had led in Berlin and of the Jews imprisoned at Theresienstadt.”

Berman, Aaron. “American Response to the Holocaust.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/65503>. “The systematic persecution of German Jewry began with Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in 1933. Facing economic, social, and political oppression, thousands of German Jews wanted to flee the Third Reich but found few countries willing to accept them. Eventually, under Hitler’s leadership, some 6 million Jews were murdered during World War II.”

Blessed Is the Match: The Life and Death of Hannah Senesh. Dir. Roberta Grossman. 2008. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. [R]iveting portrait of Hungarian poet Hannah who endured capture, torture, and death to rescue Jews.

Bonhoeffer. Dir. Martin Doblmeier. Released by Raymond/Taffner Co., 2003. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Based on actual events, this is the staggeringly powerful story of Auschwitz’s 12th Sonderkommando — one of 13 ‘special squads’ of Jewish prisoners forced by the Nazis to help exterminate fellow Jews in exchange for a few more months of life.”

Bonish, Georg. “Everyday Murder, Nazi Atrocities, Committed by Ordinary People.” Spiegel Online. SPIEGELnet GmbH, 18 Mar. 2008. Web. 07 Aug. 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/everyday-murder-nazi-atrocities-committed-by-ordinary-people-a-542245.html>. “From doctors to opera singers, teachers to truant schoolchildren, the extermination of European Jews was the work of roughly 200,000 ordinary Germans and their helpers. Years of research — not yet complete — reveal how sane members of a modern society committed murder for an evil regime.”

“British Spy Frank Foley Who Saved German Jews Honoured.” TheJC.com. 12 July 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/69876>. “A ‘true British hero’ of the Holocaust who risked his life to save 10,000 German Jews has had his bravery marked at a Jewish cemetery. The plaque honoring Major Frank Foley has been placed at the entrance to Hoop Lane cemetery in Golders Green..

(Bruno) Bar-On, D. “Holocaust Perpetrators and Their Children: A Paradoxical Morality.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 29.4 (1989): 424-43. Print. “Thru study attempts to trace evidence of a suppressed moral conflict in perpetrators of the extermination process during the Third Reich and in perpetrators’ children.”

Brzezinski, Matthew. “Isaac Zuckerman Unbound.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc., 19 Sept. 2012. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/111786/isaac-zuckerman-unbound>. “This is an excerpt from Isaac’s Army: A Story of Courage and Survival in Nazi-Occupied Poland by Matthew Brzezinski. In this section, Zivia Lubetkin, one of the leaders of the Jewish underground in Nazi-occupied Warsaw, and Isaac Zuckerman, the 24-year-old co-founder, along with Mark Edelman, of the Jewish Fighting Organization, first learn of the 1941 Vilna massacre , and consider the chances—and significance—of the violence coming to Warsaw.”

Caldwell, Simon. “Nun Back on Shoah Hero List.” The JC.com. 14 May 2009. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/14493>. “A Catholic nun who saved a family of French Jews from the Nazis has been added to a list of British heroes proposed for an honour by the government after initially being forgotten. Sister Agnes Walsh is one of just 13 Britons already honoured as Righteous Among Nations by Yad Vashem.”

The Children of Chabannes. Dir. Lisa Gossels. 1999. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “This uplifting documentary that premiered on HBO recounts a small miracle in the midst of sweeping tragedy. Between 1939 and ’42, more than 400 Jewish children were given sanctuary at Château de Chabannes, a school in an outlying region of France.”

Cottrell, Chris. “Memorial to Roma Victims of Holocaust Opens in Berlin.” Europe. The New York Times, 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/25/world/europe/memorial-to-romany-victims-of-holocaust-opens-in-berlin.html>. ” Germany paid tribute on Wednesday to the hundreds of thousands of Romany people killed in the Holocaust, opening a long-awaited place of remembrance for a minority still plagued by discrimination.”

“Could the BBC Have Done More to Help Hungarian Jews?” BBC News. BBC, 13 Nov. 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-20267659>. “Nearly half a million Hungarian Jews were killed in a matter of weeks in 1944 soon after German forces invaded their country. Mike Thomson reveals how the BBC’s Hungarian Service could have warned them of their likely fate in the event of such an invasion, but did not do so.”

Doino, William. “Yad Vashem Honors Cardinal Who Fought for Jewish Lives Comments.” First Things. 29 Dec. 2012. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/blogs/firstthoughts/2012/12/29/yad-vashem-honors-cardinal-for-sheltering-jews/> ”The recent news that Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa has been recognized as ‘Righteous Among the Nations’ by Israel’s Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial is a welcome, and a much-deserved, honor. Dalla Costa, the archbishop of Florence during World War II, ‘played a central role in the organization and operation of a widespread rescue network,’ said Yad Vashem in its November announcement. He ‘recruited rescuers from among the clergy, supplied letters to his activists so that they could go to heads of monasteries and convents entreating them to shelter Jews, and sheltered Jews in his own palace.’”

Dromi, Uri. “How It All Began.” Rev. of End of the Rope. Haaretz Daily Newspaper 31 July 2012. Israel News. 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. <http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/week-s-end/how-it-all-began-1.218551>. “Through the stories of seven families, intertwined with episodes of degradation and suffering as well as others of heroism and self-sacrifice, he traces the beginning of the process that led to German Jewry’s dehumanization, a process that ended in the gas chambers.”

Epstein, Angela. “‘I Broke into Auschwitz, I Had to See It for Myself’” The JC.com. 01 Sept. 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/lifestyle/lifestyle-features/53982/i-broke-auschwitz-i-had-see-it-myself> The view from Denis Avey’s hill-top Derbyshire cottage is spectacular. Little wonder the sprightly 92-year-old loves relaxing in his favourite armchair and looking out over the fields and hills surrounding his lovely home. But despite the tranquillity, nothing can stop the stream of barbaric snapshots flashing into the mind of this former prisoner of war as he recalls what he witnessed when he broke into Auschwitz. Yes, that is broke in, not broke out. For as a British soldier incarcerated at a nearby work camp, Avey had heard of the horrors taking place at the nearby Nazi death camp. And he wanted to see it for himself.”

“Experiments Begin on Homosexuals at Buchenwald.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, 1 Oct. 1944. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/experiments-begin-on-homosexuals-at-buchenwald>. “On this day [Oct. 1] in 1944, the first of two sets of medical experiments involving castration are performed on homosexuals at the Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany.”

Filipov, David. “One Last Journey into the Night.” Boston.com. The New York Times, 03 June 2012. Web. 08 June 2012. <http://articles.boston.com/2012-06-03/news/32009887_1_izzy-candlesticks-poland>. “Izzy has traveled more than 4,000 miles from his Newton home to get here. It is not his first trip back to the towns and fields where he and his family encountered a Nazi regime intent on wiping out Jewish life in Europe. But, at 87, he believes it will be his last.”

“Fishermen Establish Regular Ferry Service for Refugees Between Denmark and Sweden.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 11 Oct. 1943. Web. 09 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/11/2860931/fishermen-establish-regular-ferry-service-for-refugees-between-denmark-and-sweden>. “Eight hundred Danish Jews were landed in Sweden yesterday and another 800 reached here on Friday. German naval vessels continue to patrol Danish waters, however, and four of the ships carrying refugees have been sunk. Several Danish fishermen have also been arrested.”

Foer, Paul, and Chananette P. Cohen. “For Hispanic ‘Crypto-Jews,’ Lawsuits May Follow Religious Rediscovery.” JNS.org. 29 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/10/29/for-hispanic-crypto-jews-lawsuits-may-follow-religious-redis.html> ”The 2011 wedding of Sonya Loya in the Sephardic Education Center of Jerusalem’s Old City. Loya—a Hispanic-American woman raised as a Catholic in New Mexico—learned from her father at age 44 that his family swore him to secrecy about their Jewish roots. Sonya Loya’s path of rediscovery aligns with the journey potentially millions of other ‘Crypto-Jews’ take back to their Jewish roots. Her story, and the stories of others with similar backgrounds, is also still unfolding—with legal action against the Catholic Church as the possible next chapter.”

Friedman, Saul S. No Haven for the Oppressed; United States Policy toward Jewish Refugees, 1938-1945. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1973. Print. “Examines the United States government’s reaction to the Jewish refugee problem, underscoring its failure to act on behalf of these individuals. Portrays the American government and Jewish leaders as equally unwilling to advocate for European Jews. Begins with an introduction to the restrictive measures against immigrants originating from the nineteenth century. Includes extensive endnotes and an index.”

Gesin, Michael. “The Holocaust in Romania.” Rev. of The History of the Holocaust in Romania. H-Net Reviews Sept. 2012. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/967f7?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=8c7b2ca9bb-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “The deaths of millions of Jews at the hands of the Nazis have prompted much research and the publication of thousands of books. Despite it all, the Romanian Holocaust remains a somewhat obscure subject. In fact, little has been published concerning the tragic events that took place there during World War II. Few are aware that a country other than Nazi Germany devised and executed a different kind of Final Solution.”

Geyer, Michael. “Life in the Third Reich: The Nazi State: Machine or Morass?” History Today 36.1 (1986): 35. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 July 2012. “Examines the political history of the Nationalist Socialist regime in Germany. … Competing interests as much as ideology fuelled the functioning of the Third Reich, augmented by forced labour and the plunder of Occupied Europe.”

Giles, Geoffrey J. “Legislating Homophobia in the Third Reich: The Radicalization of Prosecution Against Homosexuality by the Legal Profession.” Ebsco Host. Academic Search Premier, Aug. 2005. Web. 17 July 2012. In 1935 the German penal code to “close what state prosecutors had long regarded as an irritating loophole. Instead of requiring proof of penetrative sex acts for a conviction for homosexuality, court could henceforth apply much wider interpretations of a homosexual act.”

Glasner, Chaya. “Not Ordinary at All.” Jewish Ideas Daily. Jewish Ideas Daily, 25 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/5821/features/not-ordinary-at-all/>. “United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon dedicated this year’s International Holocaust Remembrance Day to rescuers of Nazi victims who were not famous heroes but little-known people living ‘ordinary’ lives. Yet some of those little-known rescuers lived anything but ordinary lives, like the extraordinary Berta Davidovitz Rubinsztejn.”

Glasner, Chaya. “Righteous Among Our Nation.” Jewish Ideas Daily. Jewish Ideas Daily, 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/1113/features/righteous-among-our-nation/>. “Even before visitors walk through the door of Yad Vashem, Israel’s Holocaust Museum, they see a powerful tribute to Holocaust heroism. Along the Avenue of the Righteous leading to the museum, thousands of trees bloom in honor of the approximately 21,000 ‘Righteous Among the Nations,’ courageous Gentiles who defied the Nazis and risked their lives to save Jews from deportation. … Such tributes are manifestly appropriate, but Holocaust museums generally omit another important group of rescuers: the 200 Jewish organizations within and outside Nazi Europe that worked to rescue fellow Jews from the Nazis.”

Goeschel, Christian. “Suicides of German Jews in the Third Reich.” German History 25.1 (2007): 22-45. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 July 2012. “This 23-page article re-examines Jewish responses towards Nazi racism by studying German-Jewish suicides. … This article also takes up the question as to how far, if at all, German-Jewish suicides can be considered a form of resistance towards Nazism and to what extent they were an act of despair and hopelessness.”

Goldstein, David. “Portrait of Papa as a Young Man.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-life-and-religion/118979/portrait-of-papa-as-a-young-man>. “In my grandfather’s village, I found the man he’d been before memories of the Holocaust destroyed him. … I found the gorgeous pastoral village where he’d lived, where he’d been more than just a victim, where he’d been an actual three-dimensional person who played and loved and thrived, and perhaps this was a far richer, more valuable thing to discover.”

The Grey Zone. Dir. Tim Blake Nelson. 2001. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. This film is based on actual events. “[T]his is the staggeringly powerful story of Auschwitz’s 12th Sonderkommando — one of 13 “special squads” of Jewish prisoners forced by the Nazis to help exterminate fellow Jews in exchange for a few more months of life.”

Heschel, Susannah. “Jewish Studies in the Third Reich: A Brief Glance at Viktor Christian and Kurt Schubert.” Review of Rabbinic Judaism 13.2 (2010): 236-49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 July 2012.

Horn, Dara. “The Rescuer.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 17 Jan. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/88130/the-rescuer>. Book – “The Rescuer” “Between 1940 and 1941, working out of a hotel room and later a small office in the French port city of Marseille, Varian Fry rescued hundreds of artists, writers, musicians, composers, scientists, philosophers, intellectuals, and their families from the Nazis, taking enormous personal risks to bring them to the United States. Fry was one of the only American ‘righteous Gentiles,’ a man who voluntarily risked everything to save others, with no personal connection to those he saved.”

Horwitz, Gordon J. Ghettostadt: Łódź and the Making of a Nazi City. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2008. Print. “Gordon Horwitz’s unflinching and heartbreaking narrative of occupied Lodz juxtaposes the Nazi plans for its urban ‘cleansing’ and renewal with the inexorable destruction of its ghettoized Jewish community.”

“How America First Learned of The Holocaust.” JNS.org. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/6/11/how-america-first-learned-of-the-holocaust.html>. “Seventy years ago this month America learned, for the first time, about the systematic mass murder of Europe’s Jews—but Allied officials and some leading newspapers downplayed the news.”

“In Lithuania, $47 Million Lump Sum Payout for Jewish Property Gets Go-ahead.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 23 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/10/23/3110101/outgoing-lithuanian-official-okays-47m-compensation-for-jewish-property>. “Lithuania agreed in principle to a lump sum transfer of $47 million to its Jewish community as compensation for lost Holocaust-era property. Chancellor Deividas Matulionis, chief of staff for Prime Minister Andrius Kubilius, agreed to the transfer at a meeting last week with Gunther Saathoff, director of the German government’s EVZ Foundation for compensating victims of Nazi Germany, Faina Kukliansky, the vice president of Lithuania’s Jewish community, told JTA.”

Jackson, Harriet. “Point of View: The Teenager Who Arrested Himmler.” The Riverdale Press. 14 May 2009. Web. 1 Aug. 2012. <http://riverdalepress.com/stories/Point-of-view-The-teenager-who-arrested-Himmler,41053?sub_id=41053&print=1>. “Holocaust survivor Guy Bishop passed away on Holocaust Remembrance Day, April 21, 2008. Few people know that he arrested Heinrich Himmler, the Nazi responsible for the mass murder of 6 million Jews.”

“Jewish Suicides in Germany Still Go on Despite Jewish Community’s Incpeased [sic] Allocation for Relief Fu [sic].” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 11 Sept. 1931. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1931/09/11/2791827/jewish-suicides-in-germany-still-go-on-despite-jewish-communitys-incpeased-allocation-for-relief-funds-notwithstanding-its-bulget-difficulties>. “in spite of the fact that the relief office of the Berlin Jewish Community, notwithstanding the serious difficulties of the Community in covering its budget, has increased its relief allocations, because of the growing economic distress among the Jews of Berlin, the wave of Jewish suicides shows no sign of abatement, and to-day there were no less than four Jewish suicides in Berlin.”

“Jews Don’t Need Tutoring in Democracy.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 22 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/interview-with-jewish-german-leader-charlotte-knobloch-a-862650.html>. “Ahead of her 80th birthday, Charlotte Knobloch, one of Germany’s most prominent Jewish leaders, talks with SPIEGEL about her relationship with the country, her outrage over the recent circumcision debate and the former housemaid in Bavaria who saved her from the Nazis.”

“Jews in Denmark Committing Suicide; Germany Remains €œunmoved, Berlin Says.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 7 Oct. 1943. Web. 2 July 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/07/2860902/jews-in-denmark-committing-suicide-germany-remains-unmoved-berlin-says> ”A considerable number of Jews have committed suicide in Denmark as a result of the Gestapo manhunt, it was reported here today by Danish policemen who escaped to Sweden after being disarmed by the German military authorities in Copenhagen for refusing to cooperate in rounding up the Jews. Einar Dessau, noted Jewish philanthropist, is among those who took their life by poison, they said.”

Jud Suss. Dir. Veit Harlan. Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team, 1940. Holocaust Research Project. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/holoprelude/judsuss.html>. “Long recognized as history’s most incendiary film, Jud Süss was the cultural centerpiece in Joseph Goebbels’ campaign against the Jews. Released in 1940, it was a box office sensation across Germany and Europe; alongside the movie’s theatrical distribution, it became a staple of Nazi propaganda evenings organized by the Hitler Youth, SS and others.”

Kirsch, Adam. “The November Pogrom.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 10 Nov. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/20166/the-november-pogrom>. “In our collective memory of the Holocaust, Kristallnacht occupies a central but ambiguous place. If you look simply at the statistics, there is little reason why the events of November 9-10, 1938, should loom so large. … 91 Jews were killed in the nationwide pogrom that became known as the ‘Night of Broken Glass.’ ‘That figure, … included neither Jewish suicides nor the significantly larger number of Jews who were arrested in connection with the pogrom and would die in concentration camps in the following weeks and months.’ But even when we remember that 30,000 Jewish men were arrested—about 10 percent of the entire Jewish population of Germany—Kristallnacht pales in comparison with later Nazi crimes. Why do Jews—and … Germans—continue to remember Kristallnacht as a uniquely terrible event, even though the broken glass was followed, within a few years, by gas chambers and death camps?”

Langer, Lawrence L. “Satan’s Biographers.” The Atlantic Online. The Atlantic, Feb. 1999. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/99feb/hitler.htm>. “The tangled skein of Nazi Germany’s murder of European Jewry continues to unravel in our imagination, even as we seek to weave its unruly strands into a tapestry of understanding. The magnitude of the crime, the tenacity of its architects, the cruelty of the criminals who carried it out, the cooperation of collaborators, foreign and domestic, during various steps in the killing process — all these have spurred countless inquiries into the motives and methods of those involved. But more than fifty years after his death, more than sixty after his accession to power, more than a century after his birth, Adolf Hitler continues to intrigue the popular mind and the scholarly community as the sinister fabricator of the Holocaust. However contrary to reason and logic, to say nothing of the complexity of historical forces, the notion that finding the sources of Hitler’s anti-Semitism will somehow enable us to trace a clear path to its disastrous results continues to bewitch us.”

Lipman, Jennifer. “If You Couldn’t Walk, They Shot You.” The JC.com. The Jewish Chronicle Online, 26 Jan. 2013. Web. 06 Feb. 2013. <http://www.thejc.com/survivor-stories/62644/if-you-couldnt-walk-they-shot-you>. “As a child growing up in a Romanian village, Leslie Kleinman heard stories about the Nazis from Polish escapees. ‘One man said they were pulling children’s legs apart and killing them,’ recalled Mr Kleinman, who was 14 when the Nazis arrived in his village in the spring of 1944. ‘I thought it was just a story. When I got to Auschwitz, I realised it was true.’”

Lipman, Jennifer. “Nurses of Bergen Belsen Survivors Recognised in Research.” TheJC.com. 04 Oct. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/84665>. “The heroic efforts of nurses and other female aid workers in the immediate aftermath of the liberation of Bergen Belsen, including the aunt of broadcaster Esther Rantzen, have been highlighted in a new piece of research. Nearly 70 years after Allied troops entered the concentration camp to find 40,000 survivors on the brink of death, the true number of women who joined relief groups as nurses, social workers or cooks remains unclear.”

Lipman, Jennifer. “On This Day: The Wannsee Conference.” On This Day: The Wannsee Conference. 20 Jan. 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/43905>. “A peaceful lakeside spot in a sleepy suburb of Berlin, an uninformed visitor to Wannsee might be quite charmed by the place. But the villa there has a chilling history – it was there, 69 years ago, that 15 Nazi leaders coined the term ‘Final Solution’ and coordinated the genocidal campaign it would involve.”

Lipman, Jennifer. “On This Day: The Warsaw Ghetto Is Sealed.” The JC.com. 16 Nov. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/41267>. “In 1939 when the Nazis invaded Poland Warsaw’s Jewish community, which at the time made up about 30 per cent of the city’s population, was the second largest in the world. … But in October 1940 German governor Hans Frank decreed that all Jewish residents of the city would have to move to one specified area, separated from the rest of the population by barbed wire, armed guards and a ten feet wall. A month later, it was sealed off, with an estimated 400,000 Jews trapped in just 1.3 square miles. On average, 7.2 people lived in every room, and there were widespread food and medicine shortages. Meanwhile, hundreds of thousands were deported to death camps or killed in the ghetto.”

Lipman, Jennifer. “Palestinian Arab Leader Struck Wartime Deal with Nazis.” Palestinian Arab Leader Struck Wartime Deal with Nazis. 15 Dec. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/42607>. “The Nazis told the leader of the Palestinian Arabs that in return for his help during the Second World War he would have control of Palestine. According to a report released this week by the US National Archives, based on thousands of declassified documents, the Nazis planned to make the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, overall leader after the British were ousted and the 350,000-strong Jewish population was murdered.”

Medina, Jennifer. “Many Holocaust Survivors Living in Poverty, Report Says.” The New York Times. 16 Apr. 2007. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/world/africa/16iht-web-holocaust16.5309346.html>. “JERUSALEM — Every year here, Holocaust Memorial Day is marked with a solemn focus. The cafés close early. Air raid sirens are blasted throughout the country for two full minutes. Television stations devote hours of programs to commemorate the killing of six million Jews. But another number received a laser-sharp focus Monday: Nearly one-third of the estimated 260,000 Holocaust survivors here are now living in poverty.”

Medoff, Rafael. “How America First Learned of The Holocaust.” JNS.org. 11 June 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/6/11/how-america-first-learned-of-the-holocaust.html>. “Seventy years ago this month America learned, for the first time, about the systematic mass murder of Europe’s Jews—but Allied officials and some leading newspapers downplayed the news.”

Medoff, Rafeal. “Dr. Seuss and the Holocaust In France.” JNS.org. 15 July 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/7/15/dr-seuss-and-the-holocaust-in-france.html>. “The future creator of such beloved classics as The Cat in the Hat and Green Eggs and Ham employed stark and disturbing imagery in his July 20 cartoon. He drew a forest filled with corpses hanging from the trees, with a sign reading “Jew” pinned to each body. Adolf Hitler, with extra rope draped on his arm, and Vichy leader Pierre Laval were shown singing happily.”

Medoff, Rafel. “Tarzan and The Holocaust.” JNS.org. 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/9/10/tarzan-and-the-holocaust.html>. “In one of the Hebrew novellas, Tarzan helps smuggle Jewish refugees out of Europe and past the British naval blockade of Palestine. At one point in the story, Tarzan is captured by the British and imprisoned, although he later escapes. In real life, the Irgun Zvai Leumi underground militia in Palestine initiated the Aliyah Bet (unauthorized immigration) campaign in 1937. It brought an estimated 20,000 Jews to the Holy Land during the next four years. About 7,500 miles away, a handful of Jewish activists were looking for donors in Hollywood to help bankroll the Aliyah Bet operations. Hillel Kook (using the name Peter Bergson), Yitshaq Ben-Ami, Samuel Merlin, and Alex Rafaeli, followers of the Revisionist Zionist leader Ze’ev Jabotinsky and members of the Irgun, had been sent by Jabotinsky to the U.S. between 1938 and 1940 to seek financial and political support for Aliyah Bet and the creation of a Jewish state.”

Mikies, David. “The Diplomat of Shoah History.” Tablet. 26 July 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/107382/diplomat-of-shoah-history>. The dispute between Poles and Jews about the Nazi period can move in unsettling directions, ones that make an unhealed wound hurt even worse. … The Polish role in the Holocaust had other roots, darker ones: traditional anti-Semitism and the greedy desire for Jewish property.”

Morse, Arthur D. When Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy. Woodstock, NY: Overlook, 1998. Print. “Amasses and reveals evidence, including previously unavailable government documents, that characterizes the American government as apathetic towards the victims of Nazi atrocities. Discusses American involvement with and reaction to specific events such as the Evian Conference, Kristallnacht, and the voyage of the St. Louis. Includes notes, a bibliography, and an index.”

My Knees Were Jumping: Remembering the Kindertransport. Dir. Melissa Hacker. 1996. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Narrated by screen legend Joanne Woodward, this affecting documentary chronicles the story behind the Kindertransport, a British refugee program that saved more than 10,000 Jewish children during World War II.”

Nazi Concentration Camps (1945). Nazi Concentration Camps. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 04 July 2012. <http://archive.org/details/nazi_concentration_camps>. “Motion Picture Films Used as Exhibits and Evidence at World War Crimes.”

“Nazis Expel 600 Jews to €˜no-man’€™s-land,€™ Shoot Poles Who Feed Them; 8 Children Die.” Jewish News Archive 9 Nov. 1939. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1939/11/10/2848471/nazis-expel-600-jews-to-nomansland-shoot-poles-who-feed-them-8-children-die>. “The Gestapo has expelled 600 Polish Jews into the ‘no-man’s land’ on the Lithuanian frontier, fatally injuring four of them, in addition to eight children who died of exposure, and shooting several Polish farmers who attempted to provide the refugees with food, it was learned here today.”

Niewyk, Donald L., and Francis R. Nicosia. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. New York: Columbia UP, 2000. Print. “Offers a general history of the Holocaust and addresses many of the core issues and debates surrounding it.”

O’Connor, Joe. “Pregnant in Auschwitz: Toronto Holocaust Survivor Recalls Split-second Decision That Saved Her and Unborn son.” National Post News. 25 Aug. 2012. Web. 08 Feb. 2013. <http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/08/25/pregnant-in-auschwitz-toronto-holocaust-survivor-recalls-split-second-decision-that-saved-her-and-unborn-son/>. “Miriam Rosenthal was four-months pregnant, starving, bone-tired, cold, filthy and afraid when an SS officer in big black boots and a crisp uniform appeared before the barracks in Auschwitz with a loudspeaker in hand. ‘All pregnant women line up,’ he barked. ‘Line up, line up — your food portions are being doubled.’ ‘Can you imagine?’ Miriam asks. ‘Even women who were not pregnant stepped forward. I was standing with my younger cousin, but I wouldn’t go.’ She says, ‘Miriam, what are you doing?’ ‘Something was holding me back. Someone was watching over me. I feel maybe my mother, maybe God. Two hundred women stepped forward and 200 women went to the gas chamber. And I don’t know why I didn’t step forward.’”

“On This Day: Himmler Orders the Deportation of the Roma.” On This Day: Himmler Orders the Deportation of the Roma. 16 Dec. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/42608>. “There were five million non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust, including up to 500,000 members of the Roma community. At Auschwitz alone, it is estimated that 19,000 of the 23,000 Roma sent there during the war died.”

O’Rourke, John. “How Bulgaria Saved Its Jews.” BU Today. Jewish Ideas Daily, 26 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/c158f?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=a83976c75e-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “While the Holocaust claimed the lives of six million Jews living across Europe, one country was able to shield nearly all of its Jewish citizens from deportation and death. That newly revealed godsend is the subject of a provocative exhibition at BU’s Florence and Chafetz Hillel House Rubin-Frankel Gallery. The Power of Civil Society: The Fate of Jews in Bulgaria During the Holocaust, 1940–1944 chronicles the courageous refusal of that country’s citizenry to comply with government plans to surrender its Jews to Germany.”

“Patriotic German Jews Must Support Hitlerist Party in Germany’s Interests Even If It Is Antisemitic.” JTA Jewish News Arhive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 7 Jan. 1931. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1931/01/07/2789387/patriotic-german-jews-must-support-hitlerist-party-in-germanys-interests-even-if-it-is-antisemitic-says-organ-of-union-of-patriotic-german-jews>. “Patriotic German Jews must support any party which stands for German interests, even if it is antisemitic, says the ‘National-deutsche Jude’, the organ of the so-called National German-Jewish Party, headed by Dr. Max Naumann, which in the Jewish communal elections of last month issued posters calling on the electors to ‘vote German’, that is, not for the East European Jews …”

Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. “The Holocaust: Excusing the Inexcusable.” Standpoint. July-Aug. 2011. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://standpointmag.co.uk/features-julyaugust11-the-holocaust-excusing-the-inexcusable-michael-pinto-duschinsky-holocaust-toepfer-richard-evans>. “During the years after the Second World War, the nations of the victors and the vanquished concentrated on rebuilding their economic and political infrastructures. They did too little to bring the Nazi perpetrators of the Holocaust and their accomplices to account. In large part, regrets for the murder of some six million Jews were crocodile tears. Europe continues to suffer today from this failure to rebuild the moral foundations of our civilisation.”

Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. “Holocaust Reparations: The Back Story.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/4734/features/holocaust-reparations-the-back-story/>. “On July 10th [2012], dignitaries from the U.S., German, and Israeli governments attended a curious ceremony at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. The gathering marked the 60th anniversary of the first agreement by the West German government with the Israeli government and the Jewish ‘Claims Conference’ to grant modest financial compensation for the Holocaust. Some of the Jews in the room had spent the years since the agreement in seemingly interminable haggling.”

“Rescued from Kristallnacht, a Family Torah Reaches a New Generation.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/10/24/3110266/rescued-from-kristallnacht-a-family-torah-reaches-a-new-generation>. “It was the ‘Night of Broken Glass’ in Germany, Kristallnacht — a national pogrom of death and destruction of Jewish property and the rounding up of Jews — and Dietrich (David) Hamburger was in hiding.”

Rising, David, and Randy Herschaft. “Johann Breyer Probe: Documents Raise Doubts in Nazi Probe.” Huffingtonpost, 28 Dec. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/28/johann-breyer-probe_n_2374740.html?view=print>. “The case of an 87-year-old Philadelphia man accused by Germany of serving as an SS guard at Auschwitz has largely centered on whether he was stationed at the part of the death camp used as a killing machine for Jews. Johann ‘Hans’ Breyer — while admitting he was an Auschwitz guard — insists he was never there. World-War II-era documents obtained by The Associated Press indicate otherwise. The files provided by the U.S. Department of Justice in response to an AP request are now in the hands of German authorities, and could provide the legal basis for charging him as an accessory to the murder of hundreds of thousands of Jews in the Nazi death camp.”

Robbins, Liz. “After Anti-Semitic Crimes, Revisiting the Nightmares Forever Within.” The New York Times. 19 Jan. 2012. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://travel.nytimes.com/2012/01/20/nyregion/in-brooklyn-anti-semitic-crimes-bring-painful-memories.html>. “They come to talk about their families, to laugh, to learn and to praise Hilda Weiss’s famous chocolate coffee cake. Other than Mrs. Weiss’s recipe from Hungary, they never liked to go on about the past — even if this was the reason that originally brought the women together in a weekly support group for Holocaust survivors. But in recent days, this fragile yet spirited community of elderly women in Borough Park, Brooklyn, found themselves revisiting details of that unspeakable horror, and haunted by events far too close to home.”

Rockoff, Stuart. “Denouncing Germany’s Haman from Harlan, Kentucky.” Southern and Jewish. My Jewish Learning, 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 6 Feb. 2013. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/blog/southern-and-jewish/2013/01/30/denouncing-germanys-haman-from-harlan-kentucky/?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=81255dc512-JTA_Daily_Briefing_02_04_2013&utm_medium=email>. “While Harlan [Kentucky in Appalachia] Jews established a congregation, B’nai Sholom, in 1931, the community never had more than 30 or so families, including members from surrounding towns like Pineville, Middlesboro and Evarts. … In 1933, the congregation held a Purim event which drew over 100 people. During the program, the congregation adopted a motion ‘protesting against the Haman-like designs of the German Hitler.’ The congregation sent a copy of the resolution to President Franklin Roosevelt and the U.S. Ambassador to Germany.”

Rosenfarb, Chava. “The Last Poet of Lodz.” Tablet Magazine. 13 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/111880/the-last-poet-of-lodz>. “This essay, by the Yiddish author Chava Rosenfarb, appeared in Yiddish in 1991 in Di goldene keyt. This is the first publication of the English version—which was translated by Rosenfarb, who died last year. … Simkha-Bunim Shayevitch’s name is known only to a very few people. He would have joined the mass of nameless ghetto Jews who perished without a trace had it not been for the fact that during his time in the ghetto Shayevitch found himself in extremely difficult circumstances.”

Rothstein, Edward. “Resisting The Nazis Despite The Odds.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Apr. 2007. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/arts/16resi.html?_r=0>. “The discipline and determination are half-brilliant, half-mad: in 1940, in Warsaw, the Polish-Jewish historian Emanuel Ringelblum decided that the entire experience of Jewry under Nazi rule should be thoroughly documented. The internment of Jews within the Warsaw ghetto, he wrote (with chilly irony), ‘provided even greater opportunity for development of the archive.’”

Round, Simon. “Revealed: The British Troops Imprisoned at Auschwitz.” TheJC.com. 14 Jan. 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/26001>. “Amid all the testimonies about Auschwitz and the Final Solution which have been published since the end of the Second World War, one small group has remained silent. Alongside the main Auschwitz complex was a prisoner-of-war camp known as Auschwitz E715, where the inmates included several hundred British soldiers.”

Rupnow, Dirk. “Racializing Historiography: Anti-Jewish Scholarship in the Third Reich.” Patterns of Prejudice 42.1 (2008): 27-59. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 July 2012. “Despite continued debates about the role of German historians in the Third Reich, current scholarship views the work that was conducted under National Socialism under the rubric of Judenforschung (research on Jews) as a marginal and pseudo-scientific phenomenon.”

Samuels, Shimon. “In the Shadow of Wannsee.” The JC.com. 20 Jan. 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/62369>. “The 70th anniversary of the Wannsee Conference provides a valuable opportunity to reengage the battle for memory, for – unlike any other genocide – it provides, in the Wannsee Protocol, a clear and horrifyingly dispassionate roadmap to mass murder. Albeit marked ‘Top Secret’, the 16th duplicate of 30 copies survived the war.”

Schtuter, Hans H. “Danish Resistance during the Holocaust Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org.” Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org. HEART, 2007. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/revolt/danishresistance.html>. “At the beginning of World War II, the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden and Norway declared their neutrality. That means they would not take sides in the conflict. With memories of the devastation of World War I still fresh in the memories of many Danes, the governments thought that by being neutral their citizens would be spared the horrors of this new crisis.”

Shangai Ghetto. 2002. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Actor Martin Landau narrates this riveting documentary about Shanghai’s little-known Jewish ghetto, settled in the 1930s by Jews who fled Nazi Germany. The filmmakers head to Shanghai with two ex-residents, who relate tales of life in the squalid enclave.”

Shook, Karen. “Landscapes of the Metropolis of Death.” Times Higher Education. 24 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=422433>. “Memory struggles with history in an annal of life in Auschwitz and afterwards, finds Robert Eaglestone the author of this astonishing book sang the Ode to Joy in a children’s choir at Birkenau, ‘like little angels, our voices providing an accompaniment to the processions…into the crematoria’. All his life since then, he has asked himself what drove the conductor to choose that famous declaration of human dignity. Was it a protest, ‘as long as man breathes he breathes freedom, something like that?’ or was it ‘an act of extreme sarcasm ‘… ‘of self amusement, of a person in control of naive beings and implanting in them naive values, sublime and wonderful values, all the while knowing that there is no point or purpose and no meaning to those values’?”

Shriver Jr., Donald W. “Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust.” Rev. of Bystanders. Christian Century 2 Aug. 2000: 812. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Aug. 2012. “Bystanders is a powerful argument against such moral-empirical flippancy. Victoria Barnett, a consultant for the Department of Church Relations of the Holocaust Museum, explores an area that has received relatively scant attention in Holocaust studies. Her thesis matches Bauer’s: ‘In the long term, Nazism was powerful not just because of the numbers of party stalwarts, but because millions of Germans were prepared to inform on one another, obey orders, and remain passive while others became victims.’”

“Sketching the SS St. Louis.” JNS.org. 1 June 2012. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/6/1/sketching-the-ss-st-louis.html>. “Seventy-three years ago this week (June 4, 1939), the SS St. Louis, the infamous ‘Voyage of the Damned,’ hovered off the coast of Florida, hoping to be granted permission to land. In a telegram to the White House, the Jewish refugees begged: ‘Help [us], Mr. President, the 900 passengers, of which more than 400 are women and children.’ There was no reply. Meanwhile, a handful of editorial cartoonists tried to rally American public opinion in support of the refugees.”

Snyder, Don. “Nazi-Era Case Reopens Old Polish Wounds.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 13 July 2012. Web. 6 July 2012. <http://forward.com/articles/158846/nazi-era-case-reopens-old-polish-wounds/?p=all>. “Poland has just reopened a 71-year-old case involving the rape and murder of 20 Jewish women. In the 1941 case — in the midst of World II, and two years after the Nazi invasion of Poland — six Poles allegedly beat the Jewish women to death with metal-tipped clubs outside the hamlet of Bzury, in northeastern Poland. Government prosecutor Radoslaw Ignatiew hopes to prosecute the killers, if they are still alive. He also hopes to discover the identities of the women and the location of their graves.”

Soclof, Adam. “From the Beginning, It Was Clear Kristallnacht Was Different.” JTA. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 1 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2011/11/01/3090068/from-the-beginning-it-was-clear-kristallnacht-was-different>. “Before it was called Kristallnacht, it was known simply as ‘the pogrom.’ Designated ‘the night of broken glass,’ the 14-hour wave of Nazi violence on Nov. 9-10, 1938 left hundreds of Jewish storefronts and synagogues across Germany and parts of Austria in shards and splinters, and many Jews dead. Tens of thousands of Jews were arrested over the next few days, among them a number of prominent Jewish communal leaders. … In hindsight, Kristallnacht was not merely a horrific event; it was a harbinger of horrors to come. The violence accelerated events that already were familiar to Jews living under the Third Reich. Eleven months later, as described in JTA reports, the Nazis began the mass deportation of 100,000 Jews from Vienna to camps in Poland.”

Steal a Pencil for Me. Dir. Michele Ohayon. 2007. Netflix. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. “Director Michèle Ohayon’s moving documentary chronicles the unshakeable romance between Jack Polak and Ina Soep of Amsterdam, who met and fell in love despite their deportation to Nazi concentration camps during the war. As they corresponded with love letters composed on any scrap of paper they could find, the couple’s blossoming relationship coincided with the horrors of the Holocaust and their internment in Westerbork and Bergen-Belsen.”

“Stefan Terlezki.” Telegraph.com. Telegraphic Media Group, 27 Feb. 2006. Web. 2 Aug. 2012. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1511541/Stefan-Terlezki.html>. “Stefan Terlezki, who died on February, aged 78, endured an appalling youth as a slave of the Nazis during the Second World War, and even survived being rescued by the Russians …”

“Synagogue Reopens in Polish Town without Jews.” The JC.com. 04 Apr. 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/print/47478>. “A Polish town where the Jewish population was almost entirely wiped out by the Nazis 72 years ago is to be home to a synagogue once again.”

“Texts of Nazi Degrees Isolating All Jews in Poland Received in London.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Jan. 14, 1943. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/01/14/2859638/texts-of-nazi-degrees-isolating-all-jews-in-poland-received-in-london>. “The Polish Government-in-Exile today received the texts of two Nazi decrees ordering all Jews in the hundreds of cities and townships in Poland to move to 42 small townships designated as ‘Jewish residential localities’ and to 13 ghettos in the districts of Warsaw, Radom, Lublin and Galicia. The exodus of all Jews from other places in occupied Poland to the restricted areas was to be completed by December 1, 1942, the Nazi decrees provided.”

Todorov, Tzvetan. Facing the Extreme: Moral Life in the Concentration Camps. New York: Metropolitan, 1996. Print. “An examination of the human capacity for moral life; reconstructs a vivid portrait of those who ran the camps and those who suffered their outrages. Also offers an elequent plea for the recognition of everyday virtues as a basis for contemporary morality.”

“Tortured Jews in Poland Appeal for Retribution Against Germans in Allied Countries.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 14 Mar. 1943. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/03/14/2860131/tortured-jews-in-poland-appeal-for-retribution-against-germans-in-allied-countries>. ”An appeal from the Jews of Nazi-held Poland to the Allied Nations urging them to take extraordinary steps against Germans residing in their countries in order to force the Nazis in Poland to discontinue their extermination of Jews was received here today by the Jewish Labor Committee.”

“Train Carrying 20,000 Jews Deported from France Arrives in Bessarabia; Many Dead.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 16 Oct. 1942. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/10/16/2857600/train-carrying-20000-jews-deported-from-france-arrives-in-bessarabia-many-dead>. “Twenty thousand Jews who were deported from France in filthy, sealed cattle cars without adequate supplies of food and water, have arrived in Rumania, according to a reliable report received here today from Bucharest.”

“Treblinka Death Camp Revolt Summary & Testimonies Us Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org.” Treblinka Death Camp Revolt Summary & Testimonies Us Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org. Holocaust Research Project, 2008. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/ar/treblinka/revolt.html>. “Jewish inmates organized a resistance group in Treblinka in early 1943. When camp operations neared completion, the prisoners feared they would be killed and the camp dismantled. During the late spring and summer of 1943, the resistance leaders decided to revolt.”

Tzur, Nissan. “Poles Finally Learn about Their Holocaust Whistleblower.” The JC.com. 12 May 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thejc.com/news/world-news/48808/poles-finally-learn-about-their-holocaust-whistleblower>. ”The late Jan Karski is a national hero in Poland for his role as a resistance fighter during the Second World War. Few, however, knew that he was also one of the first eyewitnesses of the Holocaust and documented the horrors of the Warsaw Ghetto – despite having been recognised as ‘Righteous Among the Nations’ by Yad Vashem in 1982.”

“The United States and the Holocaust.” Bibliographies. The United States and the Holocaust. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/ar/treblinka/revolt.html>. “Despite a history of providing sanctuary to persecuted peoples, the United States grappled with many issues during the 1930s that made staying true to this legacy difficult, among them wide-spread antisemitism, xenophobia, isolationism, and a sustained economic depression. Unfortunate for those fleeing from Nazi persecution, these issues greatly impacted this nation’s refugee policy, resulting in tighter restrictions and limited quotas at a time when open doors might have saved lives.”

“Von Prittwitz Says Anti-semitism Temporary Phase; Hitler Not Voice of Germany.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 27 Oct. 1930. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/10/27/2787917/von-prittwitz-says-antisemitism-temporary-phase-hitler-not-voice-of-germany>.  “A very young looking man for an ambassador, with a polite worldly manner, offered a statement to America, on his arrival to resume his duties as Ambassador, reassuring the citizens of the United States that any seeming disturbances in Germany were due only to the lack of economic stability and not to any untoward tendencies of the German public.”

“Warsaw Uprising Ends.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/warsaw-uprising-ends>. “The Warsaw Uprising ends with the surrender of the surviving Polish rebels to German forces.”

Wildman, Sarah. “The Other Kindertransport.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 19 Dec. 2012. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. <http://forward.com/articles/167599/the-other-kindertransport/?p=all>. “One hundred and fifty: a number simultaneously enormous and tiny. One hundred and fifty Czech Jewish teenagers left behind everything and everyone — the lives they’d known, their parents, their siblings, their grandparents and aunts and uncles.”

“World War II-era Archbishop of Florence Recognized as Righteous Gentile.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article-print/2012/11/26/3112831/wwiii-era-archbishop-of-florence-recognized-as-righteous-gentile>. “Cardinal Ella Angelo Dalla Costa, the World War II-era Archbishop of Florence, has been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.”

Yahil, Leni. The Holocaust, the Fate of European Jewry. New York: Oxford Universtiy, 1987. Print. “A solid, thoroughly documented and well-written history of the tragedy that befell European Jewry during the Second World War. … Bound to emerge as one of the major standard texts on the Holocaust.”

Holocaust, Jews #2

“A Christian world that will permit millions of Jews to be slain without moving heaven by prayer and earth in every human way to save it Jews has lost its capacity for moral and spiritual survival.” Dr. Stephen S. Wise, 1943  <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/02/19/2859947/wise-criticizes-christian-world-for-failure-to-rescue-jews-in-nazi-europe>

 

“Is the world really unable to save us?” asks a pathetic message, in code, from Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland.  <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/02/11/2859871/is-the-world-really-unable-to-save-us-asks-message-from-jews-in-nazi-poland>

 

The world was not unable, it was unwilling. “During World War II, rescue of Jews and others targeted by Nazi Germany was not a priority for the United States government. … In August 1942, the State Department received a report sent by Gerhart Riegner, the Geneva-based representative of the World Jewish Congress (WJC). The report revealed that the Germans were implementing a policy to physically annihilate the Jews of Europe. Department officials declined to pass on the report to its intended recipient, American Jewish leader Stephen Wise, who was President of the World Jewish Congress.” <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php? ModuleId=10005182>

During the era of the Holocaust, the American press did not always publicize reports of Nazi atrocities in full or with prominent placement.”

 

 “There is really no way out of this for us.” Dawid Sierakowiak [Died, Lodz Ghetto August 8th, 1943] He was 19 years old.

 

Allen, Ann Taylor. “The Holocaust and the Modernization of Gender: A Historiographical Essay.” Central European History 30.03 (1997): 349-64. Print. The author uses the “absence and presence of gender in Bauman’s text [Modernity and the Holocaust] as a starting point for an examination of the historiography of women and gender and its relevance for our understanding of the Holocaust.”

Altschuler, Glenn C. “Motivations for Murder.” JPost.com. Jerusalem Post, 15 Dec. 2011. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Magazine/Books/Article.aspx?id=249630>. “Motivations for Murder” by Ribert Gewarth. “A new biography of Reinhard Heydrich argues that decisions to exterminate the Jews were not made in the 1930s but developed in stages, often in response to changing political and military circumstances.”

Anderson, Mark M. Hitler’s Exiles: Personal Stories of the Flight from Nazi Germany to America. New York: New, 1998. Print. “Between 1933 and 1945, roughly 130,000 German-speaking refugees fled Hitler’s persecution to resettle in America. ‘Hitler’s Exiles’ is a composite first-hand account of this historic migration, focusing on the ordinary people who took this extraordinary voyage.”

Axelrod, Toby. “60 Years After Liberation German Leader Admits to Shame As He Speaks to Holocaust Survivors.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 26 Jan. 2005. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/2005/01/26/2924658/60-years-after-liberation-german-leader-admits-to-shame-as-he-speaks-to-holocaust-survivors>. “German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder spoke of his shame about the Holocaust — and survivor Kurt Julius Goldstein spoke of his anger. Before a crowd Tuesday that included elderly survivors as well as German high school students, Schroeder declared his “shame before those who were murdered — and to you, who survived the hell of the concentration camps,” adding, ‘We carry this burden in mourning, but also with a serious sense of responsibility.’”

Barschak, Fred. “The Children Doomed by British Inaction.” TheJC.com. The Jewish Chronicle Online, 11 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.thejc.com/comment-and-debate/comment/97512/the-children-doomed-british-inaction>. “‘The greatest tragedies are those that were wholly avoidable.’ In an era replete with events that fall within those parameters, none fits the above definition more than the fate of the children of Pithiviers and Beaune-La-Rolande in the summer of 1942. To understand the context in which this tragedy played out, one must briefly describe the situation in France in July 1942. The Vichy Government was, perhaps, the most assiduous of all administrations in Western Europe in co-operating with Nazi Germany with regard to its Jewish community.”

Bartov, Omer. “Defining Enemies, Making Victims: Germans, Jews, and the Holocaust.” The American Historical Review 103.3 (1998): 771-816. Print. In this essay the author will “focus on two related issues: German self-perceptions and attitudes toward Jews, especially in the Third Reich and the Federal Republic; and Jewish self-perception and attitudes toward real and perceived enemies in the past and in the present, …”

Bauer, Yehuda, and Nili Keren. A History of the Holocaust. New York: Franklin Watts, 2001. Print. While this is considered a juvenile book, any adult would find it an interesting read. “Recent history has rendered the word ‘holocaust’ — strictly defined as wholesale destruction and loss of life, especially the willful devastation of the Jewish people by the most inhuman methods ever devised.”

Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale UP, 2001. Print. “In this authoritative survey, the Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer reflects upon why the Holocaust has become a world issue and how to make sense of it.”

Benigno, Nena C. “Jews Honor Manuel L. Quezon on His 134th Birthday.” Inquirer Global Nation. 19 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://globalnation.inquirer.net/47492/jews-honor-manuel-l-quezon-on-his-134th-birthday>. “As the country commemorates the 134th birthday today, August 19, of Manuel L. Quezon, he is also honored by thousands of Jewish families who have survived and prospered because they found a home in Manila at the darkest time in their history as a race. It was a point of no return.”

Bonisch, Georg. “Everyday Murder: Nazi Atrocities, Committed by Ordinary People.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 18 Mar. 2008. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/everyday-murder-nazi-atrocities-committed-by-ordinary-people-a-542245.html>. “From doctors to opera singers, teachers to truant schoolchildren, the extermination of European Jews was the work of roughly 200,000 ordinary Germans and their helpers. Years of research — not yet complete — reveal how sane members of a modern society committed murder for an evil regime.”

Breitman, Richard. Official Secrets: What the Nazis Planned, What the British and Americans Knew. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998. Print. “When did Great Britain and the United States learn of the monstrous events that we today call the Holocaust? When and how did Nazi leaders plan to destroy the Jewish people?”

“British Parliamentarians Want Vatican to Act to Save Jews from Nazis.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 21 Jan. 1943. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/01/21/2860223/british-parliamentarians-want-vatican-to-act-to-save-jews-from-nazis>. “The question of whether there is any possibility that the Vatican will take concrete action to attempt to halt the Nazi extermination of Jews was raised in Parliament today when a number of members pressed the Government to undertake steps to save as many Jews as possible.”

Carmel, Philip. “60 Years After World War Ii, Survivors Fete the French Town That Saved Them.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 22 Nov. 2004. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/2004/11/22/2923715/60-years-after-world-war-ii-survivors-fete-the-french-town-that-saved-them>. “When Ida Rozenberg-Apeloig received a book about the activities of the French Resistance in wartime France, her childhood memories of Chateaumeillant came flooding back. Rozenberg-Apeloig was given the book by one of her son’s friends in the summer of 2003 and soon recognized that many of the people cited in the work were associates of her father, fellow members of the resistance who were active in the Cher region of central France during the Nazi occupation. The book, ‘Avant l’oublie, Resistance,’ or ‘Before We Forget, Resistance,’ led to the formation of a group of survivors who decided that the time had come to honor the village of Chateaumeillant, where more than 100 Jews lived throughout World War II.”

Cole, Tim. A Gendered Holocaust? The Experiences of “Jewish” 2 Men and Women in Hungary, 1944. Women and the Third Reich. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theverylongview.com/WATH/essays/gendered.htm>. “Over the last couple of decades, a growing number of writers have stressed the significance of gender in understanding the experiences of Holocaust victims. Beginning with the seminal conference on ‘Women Surviving the Holocaust’ organized in 1983 by Joan Ringelheim and Esther Katz, the suggestion that ‘Jewish’ men and ‘Jewish’ women experienced the Holocaust differently has, by and large, been accepted within the academy, if not always outside of it.”

Confino, Alon. “Fantasies about the Jews: Cultural Reflections on the Holocaust.” History and Memory 17.1 (2005): 296-322. JSTOR. Web. 13 Aug. 2012.

Connolly, Kate. “The Saga of Gretel Bergmann, Jewish High Jumper.” Los Angeles Times Article Collections. Los Angeles, 11 Nov. 2009. Web. 27 July 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/49d23?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=ddeca110c0-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “Hitler blocked Jewish high-jumper Gretel Bergmann’s participation in the 1936 Berlin Olympics. She was replaced on the team by an athlete of ambiguous gender—and the gold went to a Hungarian Jew.”

“Czech Policemen Accused of Torturing, Robbing Jews Sentenced to Prison Terms.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 14 Apr. 1946. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1946/04/14/2744718/czech-policemen-accused-of-torturing-robbing-jews-sentenced-to-prison-terms>. “At the conclusion of a long trial marked by a number of exciting incidents including the surprise defense testimony of several Jews, former Czech policemen J. Hosek and M. Drahnovsky were today sentenced to eight to ten years imprisonment on charges of having tortured, robbed, and denounced Jews at the Theresienstadt concentration camp.”

“Czech Workers Strike Against Return to Jew of Property Confiscated by R[sic]azis.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 9 Mar. 1947. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1947/03/09/3008863/czech-workers-strike-against-return-to-jew-of-property-confishcattd-by-razis>. “All workers in the Warnsdorf district of Board want on strike yesterday in protest against the return to Emil Bear, 70-year-old Jewish industrialist, of a factory confiscated during the German occupation.”

“Danish King Threatens to Quit If Nazis Insist on Nuremberg Laws in Denmark.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 7 Jan. 1942. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/01/07/2856292/danish-king-threatens-to-quit-if-nazis-insist-on-nuremberg-laws-in-denmark>. “King Christian X of Denmark has threatened to abdicate if the Nazi occupation authorities insist on the introduction of the Nuremberg laws in his country, it is learned here today from reliable neutral sources. According to these sources, three pro-Nazi members of the Danish government some time ago prepared anti-Jewish legislation for Denmark.”

Darring, Gerald. “Righteous Gentiles.” Spring Hill College. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/10Righteous.htm>. “The term ‘Righteous Gentile’ or ‘Righteous among the Nations’ is used to name those non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust. The title is used informally as referring to anyone considered by the speaker or writer to be a savior of Jews, but it has an official role in the Israeli program of Holocaust remembrance administered by Yad Vashem. The criteria established by Yad Vashem include the following: — The rescuer ensured the survival of a Jew or Jews by extending aid to them when they were in danger of being killed or sent to a concentration camp; — The rescuer knew that he was risking his own life, freedom, and safety by acting to save the Jewish life; — The rescuer did not receive and did not expect any compensation for the aid he was giving; — The rescuer acted on his own initiative, and was directly involved and personally responsible for what he did; — The rescuer’s aid can be authenticated by eyewitness evidence and, whenever possible, by relevant documentation.”

Fackenheim, Emil. “The Spectrum Of Resistance During The Holocaust: An Essay In Description And Definition.” Modern Judaism 2.2 (1982): 113-30. JSTOR. Web. 06 May 2012. There were two forms of resistance, at “opposite ends of a spectrum. … On occasion the two extremes of the spectrum of resistance were to meet, and when this happened the meeting changed the very lives os those those experience it.”

“Foundations of Holocaust: Corporate America and the Fuhrer, a Love Story.” Jerusalem Post. 11 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://blogs.jpost.com/content/foundations-holocaust-corporate-america-and-fuhrer-love-story>. “A clique of U.S. industrialists is hell-bent to bring a fascist state to supplant our democratic government and is working closely with the fascist regime in Germany and Italy.” (William Dodd, U.S. Ambassador to Germany, in a 1936 letter to President Roosevelt) ” But IBM stands out, was a major player in all aspects of the unfolding Holocaust, from identifying Jews to recording their murder.”

“Foundations of Holocaust: Corporate America, Camp Inmates and Slave Labor.” Jerusalem Post. 18 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://blogs.jpost.com/content/foundations-holocaust-corporate-america-camp-inmates-and-slave-labor>. “When the issue of the Forced and Slave Labor Negotiations was raised in by the US Treasury Department in 1999 Ford and GM and most American corporations that had supported Hitler’s war effort at first denied, then accepted the ‘possibility’ that their German ‘subsidiaries’ may have been guilty of working extermination camp inmates to death as slaves. Through the thinly-veiled lie of Germany having taken control of their subsidiaries leaving them powerless to influence and so not responsible Corporate America described itself righteously vindicated. Unfortunately their own records proved the lie; Ford opened its records to the public and it was clear that Detroit maintained control over FordWerke policy. GM refused to subject their records to public scrutiny so the thin veil of deniability, at least in their eyes, remains intact. In the end GM and Ford, et al, were forced to pay if, for no other reason, than to allow the media to focus on a different issue.”

Freilich, Rabbi David. “Kristallnacht Memorial Service 2007.” Speech. Commemoration of Kristallnacht 2007. Council of Christians and Jews Western Australia Inc. 2007. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ccjwa.org/Documents/Articles/Kristallnacht_2007_Freilich.pdf>. “Sixty-nine years ago tomorrow, on November 9th 1938, the so-called Kristallnacht occurred — the beginning of an historical tragedy with a fatal ending. November 9th 1938, was a night of unbelievable barbarism, which was the prelude to the Holocaust. This ominous night was indeed a last great warning of the coming final extermination of European Jewry and of many others. None of us really knows why this night should be called Kristallnacht (Crystal Night — the Night of the Broken Glass). It is true that during that night hundreds of businesses were ransacked and the glass of Jewish shop windows littered the streets. But that is a most unimportant detail of the whole horrific story, compared to the scores of innocent people who were massacred, thousands of others arrested, humiliated and sent to concentration camps. Hundreds of synagogues in Germany and Austria were burned and bulldozed, as well as the hundreds of holy biblical scrolls and religious artifacts, which were put to the torch. By comparison, it is a singularly unimportant matter that there was some broken glass in the street the next morning in front of the Jewish stores. The fact that this was just plain broken window glass, which was cleaned away the next morning and by no means precious crystal, points even more to the inappropriate name of Kristallnacht. Yet, by calling this night Kristallnacht, we have perhaps unknowingly expressed a very profound truth. Crystal as we know it resembles the glittering glass, which we use today for fancy vases, chandeliers and sparkling ornaments. What we mean by using that term Kristallnacht is a reference to a period in history, which was similar to crystal — a glassy material, which appears pure and glittering like precious jewels, but in reality is only an illusion. Crystal is most vulnerable and when not handled carefully will shatter in a thousand pieces. German society was indeed like crystal.”

Friedman, Daniel. Don’t Ever Get Old. New York: Minotaur, 2012. Print. “Baruch ‘Buck’ Schatz is an eighty-seven-year-old, cigarette-smoking, foul mouth, very funny Jewish former homicide detective who is on the trail of an equally ancient Nazi war criminal.”

Gallant, Mary. Rev. of Hidden Children of the Holocaust: Belgian Nuns and Their Daring Rescue of Young Jews from the Nazis. Catholic Historical Review 97.3 (2011): 603-04. Project MUSE. Web. 24 June 2012.

Gerlach, Christian. “The Wannsee Conference, the Fate of German Jews, and Hitler’s Decision in Principle to Exterminate All European Jews.” Rutgers University. 1998. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~jewishnb/hrc/mti/wannsee.pdf>. “The most remarkable thing about the meeting at Wannsee (which was not called the ‘Wannsee Conference’ until after the war) is that we do not know why it took place.” So wrote the celebrated German historian Eberhard Ja ̈ckel in 1992. Many historians share this view. They find themselves somewhat puzzled with respect to the meeting at Wannsee. On the one hand, the historical significance of the event is largely uncontested. The minutes prepared by Adolf Eichmann constitute a document of central importance. ‘No other document from the National Socialist regime,’ writes Wolfgang Scheffler, ‘sets out so clearly the complete plan for the extermination of European Jewry.’ On the other hand, this uniqueness is itself problematic. Since we still know too little about the central planning for the extermination of the Jews, the relative significance of the Wannsee meeting is difficult to gauge. Nevertheless, some recent regional studies of the executions of Jews have shed new light on the protracted and complicated decision-making processes that went on within the German leadership. … Most significantly, however, documents connected with the Wannsee Conference itself have been uncovered, documents that provide us with important clues for interpreting previously known and published sources. What emerges is a new perspective on the course of events. In the following essay I will attempt to show that, despite all the attention paid to it, the significance of the Wannsee Conference of January 20, 1942, has not been fully appreciated.”

Gerlach, Wolfgang, and Victoria Barnett. And the Witnesses Were Silent: The Confessing Church and the Persecution of the Jews. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 2000. Print. “Gerlach tenaciously pursues evidence of anti-Jewish attitudes among Confessing Church leaders, and he ties these attitudes to their Christian suppositions.”

“German Data Reveals 1,071,600 Polish Jews Transported to Extermination Camps.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Jan. 6, 1944. Web. 16 July 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1944/01/06/2862729/german-data-reveals-1071600-polish-jews-transported-to-extermination-camps>. “Official statistics of the German Railways operating in occupied Poland reveal that 1,071,600 doomed Jews were transported to Treblinka, Belzetz and other “extermination camps” during the year beginning April 1, 1942 and ending March 31, 1943 … ”

“Germany Earns Millions on Deported Jews in Trading Arrangement with Slovakia.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 1 July 1942. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/07/01/2858099/germany-earns-millions-on-deported-jews-in-trading-arrangement-with-slovakia>. “Jews in Slovakia have become a commodity on which Nazi Germany is making millions of marks, it was learned here today from a reliable source which stated that for each Jew deported from Slovakia to Nazi-occupied eastern territory the German Government is charging Slovakia 4,000 marks.”

“God on Trial.” Masterpiece. PBS, 9 Nov. 2008. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/masterpiece/godontrial/index.html>. “God on Trial” was aired on PBS on November 9, 2008 and is available on DVD on the PBS website. “Why is there so much suffering in the world and what kind of God would allow it to happen? Universal questions about faith and philosophy are at the heart of God on Trial, which was inspired by the legend that a group of concentration camp prisoners conducted a mock trial against the Almighty God. From all walks of life, a physicist, a glove maker, rabbis, a law professor and at least one criminal weigh the evidence and offer thoughtful arguments taken from history, science, theology and personal experience. ,,, God on Trial explores unfathomable loss and unshakable faith.”

Goldstein, Anna. “Recovered Archive Shows Jewish Life and Death in the Warsaw Ghetto.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 21 Apr. 2005. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/2005/04/21/2926240/recovered-archive-shows-jewish-life-and-death-in-the-warsaw-ghetto>. “As the revered Jewish historian Simon Dubnov went to his death at the hands of the Nazis in 1941 — crying out in Yiddish, ‘Jews, write it down!’ — his disciple and colleague, the historian Emanuel Ringelblum, was organizing the largest underground archive in Europe to record the Jewish experience in the Shoah. The Ringelblum Archive swelled into a ‘massive pillar of Jewish civil resistance,’ Ringelblum’s biographer, Samuel Kassow, said at the San Francisco opening of an exhibition, ‘Scream the Truth at the World: Emanuel Ringelblum and the Hidden Archive of the Warsaw Ghetto.’”

Gutman, Israel, ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. New York: Macmillan Pub., 1990. Print. A comprehensive encyclopedia of the holocaust. Contains articles by leading scholars.

“Hakenkreuzler Planned to Wreak Vengeance on Jews on Election Day.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 23 Oct. 1923. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1923/10/23/2754683/hakenkreuzler-planned-to-wreak-vengeance-on-jews-on-election-day>. “Secret orders addressed to 13 district commanders of Hakenkreuzler organizations calling on them to wreak vengeance on the Austrian Jews on election day.”

Heschel, Susannah. “Jewish Studies in the Third Reich: A Brief Glance at Viktor Christian D. Kurt Schubert.” Review of Rabbinic Judaism 13.2 (2010): 236-49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. “The article focuses on the state of Jewish education in Germany under Adolf Hitler. It notes that while Nazis did not come in 1933 with clear plans in relation to the universities, taking control over education was high on its agenda.”

“Hitler’s Aide Attacks Him for Preaching Racial Anti-semitism.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 15 Dec. 1930. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/12/15/2788988/hitlers-aide-attacks-him-for-preaching-racial-antisemitism>. “An attack on Adolf Hitler, National Socialist party leader, by Captain Ehrhardt, one of his chief lieutenants, in today’s Boersen Zeitung, created a sensation here. Ehrhardt’s vigorous attack on the Fascist chieftain has aroused particular interest not only because he was the military leader of the abortive Munich putsch but because his anti-Hitler stand marks a further split in the Nazis’ ranks and indicates that Hitler is losing some of his effective military support.”

Holden, Stephen. “Facing Pain in a Father’s Footsteps.” Rev. of Six Million and One. The New York Times 27 Sept. 2012. 27 Sept. 2012. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://movies.nytimes.com/2012/09/28/movies/six-million-and-one-from-the-documentarian-david-fisher.html?gwh=7BF5655260E962DB469C0C4D2B688C56>. “In ‘Six Million and One,’ the Israeli documentarian David Fisher’s third film in a family trilogy … he and his three siblings retrace the steps of their Hungarian Jewish father, Joseph, a Holocaust survivor.”

“Holocaust History.” The United States and the Holocaust. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005182>. “During the era of the Holocaust, the American press did not always publicize reports of Nazi atrocities in full or with prominent placement. For example, the New York Times, the nation’s leading newspaper, generally deemphasized the murder of the Jews in its news coverage.”

“J.D.C. Will Accept Messages for Delivery to Displaced Jews in Camps in Germany.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 5 Oct. 1945. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/10/05/2868329/jdc-will-accept-messages-for-delivery-to-displaced-jews-in-camps-in-germany>. “The Joint Distribution Committee today announced the establishment of a department which will deliver messages from American relatives to displaced Jews in the American and British zones in Germany and will also accept messages from Jews in the camps for delivery to their relatives abroad, thus establishment direct contact for the first time between the liberated Jews and their friends in the United States and in other countries.”

“Jewish Guerilla Unit Led by Jewish General Under Jewish Flag in Occupied Poland.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 28 Dec. 1943. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/12/28/2862641/jewish-guerilla-unit-led-by-jewish-general-under-jewish-flag-in-occupied-poland>. “The London press reports today that a Jewish General named Gutt, who was formerly an officer in the Polish army, is now leading a well-equipped Jewish guerilla unit of 3,000 men which is fighting in the rear of the German army in occupied Poland.”

“Jewish Men and Women Sent to Forced Labor in Coal Mines in Czech Protectorate.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 9 Aug. 1942. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/08/09/2858444/jewish-men-and-women-sent-to-forced-labor-in-coal-mines-in-czech-protectorate>. “Twelve hundred Jews, including young girls and married women, have been sent to forced labor in the coal mines at Moravska-Ostrava and Karvin, in the Czech Protectorate, it was reported here today.”

“The Jews of Chelm and the Escape from the Borek Forest – Revolt & Resistance Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org.” Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. 2008. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/revolt/chelmborek.html>.

“Jews Shun City Streets As Month-long Terror Reign Continues in Slovakia.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 Aug. 1943. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1939/08/28/2845793/jews-shun-city-streets-as-monthlong-terror-reign-continues-in-slovakia>. “Terror stalks through the streets of the Jewish quarters of Bratislava and other Slovakian towns swept by a wave of violence against the Jewish population which began early this month, was climaxed on Friday, Aug. 11, with six hours of systematic destruction in Bratislava and is continuing throughout the ‘protectorate’ in the form of personal assaults on Jewish pedestrians and sporadic attacks on Jewish shops. The violence, by all accounts, appears to be organized and conducted by the German Slovak Party–the F.S.Men–with little participation by Slovaks. The attacks coincide with the rapid identification of Slovakia with direct German influence.”

Jick, Leon A. “Method in Madness: An Examination of the Motivations for Nazi Mass Murder.” Modern Judaism 18.2 (1998): 153-72. JSTOR. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. “To the very end, the Nazi policy toward the Jews was determined by expediency and utilitarianism.”

“JTA Archive.” Aged Jewish General Who Defied the Nazis in Vienna Returns Home from Theresienstadt. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/08/08/2867852/aged-jewish-general-who-defied-the-nazis-in-vienna-returns-home-from-theresienstadt>. “Major Gen. Emil von Sommer, a famous Jewish general of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire, who for long was believed to have been executed by the Nazis, has reappeared in Vienna to take up his life again. The general and his wife returned to Vienna from the former concentration camp at Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia.”

“JTA Archive.” German Deportation Ships Sabotaged in Denmark; Mass-arrests of Jews Continue. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 Oct. 1943. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/03/27/2860884/german-deportation-ships-ships-sabotaged-in-denmark>. “Two large German vessels were damaged last night in Copenhagen harbor while they were being prepared to transport Danish Jews to Germany, it was reported by the Swedish radio today.”

Katz, Steven T. “The “Unique” Intentionality Of The Holocaust.” Modern Judaism 1.2 (1981): 161-83. JSTOR. Web. 06 May 2012. “[D]oes the very ‘uniqueness’ of Nazism lie in it genocidal intent against the Jewish people?”

Kershaw, Ian. “‘Working towards the Fuhrer’ Reflections on the Nature of the Hitler Dictatorship.” Contemporary European History 2.2 (1993): 103-18. JSTOR. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. “There can be no principled objection to comparing the forms of dictatorship in Germany under Hitler and in the Soviet Union under Stalin and, however unedifying the subject matter, the nature and extent of their inhumanity.”

Kirsch, Adam. “Devastated.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc., 30 Nov. 2010. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-cultured/books/51671/devestated>. Review of “Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin” by Timothy Snyder. “Each change of regime, each military campaign, brought death on a massive scale–from combat, but still more imprisonment, massacre, deportation, and deliberate starvation.Between 1933 and 1945, 14 million civilians and prisoners of war were killed in this region.”

“Last Jews Deported from Amsterdam, Including All Jewish Leaders, Dutch Premier Says.” JTA Archives. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 21 Oct. 1943. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/22/2860341/last-jews-deported-from-amsterdam-including-all-jewish-leaders-dutch-premier-says>. “The last Jews remaining in Amsterdam, including the members of the Jewish Council, which was the central Jewish body in occupied Holland has been deported by the Gestapo from the Westerbork concentration camp to an unknown destination, Premier Peter Gerbrandy of the Netherlands Government-in-Exile, announced today.”

“Letter Shows First-known Desire by Hitler to Remove Jews.” Jerusalem Post. 8 June 2011. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/JewishWorld/JewishNews/Article.aspx?id=224117>. “The Los Angeles-based Simon Wiesenthal Center unveiled on Tuesday a signed letter by Adolf Hitler that contains what is believed to be his earliest transcribed calls for the removal of Jews from Germany. … The letter’s importance stems from the fact that Hitler, on assignment to assess the German Jewish situation, expressed that the final solution for the German government would be a ‘removal of Jews’ (German: ‘Entfernung der Juden’).”

Lipstadt, Deborah E. “Witness To The Persecution: The Allies And The Holocaust: A Review Essay.” Modern Judaism 3.3 (1983): 319-38. Print. “The Allies’ role in the rescue of European Jews has become a point of particular interest in recent years. … Pointed questions have been raised: What was done? What could have been done? What difference might it have made?”

“Many Jews Can Yet Be Rescued from Nazi Europe, Expert Asserts.” JTA Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 11 Aug. 1943. Web. 05 Aug. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/08/11/2860326/many-jews-can-yet-be-rescued-from-nazi-europe-expert-asserts>. “The opinion that ‘many more Jews could be rescued even at this late day if the British and American officials entrusted with framing the refugee policy had a better understanding of the problems confronting the Jewish people, and more concern with them,’ is expressed in an analysis of the British and American official documents of the Bermuda Conference, prepared by Ilja Dijouri for the Jewish Scientific Institute.”

“Massacres of Jews in Poland Continue; Non-jews Executed for Sheltering Jews.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 20 May 1943. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/05/20/2860873/massacres-of-jews-in-poland-continue-nonjews-executed-for-sheltering-jews>. “Executions of non-Jews in occupied Poland for giving shelter to Jews fleeing the ghettos, where men, women and children are now being slaughtered in accordance with Goebbels’ recent order: “No Mercy for Jews,” are reported here today.”

Mikies, David. “The Diplomat of Shoah History.” Tablet. 26 July 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/107382/diplomat-of-shoah-history>. “The dispute between Poles and Jews about the Nazi period can move in unsettling directions, ones that make an unhealed wound hurt even worse. … The Polish role in the Holocaust had other roots, darker ones: traditional anti-Semitism and the greedy desire for Jewish property.”

Morrus, M. R. “Jewish Resistance to the Holocaust.” Journal of Contemporary History 30.1 (1995): 83-110. JSTOR. Web. 24 July 2012. The historiography of Jewish resistance to the Holocaust is discussed.

“Nazis Begin Mass-deportation of Jews from Paris; Will Intern Those Permitted to Remain.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Web. 16 July 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1942/07/19/2858250/nazis-begin-massdeportation-of-jews-from-paris-will-intern-those-permitted-to-remain>. “Mass-deportation of Jews from Paris to Nazi-occupied territory in Eastern Europe started this week, following the drastic anti-Jewish orders issued by the Gestapo there, the correspondent of the Swedish newspaper Stockholm Tidningen reported today.”

“Nearly 1,000,000 Volumes from Looted Jewish Libraries Found in Rosenberg’s Storehouses.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 10 July 1945. Web. 10 July 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/07/10/2867614/nearly-1000000-volumes-from-looted-jewish-libraries-found-in-rosenbergs-storehouses>. “Three-quarters of a million volumes looted from Jewish rabbinical libraries in Vilna, Paris and Amsterdam have been discovered, so far, in the small town of Hungen, north of here, and 100,000 have been found in the ‘Institute for Research Into the Jewish Question’ in Frankfurt.”

Neuhaus, Richard J. “Understanding the Third Reich and Other Great Evils.” First Things. 30 June 2008. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/onthesquare/2008/06/understanding-the-third-reich->. “Of the writing of books about the Holocaust it seems there is no end. And it is, all in all, a good thing that that is the case. There are other candidates for the dreadful distinction, but it happens that the Holocaust is the only universally agreed upon icon of absolute evil in the modern world.” The author discusses “Hitler’s Willing Executioners,” “Life and Death in the Third Reich,” and “Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution.”

Parker, Kevin. “Address for the Commemoration of Kristallnacht 2012.” Speech. Commemoration of Kristallnacht 2012. 8 Nov. 2012. Council of Christians and Jews Western Australia Inc. 8 Nov. 2002. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ccjwa.org/Documents/Articles/Kristallnacht_Kevin_Parker_address_081112.pdf>. “We have come together this afternoon to commemorate the tragic events of Kristallnacht in Germany 74 years ago. It was 1938. The second World War was nearly a year away. The Nazi Party governed Germany, led by Adolf Hitler — the Führer. The events in November 1938 did much to reveal the true intentions and nature of Hitler’s regime. … History now tells us that, emboldened by the events of Kristallnacht, the Nazi machine went much further, gravely so, in the months and years that followed. No summary can remind us adequately of the horror and heartache experienced by those who were there. The full force of the wrong that was done to those who suffered cannot be truly appreciated from any outline of the events of that dark time. We should not pass quickly over all that hurt and loss.”

Pilecki, Witold, and Jarek Garlinski. The Auschwitz Volunteer: Beyond Bravery. Los Angeles, CA: Aquila Polonica, 2012. Print. “Captain Witold Pilecki [Auschitz Prisoner No.4859] The only man who volunteered to be captured and imprisoned in Auschwitz to bring out the story of the camp.”

“Polish Anti-semitic Students Delivered Jews to Gestapo During Occupation of Poland.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 18 June 1945. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/06/18/2867426/polish-antisemitic-students-delivered-jews-to-gestapo-during-occupation-of-poland>. “Capt. Leon Peretz, a Jewish captain in the Polish Army who was liberated by American troops from a camp in Bavaria, today charged that Polish anti-Semitic students, members of the Nara Party, cooperated with the Germans during the occupation of Poland and delivered many Jews to the Gestapo.”

Prisoner of Paradise. Dir. Malcolm Clarke and Stuart Sender. Alliance Atlantis, 2002. DVD. “The first half of the film follows Gerron’s odyssey to this final directing job — from the beginning of his success as a performer . to his showbiz heyday . to his flight to France and then to Holland following the Nazi clampdown on Jews . to his capture following the German occupation of Holland . and finally, to his arrival at Theresienstadt. (A journey that included two missed opportunities to join friends like Marlene Dietrich and Peter Lorre, who’d successfully relocated to Hollywood.) The second half of the film deals with the situation at Theresienstadt, and features many interviews with survivors.” After Kurt Gerron made a propaganda film for the Nazis, he was murdered at Auschwitz.

Rothschild, Brad. “The Man Who Saved 900 Jewish Boys INSIDE a Death Camp.” Jewish Ideas Daily. The Times of Israel, 11 Aug. 2012. Web. 14 Aug. 2012. <http://www.timesofisrael.com/the-righteous-gentile-who-saved-900-jewish-boys-inside-a-death-camp-buchenwald-antonin-kalina/>. “Antonin Kalina was a communist imprisoned by the Nazis in Buchenwald. There, he kept the youngsters of his Block 66 alive. He never discussed this after the war, and died 20 years ago. Only now has his heroism been recognized.”

Rozswv, Suzanne. “A Polish Village’s Secret.” Tablet Magazine. 21 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/107970/polish-village-secret?all=1>. “A farming town hid a Jewish-born teacher during the Holocaust. I went to dig up what it had buried.” This long article is a very interesting piece of the author’s search for information about the Jewish teacher Wladyslaw Gugla who was saved by a whole town from the Germans.

“Rumania Reaches Agreement with Germany to Deport 60,000 Jews to Nazi-Polandjj.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 23 Feb. 1943. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/02/23/2859964/rumania-reaches-agreement-with-germany-to-deport-60000-jews-to-nazipoland>. “The Swedish press today reported that Rumanian Premier Antonescue has reached an agreement with the Nazi authorities to send 60,000 Rumanian Jews to Nazi-held Poland to construct fortifications. About 20,000 Jews will be sent from Bucharest and 40,000 will be taken from other cities in Old Rumania, the report stated.”

“Russian and Polish Newspapers in Moscow Laud Activity of Jewish Guerilla Fighters.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 28 Mar. 1944. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1944/03/28/2863580/russian-and-polish-newspapers-in-moscow-laud-activity-of-jewish-guerilla-fighters>. “The role of Jewish partisans operating behind the German lines is emphasized today in Moscow newspapers, including the Polish newspaper Wolna Polska issued by the League of Polish Patriots in Russia. Wolna Polska carries a report by Dr. Josef Parnas, a prominent leader of the Polish partisan movement who has just arrived in Moscow after many months of guerilla warfare in occupied Poland. The report describes how partisan units of Jews and Poles took revenge on German soldiers and officers for the execution of the entire Jewish population of the town of Wysock, in the western Ukraine.”

Salter, Michael, and Suzanne Ost. “War Crimes and Legal Immunities: The Complicities of Waffen-SS General Karl Wolff in Nazi Medical Experiments.” Law and Religion. Rutgers School of Law, 2002. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://org.law.rutgers.edu/publications/law-religion/articles/RJLR_4_1_4.pdf>. 4 Rutgers J. L. & Religion 4 (2002) War Crimes and Legal Immunities: The Complicities of Waffen-SS General Karl Wolff in Nazi medical experiments Salter, Michael; Ost, Suzanne “[1] There is a considerable amount of academic and popular literature on Nazi medical experimentation within concentration camps, however, the existing research largely focuses on the doctors and the details of their experiments and has neglected two interesting themes. The first neglected theme is the potential legal liabilities and defense strategies of those among the SS leadership, such as SS General Karl Wolff. Wolff facilitated these experiments in a purely administrative capacity, but without his contribution this type of war crime would not have been possible. Secondly, the research has neglected the extent to which Wolff was able to avoid legal accountability for these and other war crimes, as a result of his wartime cooperation with a U.S. intelligence agency and his post-war assistance to interrogators within the Allied Military Intelligence as well as the Nuremberg prosecutors. [2] The present article, which is the first in a series of related studies, focuses largely on the first theme. This article gives particular attention to Wolff’s attempts to avoid prosecution by insisting that the experiments were of a voluntary nature, based on the consent of the research subject, and were, therefore, not criminal acts. Additionally, the article focuses on Wolff’s claim that he did not possess the requisite mens rea or intent necessary to secure a criminal conviction.”

Schanzer, Jonathan. “Hitler’s ‘Grossmufti Von Jerusalem’” Www.JPost.com. Jerusalem Post, 29 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/ArtsAndCulture/Books/Article.aspx?id=113375>. “For the better part of a century, violence against Jews has arguably been the top export of the Palestinian people. True, they have olives and citrus, but ask any man on the street what the Palestinians are best known for, and you are likely to hear ‘suicide bombings’ or ‘rockets.’ While most Palestinians would claim that the violence is simply a means to ‘liberate’ their homeland, another plausible explanation may lie in the fact that early Palestinian nationalism was influenced heavily by Nazism. While other nations have disavowed fascism (Germany and Italy, for example) and have since developed into thriving democracies, the Palestinians have never reconciled with their past. The most influential leader of the Palestinians during the British mandate, the grand mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, was a Nazi collaborator. Husseini’s relationship with the Nazis is incontrovertible.”

Schwartz, Bajim. “Hitler’s Co-Conspirators.” The Atlantic. May 2009. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/05/hitlers-co-conspirators/307369/>. “New histories reveal that the Nazi Regime deliberately insinuated knowledge of the Final Solution, devilishly making Germans complicit in the crime and binding them, with guilt and dread, to their leaders. THE PAST TWO years have seen a flood of major works on Nazi Germany, books that include Life and Death in the Third Reich, Peter Fritzsche’s analysis of everyday life; Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution, a collection of essays focusing on social history, by Ian Kershaw, the author of the definitive biography of Hitler; Germany and the Second World War: German Wartime Society, the multiauthored, 1,000-plus-page English translation of the ninth volume of the gargantuan, quasi-official chronicle of the war issued by Germany’s Research Institute for Military History; and, just published in March, The Third Reich at War, by Richard J. Evans, the third and concluding volume of a work that will almost certainly be for a generation the authoritative general history of Nazi Germany in English.”

Sedan, Gil, and Hugh Orgel. “Former Mossad Chief Discloses That Its Agents Almost Captured Mengele on Three Occasions Since 1960.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 7 Feb. 1985. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1985/02/07/3000563/former-mossad-chief-discloses-that-its-agents-almost-captured-mengele-on-three-occasions-since-1960>. “The former chief of Mossad, Israel’s secret service, disclosed here yesterday that its agents almost captured Auschwitz death camp doctor Josef Mengele on three occasions since 1960, but narrowly missed him each time. Issar Harel, who masterminded the kidnapping of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires in 1960, also disclosed that Mossad agents had tracked down and assassinated known Nazi war criminals who could not be brought to Israel for trial — as Eichmann was — and that in 1959, with the government’s approval, it foiled a large scale neo-Nazi organization. He did not say where.”

Shriver Jr., Donald W. “Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust.” Christian Century 117.22 (2000): 812. Ebsco. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. Review of “Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust” by Victoria J. Barnett.

Snyder, Timothy. “In Defense of Bloodlands.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc., 3 Aug. 2012. Web. 04 Aug. 2012. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/108229/in-defense-of-bloodlands/2>. “Bloodlands is a history of the greatest moral and demographic calamity in modern Western history, the deliberate mass murder of 14 million human beings between Berlin and Moscow by the Nazi and Soviet regimes between 1933 and 1945, from the deliberate famine in Soviet Ukraine through the Holocaust of the European Jews.”

Soclof, Adam. “Jewish Woman, 98, Recalls Being Pulled from 1936 Berlin Olympics.” The Archive Blog. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 31 July 2012. Web. 05 Aug. 2012. <http://blogs.jta.org/thearchiveblog/article/2012/07/31/3102321/jewish-woman-98-recalls-being-pulled-from-1936-berlin-olympics>. “Unofficially, JTA is keeping an eye on the progress of some 44 Jewish and Israeli athletes competing at the 2012 London Olympic Games. In 1936, athletes from both the U.S. and Nazi Germany were excluded from competition in the Nazi-held Olympics in Berlin because they were Jewish. One of them is still alive today.

“South Africa Bars Hitlerism; Expels Leader.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 13 July 1934. Web. 10 July 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1934/07/13/2816314/south-africa-bars-hitlerism-expels-leader>. “The South African government today prohibited the Nazi movement and the Nazi Hitler youth groups in the Union of South Africa and in Southwest Africa, formerly a German colony. Herr von Losnitzer, German imported leader of the Nazi movement in South Africa, was ordered to leave the country when authorities discovered subversive documents in his possession.”

Staff, CNN Wire. “Report: Hitler Ordered Reprieve to Jewish Man – CNN.com.” CNN. Cable News Network, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 12 July 2012. <http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/07/world/europe/germany-hitler-reprieve/index.html>. “Ernst Hess, who was a decorated World War I soldier, former judge and, despite being raised a Protestant and marrying someone of that faith, [was considered] a ‘full-blooded Jew’ in the eyes of the Nazi regime. … Hess was granted a reprieve despite this designation thanks to none other than Adolf Hitler.”

Stow, Kenneth R. “The Popes against the Jews: The Vatican’s Rome in the Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism.” Rev. of The Popes against the Jews: The Vatican’s Rome in the Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism. Jewish History 17.3 (2003): 343-48. JSTOR. Web. 06 May 2012.

“Survey of Situation of Jews in Balkans and Occupied Territory Made by JDC Director.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 10 Jan. 1945. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1945/01/10/2865847/survey-of-situation-of-jews-in-balkans-and-occupied-territory-made-by-jdc-director>. “An over-all report on the situation of the Jews in the Balkans, Hungary, Austria and Italy was given here by Dr. Joseph Schwartz, European director of the Joint Distribution Committee, who has just returned from Switzerland. … Dr. Schwartz said in an interview that working directly or through the International Red Cross, his organization is bringing relief and assisting in the rescue of Jews in Bulgaria, Rumania, Yugoslavia and Italy, as well as Nazi-occupied Hungary, Slovakia, Austria and parts of Croatia.”

Tec, Nechama. Resilience and Courage: Women, Men, and the Holocaust. New Haven, Conn. ; London: Yale UP, 2003. Print. In this book “Nechama Tec expands her pathbreaking research research to probe broad question of gender differences and the Holocaust.”

“Tomb of Courageous Polish Non-Jew Is Rededicated.” JTA. Jewish Telegraphic, 19 June 2012. Web. 19 June 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/06/19/3098381/tomb-of-courageous-polish-non-jew-is-rededicated>. “The tombstone of a Polish woman who saved a Jewish woman by hiding her in the roof of her barn for two years during the Holocaust was rededicated with a Talmudic inscription. Maria Jalowiec, who died in 1979, hid her neighbor Regina (Rivka) Wallach, who had managed to jump off a wagon after being rounded up by the Nazis, from 1942 to 1944.”

“Top Egyptian Official Calls Holocaust a ‘myth’.” JTA Jews. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2013/01/30/3118271/top-egyptian-official-calls-holocaust-a-myth>. A top Egyptian official close to President Mohamed Morsi called the Holocaust a myth. “The myth of the Holocaust is an industry that America invented,” Fathi Shihab Eddim reportedly claimed in recent days. Shihab Eddim reportedly is responsible for appointing the editors of all state-run Egyptian newspapers.

White, Jim. “London 2012 Olympics: British Holocaust Survivor Ben Helfgott’s Story Inspires Medal Hopeful Zoe Smith.” Jewish Ideas Daily. Telegraph Co. UK, 27 Jan. 2012. Web. 27 July 2012. <http://www.jidaily.com/ad685?utm_source=Jewish+Ideas+Daily+Insider&utm_campaign=ddeca110c0-Insider&utm_medium=email>. “Found weighing barely 80 pounds in Theresienstadt, Ben Helfgott went on to become an Olympic weightlifter for Great Britain: ‘I so wanted to win a medal to say thank you to the country that saved me.’”

“Wiesenthal Center’s Most Wanted Nazi Located in Budapest by Tabloid.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Web. 16 July 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/07/15/3100776/wiesenthal-centers-most-wanted-nazi-located-in-budapest-by-tabloid>. “A fugitive Nazi war criminal who helped send 15,700 Jews to their deaths was tracked down in Budapest by a British tabloid newspaper. The Sun newspaper on Sunday reported that it had found Ladislaus Csizsik-Csatary, 97, with the help of information supplied by the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Israel. Csizsik-Csatary had been No. 1 on the center’s Most Wanted list of Nazi criminals.”

Zieve, Tamara. “This Week in History: ‘St. Louis’ Forced to Europe.” The Jerusalem Post. 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Features/InThespotlight/Article.aspx?id=272493>. “On June 6 1939, a German transatlantic liner carrying over 900 Jewish refugees fleeing the Third Reich was forced to turn back to Europe after having been turned away from the shores of Cuba, the United States and Canada. 936 people had set off on the SS St. Louis from Hamburg, Germany on May 15 of that year, holding permits to enter Havana. Most were Jews seeking to escape the clutches of Nazi Germany, however, their fate seemed ominous as ever as they were sent back where they came from.”