Anti-Semitism

Henry Ford   “In the early 1920s, Ford sponsored a weekly newspaper that published …  strongly anti-Semitic views. … The newspaper published The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which was discredited by The Times of London as a forgery during the Independent’s publishing run. The American Jewish Historical Society described the ideas presented in the magazine as “anti-immigrant, anti-labor, anti-liquor, and anti-Semitic.” In February 1921, the New York World published an interview with Ford, in which he said: ‘The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on.’ … In Germany, Ford’s anti-Semitic articles from The Dearborn Independent were issued in four volumes, cumulatively titled The International Jew, the World’s Foremost Problem published by Theodor Fritsch, …  a member of the Reichstag. In a letter written in 1924, Heinrich Himmler described Ford as ‘one of our most valuable, important, and witty fighters.’” Wikipedia

 

“Adolf Hitler, Nazi Germany: Christian Nationalism, Christian Anti-Semitism, Anti-Communism.” Agnosticism / Atheism – Skepticism & Atheism for Atheists & Agnostics. About.com. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/od/adolfhitlernazigermany/Adolf_Hitler_Nazi_Germany_Christian_Nationalism_AntiSemitism.htm>. “The Nazis and Adolf Hitler are commonly thought of as representing the antithesis of Christianity and Christian values. If that’s true, why did tens of millions of German Christians adore Hitler, join the Nazis, and participate in the Holocaust (among other atrocities)? Hitler and the Nazis promoted a Christian nationalism, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, and return to traditional values which most Christians appreciated. The Nazi party platform specifically endorsed ‘positive’ Christianity.” Bibliography.

“Ahmadinejad Calls Holocaust Denial Major Achievement of His Presidency.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 7 July 2013. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/07/07/news-opinion/israel-middle-east/ahmadinejad-calls-holocaust-denial-major-achievement-of-his-presidency>. “Outgoing Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said during a farewell ceremony that publicizing his Holocaust denial was a major achievement of his presidency.”

Alperin, Michele. “A Tale of Mutual Empathy: Jewish Refugee Scholars at Historically Black colleges.” JNS.Org. 13 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2013/1/13/a-tale-of-mutual-empathy-jewish-refugee-scholars-at-historic.html>. “In Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love, an exhibition … will highlight a historical moment of mutual respect and cooperation between the African American and Jewish communities. Although their relationship has often been tense, especially after the rise of the black power movement and its expressions of anti-Semitism, the hiring of Jewish refugee scholars in the 1930s by historically black colleges stands as a beacon to the potential for common ground between the two groups.”

Anti-Defamation League. ADL Appalled at Reports That Turkish Deputy P.M. Blamed ‘Jewish Diaspora’ for Fueling Demonstrations. ADL. Anti-Defamation League, 2 July 2013. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.adl.org/press-center/press-releases/anti-semitism-international/adl-appalled-at-reports-that-turkish-deputy-pm-blamed-jewish-diaspora-for-demonstrations.html>. “The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today urged the prime minister of Turkey and other government leaders to immediately, strongly and publicly reject disturbing conspiratorial statements reportedly made by the deputy prime minister who blamed, among others, the ‘Jewish diaspora’ for instigating and fueling recent demonstrations in Turkey.”

“Anti-Semitic Hate for Kids … and Adults.” Commentary Magazine. 9 July 2013. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.commentarymagazine.com/2013/07/08/anti-semitic-hate-for-kids-and-adults-palestinians/>. “Part of the answer to that puzzle is supplied from those who, unlike the mainstream media, do pay attention to what is written and broadcast in the official Palestinian media run by Abbas’s PA. Those wondering why the Palestinians would reject peace offers including an independent state (as they have three times since 2000), can do no better than to view this PA TV excerpt brought to our attention from Palestinian Media Watch in which two little Palestinian girls are asked to recite a hateful poem that refers to Jews in the following manner: ‘Most evil among creations, barbaric monkeys, wretched pigs,’ condemned to ‘humiliation and hardship.’ It also went on to say the following about the Jewish presence in Jerusalem: Jerusalem vomits from within it your impurity Because Jerusalem, you impure ones, is pious, immaculate And Jerusalem, you who are filth, is clean and pure.”

Attitudes Toward Jews in Ten European Countries. Rep. Anti-Defamation League, Mar. 2012. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://archive.adl.org/Anti_semitism/adl_anti-semitism_presentation_february_2012.pdf>. “As with previous surveys, data from this latest 2012 European tracking poll indicates that significant percentages of European respondents continue to believe in some of the most pernicious anti-Semitic stereotypes. Respondents across the continent were asked whether or not they thought the following four statements were ‘probably true’ or ‘probably false.’ 1) Jews are more loyal to Israel than to this country. 2) Jews have too much power in the business world. 3) Jews have too much power in international financial markets. 4) Jews still talk too much about what happened to them in the Holocaust.”

Barnett, Victoria J. “The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation.” Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies 12.2 (1998). ADL: Fighting Anti-Semitism, Bigotry and Extremism. Anti-Defamation League, 2000. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://www.adl.org/braun/dim_14_1_role_church.asp>. “[I]t has become abundantly clear that [the Churches'] failure to respond to the horrid events … was not due to ignorance; they knew what was happening. Ultimately, the Churches’ lapses during the Nazi era were lapses of vision and determination.”

Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2004. Print. “Karel Berkhoff provides a searing portrait of life in the Third Reich’s largest colony. Under the Nazis, a blend of German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and racist notions about the Slavs produced a reign of terror and genocide. But it is impossible to understand fully Ukraine’s response to this assault without addressing the impact of decades of repressive Soviet rule. Berkhoff shows how a pervasive Soviet mentality worked against solidarity, which helps explain why the vast majority of the population did not resist the Germans. He also challenges standard views of wartime eastern Europe by treating in a more nuanced way issues of collaboration and local anti-Semitism.”

Black, Edwin. “DISPOSSESSED How Iraq’s 2,600-year-old Jewish Community Was Decimated in One Decade.” Reform Judaism Online. Union for Reform Judaism, Winter 2004. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://reformjudaismmag.org/Articles/index.cfm?id=2369>. “Baghdad, June 22, 2004. Just days before the Coalition Provisional Authority is scheduled to return power to Iraqi control, four Iraqi Jews–two in their forties, two elderly–inconspicuously board a Royal Jordanian airplane to Amman. … With the exception of approximately eleven Jews who have not chosen to leave, these are the last vestiges of a 125,000-strong Jewish community whose ancestors flourished here for twenty-six centuries. The dismantling of Iraqi Jewry, once the most established and affluent Jewish community in the Arab Middle East, began at 3 PM on June 1, 1941, some forty years before Saddam Hussein came to power. In Europe, the events of the next thirty-six hours would have been called a pogrom. Iraqi Jews called it the Farhud. Perhaps Farhud is best translated as violent dispossession. The Farhud was not a spontaneous outburst; it was the culmination of an anti-Jewish campaign rooted in an alliance between the Mufti of Jerusalem and Adolf Hitler.”

Cardozo, Nathan L. “Unmasking Anti-Semitism.” JPost.com. 5 Jan. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/Unmasking-anti-Semitism-311730>. “As Europe and other countries around the world become aggressively more anti-Semitic, and antagonism towards the State of Israel escalates, there is a need for careful assessment of the nature of anti-Semitism.”

Cary, Noel D. “Antisemitism, Everyday Life, and the Devastation of Public Morals in Nazi Germany.” Central European History 35.04 (2002): 551. EbscoHost. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. Reviews of Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany; Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany; Probing the Depths of German Antisemitism: German Society and the Persecution of the Jews, 1933-1941; Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans, and other books.

“Confronting Antisemitism.” Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/antisemitism/>. “Early Christian thought held Jews collectively responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus. This religious teaching became embedded in both Catholic and Protestant theology during the first millennium, with terrible consequences for Jews. Following many centuries of persecution and exclusion, the Jewish minority in Europe achieved some rights after the Enlightenment. As Europe became more secular and Jews integrated into mainstream society, political forms of antisemitism emerged. Jews were targeted for their ideas and their role in society. In the late nineteenth century, pseudo-scientific theories that legitimized a racial form of antisemitism became popular with some intellectuals and political leaders. All of these centuries of hatred were exploited by the Nazis and their allies during World War II culminating in the Holocaust, the systematic murder of Europe’s Jews.”

“Confronting Antisemitism.” Resources on Antisemitism. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/antisemitism/related/?lang=en>. Includes Holocaust Encyclopedia articles, Library bibliography, Photo Archives, For educators/students, Selected Scholarly Programs, and External Links from the United States, European institutions, Belgium, Canada, France, Israel, Netherlands, Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom.

“Danish Jewry Dwindling Due in Part to Anti-Semitism, Community Leader Says.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 7 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/10/07/news-opinion/world/danish-jewry-dwindling-due-to-anti-semitism-community-leader-says?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=04ea4cbd09-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_18_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-04ea4cbd09-26655725>. “Denmark’s Jewish community has lost 25 percent of its registered members over the past 15 years, partly due to anti-Semitism, its president said. The Jewish Community in Denmark, or Mosaisk Troessamfund, currently has 1,899 members compared to 2,639 in 1997, Mosaisk President Finn Schwarz told the Danish daily Jyllands-Posten in an interview published last week.”

Darring, Jerry. “Catholic Timeline on Antisemitism.”  Spring Hill College. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/Timeline.htm>. “Origen of Alexandria writes that the Jews ‘have committed the most abominable of crimes’ in conspiring against Christ, and for that reason ‘the Jewish nation was driven from its country, and another people was called by God to the blessed election’.”

Darring, Gerald. “Western European Churches and the Holocaust.” Spring Hill College. Web. 09 Feb. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/09Western.htm>. Italy: Before Germany took over military control of Italy in September 1943, Italian Jews were relatively safe. But from that date to the end of the war, they were subjected to hostile legal actions, forced labor, arrest, and deportation. France: In the face of so great and utter a tragedy, too many of the Church’s pastors committed an offense, by their silence, against the Church itself and its mission. The Netherlands: There was no protest from the Catholic hierarchy. Indeed, Ger van Roon asserts that protests against anti-Jewish measures came earlier from Protestants than from Catholics, and they came more from pastors, priests and laity than from bishops and church leaders. Denmark: There is no other Holocaust story similar to that of the rescue of Danish Jews. Most of the country’s 8,000 Jews were saved by being ferried in boats to neutral Sweden.”

Darring, Jerry. “A Catholic Timeline of Events Relating to Jews, Anti-Judaism, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust From the 3rd Century to the Beginning of the Third Millennium.”  Spring Hill College. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/Timeline.htm>. Timeline from c. 240 to 2000. In c. 240. “Origen of Alexandria writes that the Jews ‘have committed the most abominable of crimes’ in conspiring against Christ, and for that reason ‘the Jewish nation was driven from its country, and another people was called by God to the blessed election’.”

Davidzon, Vladislav. “Secrets of English World War II Upper-Class Nazi Club Revealed by a Venetian Dandy.” Tablet Magazine. 26 June 2013. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/135982/english-nazi-club-revealed>. “A new film about England’s avowed anti-Semites stirs a champion of European tolerance, liberalism, and civilization.” A discussion of the book The Red Book: The Membership List of the Right Club – 1939 and the documentary Churchill and the Fascist Plot.

Fox, Tamar. “The Jew Who Gave Roosevelt a Bad Rap.” Jewniverse. MyJewishLearning, 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 30 Aug. 2013. <http://thejewniverse.com/2013/the-jew-who-gave-roosevelt-a-bad-rap/>. “Close your eyes and picture the one person who did the most to save Jews from the Holocaust. Did you picture Oskar Schindler? Irena Sendler? Raoul Wallenberg? How about…Franklin Delano Roosevelt? If a Zionist activist named Peter Bergson had his way, you might have. So say some historians, anyway.” Excellent video included.

Friedlander, Saul. “Anti-Semitism.” My Jewish Learning. Web. 25 July 2013. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/1700-1914/Modern_Anti-Semitism.shtml>. “In a pamphlet published in 1873, Der Sieg des Judentums uber das Germanentum (‘The Victory of Judaism over Germandom’), Wilhelm Marr, the German political agitator, coined the term ‘antisemit­ism.’ Fortuitous though it may have been, the coincidence of the inven­tion of the word and the manifesta­tions of what could be considered early modern anti-Semitism was cer­tainly very symbolic.”

Gerdmar, Anders. Roots of Theological Anti-Semitism: German Biblical Interpretation and the Jews, from Herder and Semler to Kittel and Bultmann. Leiden: Brill, 2009. Print. “As Adolf Hitler strategised his way to power, he knew that it was necessary to gain the support of theology and the Church. This study begins two hundred years earlier, however, looking at roots of theological anti-Semitism and how Jews and Judaism were constructed, positively and negatively, in the biblical interpretation of German Protestant theology. Following the two main streams of German theology, the salvation-historical and the Enlightenment-oriented traditions, it examines leading exegetes from the 1750s to the 1950s and explores how theology legitimises or delegitimises oppression of Jews, in part through still-prevailing paradigms.”

“German Chancellor Scores Antisemitic Movement.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 17 Jan. 1924. Web. 21 Apr. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1924/01/17/2757892/german-chancellor-scores-antisemitic-movement>. “‘In certain German circles’ declared the German Chancellor Marx in an exclusive interview granted the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, there is an attempt to exploit the distress of the German people for the purpose of anti-Semitic agitation. This movement is not only unsupport by the Central Government and the various state governments, but is uncompromisingly opposed as harmful to the general interests of Germany.”

“The German Churches and the Nazi State.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005206>. “The population of Germany in 1933 was around 60 million. Almost all Germans were Christian, belonging either to the Roman Catholic (ca. 20 million members) or the Protestant (ca. 40 million members) churches. The Jewish community in Germany in 1933 was less than 1% of the total population of the country. How did Christians and their churches in Germany respond to the Nazi regime and its laws, particularly to the persecution of the Jews? The racialized anti-Jewish Nazi ideology converged with antisemitism that was historically widespread throughout Europe at the time and had deep roots in Christian history. For all too many Christians, traditional interpretations of religious scriptures seemed to support these prejudices.”

Gilbert, Martin. Churchill and the Jews: A Lifelong Friendship. New York: Henry Holt and, 2007. Print. “An insightful history of Churchill’s lifelong commitment—both public and private—to the Jews and Zionism, and of his outspoken opposition to anti-Semitism Winston Churchill’s commitment to Jewish rights, to Zionism, and ultimately to the State of Israel never wavered. In 1922, he established on the bedrock of international law the right of Jews to emigrate to Palestine. During his meeting with David Ben-Gurion in 1960, Churchill presented the Israeli prime minister with an article he had written about Moses, praising the patriarch. In between these events he fought harder and more effectively for the Jewish people than the world has ever realized.”

Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. The Devil That Never Dies: The Rise and Threat of Global Antisemitism. New York: Little, Brown and (Canada), 2013. Print. “Antisemitism never went away, but since the turn of the century it has multiplied beyond what anyone would have predicted. It is openly spread by intellectuals, politicians and religious leaders in Europe, Asia, the Arab world, America and Africa and supported by hundreds of millions more. Indeed, today antisemitism is stronger than any time since the Holocaust. In THE DEVIL THAT NEVER DIES, Daniel Jonah Goldhagen reveals the unprecedented, global form of this age-old hatred; its strategic use by states; its powerful appeal to individuals and groups; and how technology has fueled the flames that had been smoldering prior to the millennium.”

“Hitler’s Aide Attacks Him for Preaching Racial Anti-semitism.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 15 Dec. 1930. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/12/15/2788988/hitlers-aide-attacks-him-for-preaching-racial-antisemitism>. “An attack on Adolf Hitler, National Socialist party leader, by Captain Ehrhardt, one of his chief lieutenants, in today’s Boersen Zeitung, created a sensation here. Ehrhardt’s vigorous attack on the Fascist chieftain has aroused particular interest not only because he was the military leader of the abortive Munich putsch but because his anti-Hitler stand marks a further split in the Nazis’ ranks and indicates that Hitler is losing some of his effective military support.”

“International Peace Conference Sees Menace to World Peace in Spread of Anti-semitism.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 17 Sept. 1926. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1926/09/17/archive/international-peace-conference-sees-menace-to-world-peace-in-spread-of-anti-semitism?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=f94ede5f07-TWJH_2013_6-08&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-f94ede5f07-26655725>. “Steps to combat the activities of the Anti-Semitic International were taken an the International Peace Conference which is in session here. The conference unanimously adopted a resolution submitted to it by the International Women’s Peace League, which recently held its sessions here, on behalf of the League of Jewish Women. The resolution draws attention to the activities of the anti-Semitic International and protests against these activities as being closely connected with the militaristic and anti-democratic reactionary elements who are diverting the attention of the people from the real causes of suffering, by alleging that the Jews are responsible for everything.”

Jones, Leslie. “The German-Jewish Soldiers of the First World War.” History Today. 11 June 2013. Web. 18 July 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/print/88831>. “In October 1935 Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels peremptorily announced that ‘It is forbidden to list the names of fallen Jews on memorials and memorial plaques for the fallen of the world war.’ According to Nazi ideology a Jew, even a Jew who had died for Germany, was not a real German. Following Goebbels’ edict, some war memorials duly underwent ‘Aryanisation’.”

Karady, Victor. “Political Antisemitism and Its Christian Antecedent. Trying to Make Sense of Nonsense.” Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History 3 (July 2012). Quest.cdecjournal.it. Journal of Fondazione CDEC, July 2012. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/focus.php?id=289>. “The central thesis of this paper is that political antisemitism cannot be understood without taking into account what should be regarded as its Christian foundation proper, the perception and stigmatization of Jews as dangerous aliens. By introducing the differentiation between an ‘chimerical anti-Semitism’, a product of the pre-modern mental set-up, often generated by Christian religious phantasmagoria, and a modern anti-Semitism with concrete references to social relations in industrial and post-industrial societies with a trend to associate exclusively Jews to societal ills, it is argued that the latter can be regarded as an ideological construction which represent the rationalization of deeply inbred preconceptions about Jews as radical aliens and as bearers of a set of negative characteristics. The article presents a reflection on the Christian origins, the development of Jew-hatred during the Middle Ages and the early modern period and discusses the extension of secularized anti-Semitic conceptions in various European societies as well as the main observable topical patterns of judeophobia in modern times.”

Karradine, Karen. “New Agers Fall for Antisemitism.” Mosaic. 17 Sept. 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://mosaicmagazine.com/picks/2013/09/anti-semitism-watch/?utm_source=Mosaic+Daily+Email&utm_campaign=fe3bdd19cd-Mosaic_2013_9_18&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_0b0517b2ab-fe3bdd19cd-41142621>. “It is only recently that this new form of hostility, which I call New Age antisemitism, has come about. It is a heartbreaking and troubling experience for me to watch as a movement for peace and enlightenment becomes sullied by an ancient form of hatred.”

Kertzer, David I. The Popes against the Jews: The Vatican’s Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-semitism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001. Print. “In this meticulously researched, unflinching, and reasoned study, … David I. Kertzer presents shocking revelations about the role played by the Vatican in the development of modern anti-Semitism. Working in long-sealed Vatican archives, Kertzer unearths startling evidence to undermine the Church’s argument that it played no direct role in the spread of modern anti-Semitism. In doing so, he challenges the Vatican’s recent official statement on the subject, We Remember. Kertzer tells an unsettling story that has stirred up controversy around the world and sheds a much-needed light on the past.”

Kirsch, Adam. “A World Without Jews.” Tablet Magazine. 13 Feb. 2013. Web. 09 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/123971/a-world-without-jews>. “The title of David Nirenberg’s new book, Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition, uses a term pointedly different from the one we are used to. The hatred and oppression of Jews has been known since the late 19th century as anti-Semitism—a label, it is worth remembering, originally worn with pride by German Jew-haters. What is the difference, then, between anti-Semitism and anti-Judaism? The answer, as it unfolds in Nirenberg’s scholarly tour de force, could be summarized this way: Anti-Semitism needs actual Jews to persecute; anti-Judaism can flourish perfectly well without them, since its target is not a group of people but an idea.”

Mikies, David. “The Diplomat of Shoah History.” Tablet. 26 July 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyb7Hjv_AVI&feature=related>. “The dispute between Poles and Jews about the Nazi period can move in unsettling directions, ones that make an unhealed wound hurt even worse. … The Polish role in the Holocaust had other roots, darker ones: traditional anti-Semitism and the greedy desire for Jewish property.”

Mikies, David. “Why Literally Everyone in the World Hates the Jews, and What To Do About It.” Tablet Magazine. 4 Sept. 2013. Web. 10 Sept. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/143487/academic-anti-semitism>. “Two new scholarly books show how even the most neutral academic can feel bound to answer anti-Semites’ demonic vigor in kind. In many parts of the world, Jews are increasingly unwelcome in the 21st century. The number of countries in which wearing visibly Jewish clothing such as a kippa means risking physical violence has hit an all-time high. On both the individual and the national level, Jews are targeted with extraordinary ferocity: We hear Israelis (but no one else) being compared to Nazis; we are told that Jewish nationalism is oppressive and archaic; that Israel is a uniquely racist country; that Israel’s terrible misdeeds explain why people hate Jews. Instead of being seen as ordinary or all too human, Jews are seen as carriers of a uniquely transcendent evil. No other group of people on the planet is accused so much and of such fantastic wrongs. For a few decades after the Holocaust, it seemed that anti-Semitism might wane or even die out. That hope has now been defeated. Could anything we do or say stem the tide, or will Jew-hatred persist as long as there are Jews to hate?”

Moynihan, Michael. “Hiding Judaism in Copenhagen.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/128077/hiding-judaism-in-copenhagen>. “Walking this length of Nørrebrogade, as I did on a freezing day last month, provides a street-level view of multicultural Denmark. It’s a perfectly pleasant experience, provided you are, like me, an unassuming gentile. For Jews exploring Nørrebro, it’s advisable to heed the advice of Israel’s ambassador to Denmark, Arthur Avnon, who last November suggested that Jews traveling in Copenhagen exercise extreme subtlety: Don’t speak Hebrew too loudly, cover up any visible Star of David jewelry, fold your kippot and slip them into your pockets. In other words, in certain areas of Copenhagen, it’s best to keep your Judaism to yourself.”

Nirenberg, David. Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2013. Print. “This incisive history upends the complacency that confines anti-Judaism to the ideological extremes in the Western tradition. With deep learning and elegance, David Nirenberg shows how foundational anti-Judaism is to the history of the West.”

“Pope Warns of Anti-semitism as Rome Commemorates Holocaust.” The Times of Israel. 12 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.timesofisrael.com/pope-warns-of-anti-semitism-as-rome-commemorates-holocaust/>. “Pope Francis urged vigilance against any resurgence of anti-Semitism ahead of the 70th anniversary of the deportation of Rome’s Jews to Auschwitz. Commemoration of the 1943 deportation, he said, ‘will also be an occasion to recall the importance of remaining vigilant in order that we do not regress, under any pretext, to any forms of intolerance and anti-Semitism, in Rome and in the rest of the world.’ More than 1,000 Roman Jews were deported by Nazi occupiers on Oct. 16, 1943; only 16 survived.”

Rubin, Barry. “With an Anti-Semitic Holland, Where Is It Safe for Jews?” The Jewish Press. 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/analysis/rubin-reports/if-holland-is-becoming-anti-semitic-where-else-is-safe-for-jews/2013/04/03/>. “A few years ago in Amsterdam I was shown the most popular manual published in the Netherlands, in Dutch, on how to raise one’s children as proper Muslims. The book included virulently anti-Semitic passages, based on Muslim holy texts. After the Jewish community objected, the authorities forced the publisher to put white tape over the offending passages. The tape could easily be peeled off by purchases so that these words could be read.”

Rupnow, Dirk. “Racializing Historiography: Anti-Jewish Scholarship in the Third Reich.” Patterns of Prejudice 42.1 (2008): 27-59. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 July 2012. “Despite continued debates about the role of German historians in the Third Reich, current scholarship views the work that was conducted under National Socialism under the rubric of Judenforschung (research on Jews) as a marginal and pseudo-scientific phenomenon.”

Sedan, Gil. “German Bishops: Catholic Church Responsible for Lack of Resistance.” JTA Archives. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 Jan. 1995. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1995/01/25/2881746/german-bishops-catholic-church-responsible-for-lack-of-resistance>. “The Conference of German Bishops has admitted the ‘shared responsibility’ of the Catholic Church for anti-Semitism during World War II.”

Snowman, Daniel. “Pain and Deliverance.” History Today Aug. 2013. History Today. 18 July 2013. Web. 19 July 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/daniel-snowman/pain-and-deliverance>. “Daniel Snowman surveys four recent books that look at the impact of antisemitism on Jewish cultural identity during the 19th and 20th centuries: Forbidden Music by Michael Haas, The Exiles Return by Elisabeth de Waal, The Pope’s Jews by Gordon Thomas, and Giants: The Dwarfs of Auschwits by Yehuda Koren and Eilat Negev.”

“Soviet Authorities Investigate Long List of Anti-semitic Practices.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 July 1928. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1928/07/08/archive/soviet-authorities-investigate-long-list-of-anti-semitic-practices>. “Cases of anti-Semitic practices are being investigated by the Soviet authorities. A list of these activities published today shows the spread of anti-Semitism in various localities. Jewish workers in the factories Cemintern and Krasni Profinterin, in Werchnedne-Provsk were beaten. In Mosir a member of the district soviet refused to vote for a budget for a Jewish workmen’s club, declaring there is no need for a house for ‘Zhidovske dances.’”

Turner, David. “Chapter 20, “The Acquiescence of The United States Government in the Murder of the Jews.”  Jerusalem Post – Blogs. 26 Aug. 2013. Web. 27 Aug. 2013. <http://blogs.jpost.com/content/acquiescence-united-states-murder-jews>. “In response to the intensifying threat to German Jewry Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau approached Roosevelt in 1938 suggesting the president promote British Guiana as refuge for refugees. But, ‘Roosevelt did not favor that particular proposal.’ British Guiana was the first of several rejected suggestions of locations outside the U.S. for refuge. But administration reticence regarding European Jewry was not limited to ‘refuge’: ‘Pehle’s office [in Treasury] had authorized a number of charitable groups to use funds in the U.S. regulated under the Trading with the Enemy Act to pay for food, medicine, and other aid to refugees and other civilian victims of the war in Europe. Those efforts were systematically blocked by some officials in the U.S. State Department.’ It was this systematic antisemitic policy expressed by the Roosevelt Administration that led three senior members of Morgenthau’s staff to charge the administration as complicit in Germany’s Final Solution to the Jewish Problem.”

Unger-Sargon, Batya. “Is Jewish Control Over the Slave Trade a Nation of Islam Lie or Scholarly Truth?” Tablet Magazine. 5 Aug. 2013. Web. 08 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/137476/slave-trade-black-muslim>. “At a recent rally for the Voting Rights Act in Alabama, Minister Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam spoke of the Jews. Surrounded by a cadre of tall, glowering men with snappy suits, sunglasses, and folded arms, Farrakhan addressed an enthusiastic crowd in terms that would be unsurprisng to anyone familiar with his unique way of stirring up an audience. After asserting, with a benevolent smile, that he is not an anti-Semite, Farrakhan dove into his feelings about Jews: ‘I just don’t like the way they misuse their power,’ he said. ‘And I have a right to say that, without being labeled anti-Semitic, when I have done nothing to stop a Jewish person from getting an education, setting up a business, or doing whatever a Jewish person desires to do.’ The remarks were evocative of the sentiments he has shared widely throughout his decades-long career as a public figure—namely, that blacks should not trust Jews.”

“Von Prittwitz Says Anti-semitism Temporary Phase; Hitler Not Voice of Germany.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Oct. 1930. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/10/27/2787917/von-prittwitz-says-antisemitism-temporary-phase-hitler-not-voice-of-germany>. “A very young looking man for an ambassador, with a polite worldly manner, offered a statement to America, on his arrival to resume his duties as Ambassador, reassuring the citizens of the United States that any seeming disturbances in Germany were due only to the lack of economic stability and not to any untoward tendencies of the German public.”

Weeks, Theodor R. “Russians, Jews, and Poles: Russification and Antisemitism 1881-1914.” Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History 3 (July 2012). Quest.cdecjournal.it. Journal of Fondazione CDEC, July 2012. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/img/header.gif>. “Relations between Poles and Jews deteriorated significantly in the three decades leading up to World War I. Many reasons for this phenomenon can be given, for example: economic competition, a general atmosphere of acute nationalism, increased migration, perceived threats to traditional forms of life and religion. Exacerbating all of these factors, however, was the fact of Polish statelessness and the extreme sensitivity of Poles to perceived threats to their culture and nation. In particular within the Russian Empire, Poles perceived the very future of their nation at risk. In such circumstances the continued existence of Jewish cultural difference combined with the development of specifically Jewish forms of national awakening (e.g., the Bund and Zionism) were understood by many in Polish society as ingratitude and collaboration with the Russian occupier.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “The Foundation of Antisemitism: We Want to Kill Too.” Sixmillioncrucifixions.com. 2011. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://sixmillioncrucifixions.com/The_Foundation_of_Antisemitism_-_We Want _to_Kill_Too.html>. “No one should be too surprised that these people kill with a clean conscience, given that they never heard from their pope, bishops, or parish priests that murdering Jews and stealing their property was a crime and a mortal sin, and that participation in mass murder would condemn their souls to hell.”

Wistrich, Robert S. “Kristallnacht Redux? Anti-Semitism Flourishes in Middle East.” Louisville Courier-Journal. 6 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <http://www.courier-journal.com/article/20111106/OPINION04/311060030/Kristallnacht-redux-Anti-Semitism-flourishes-Middle-East?odyssey=mod%7Cnewswell%7Ctext%7CHome%7Cs>. In the Middle East the hatred of Jews burns fiercely. There is insistence of the reality of the ‘Jewish conspiracy for world domination.’ There is also a revival of the medieval Christian blood-libel against the Jews.”

Zdiara, Kevin. “The Portuguese Dreyfus.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 14 Oct. 2012. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/5217/features/the-portuguese-dreyfus/>. “In 1894, the Jewish Captain Alfred Dreyfus was wrongly convicted of treason by an anti-Semitic French military court. It took 10 years before that injustice was rectified. The world remembers Dreyfus. It should also remember the Jewish military officer Artur Carlos de Barros Basto, wrongly convicted by an anti-Semitic Portuguese military court in 1937. The injustice suffered by Barros Basto took much longer to correct. The Portuguese government overturned his conviction only this year.”

 

 

Adolf Eichmann “Chief Executioner of the Third Reich”

 


“For the dispatch of each train by the Accused [Eichmann] to Auschwitz, or to any other extermination site, carry one thousand human beings, meant that the Accused was a direct accomplice in one thousand premeditated acts of murder . … we have found that the Accused acted out of an inner identification with the orders that he was given and out of a fierce will to achieve the criminal objective … This Court sentences Adolf Eichmann to death.” Judge Moshe Landau, December 15, 1961.

 

Aarons, Mark, and John Loftus. Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, the Nazis, and the Swiss Banks. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1998. Print. “Written in rivetings fashion by the coauthors of The Secret War Against the Jews, Unholy Trinity tells one of the darkest tales of World War II. After the war had ended, fearing a surge of Soviet growth, the Papacy entered into an espionage alliance with British and American intelligence agents. Subsuming justice to the nascent Cold War ideology, these three powers ferreted Nazi criminals out of Europe so that they could be used in the supposedly greater fight against Communism. The Vatica’s Nazi smuggling network was penetrated by Prince Anton Turkul, the great Soviet double agent who turned the operations into a sting for his masters in the Kremlin.

“Adolf Eichmann.” History Learning Site: Adolf Eichmann. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/adolf_eichmann.htm>. “Adolf Eichmann is labeled as the man who masterminded the actual organisation of the Holocaust. Adolf Eichmann was a SS officer who planned with meticulous detail the sending of Jews and other groups to death camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka and Sobibor. Such work was to earn Eichmann the title ‘Chief Executioner of the Third Reich’.”

“Adolf Eichmann Nazi Files Will Stay Secret – for Now.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 3 July 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://forward.com/articles/179781/adolf-eichmann-nazi-files-will-stay-secret-for-n/>. “A German court rejected a German newspaper’s bid to view files related to Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, ruling they should remain classified. The Bild Zeitung newspaper, which sued in 2011 to see the files, could try to appeal the June 28 [2013] decision by the Federal Administrative Court to Germany’s Supreme Court, according to reports. The administrative court determined that the foreign intelligence agency was within its rights to black out passages from the documents.”

“Adolf Eichmann.” The Nizkor Project. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/e/eichmann-adolf/>. “SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer Karl Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962) was head of the Department for Jewish Affairs in the Gestapo from 1941 to 1945 and was chief of operations in the deportation of three million Jews to extermination camps.”

Aharoni, Zvi, and Wilhelm Dietl. Operation Eichmann: The Truth about the Pursuit, Capture and Trial. New York: J. Wiley, 1997. Print. “Operation Eichmann, as the pursuit, capture, and trial of the notorious Nazi official was known, stunned the world. Its success was due largely to the unceasing efforts of one man, Zvi Aharoni, an experienced Mossad operative who was a skilled investigator and interrogator. He tracked Eichmann to Argentina, secured photographs that established his identity, and was a key player in the plot to kidnap the exiled war criminal and bring him to trial. Above all, as the sole person to interrogate ‘the architect of the Final Solution’ after his capture, and the man who convinced Eichmann to admit his identity and face trial in Israel, Zvi Aharoni is the only one who knows firsthand what Eichmann actually said—a controversial subject often misrepresented in previous accounts.”

Aloff, Mindy. “What We Know, and Don’t, About Eichmann.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 23 June 2006. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://forward.com/articles/829/what-we-know-and-donet-about-eichmann/>. “Most of what we know – or think we know – about Adolf Eichmann, a notorious Nazi functionary, may be wrong. Or so readers will surmise from ‘Becoming Eichmann,’ David Cesarani’s monumental biography of the man who made the trains run to Auschwitz and, through other enthusiastic bureaucratic decisions and initiatives, effected the deaths of millions. The book arrives wreathed in appreciative notices for its exhaustive, Javert-like research — much of it incorporating sources unavailable until the 1990s — and for its overturning of long-held presumptions concerning Eichmann’s antisemitism, intelligence and motivations for his deeds.”

Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem; a Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: Viking, 1963. Print. “Originally appearing as a series of articles in The New Yorker, Hannah Arendt’s authoritative and stunning report on the trial of Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann sparked a flurry of debate upon its publication. This revised edition includes material that came to light after the trial, as well as Arendt’s postscript directly addressing the controversy that arose over her account. A major journalistic triumph by an intellectual of singular influence, Eichmann in Jerusalem is as shocking as it is informative—an unflinching look at one of the most unsettling (and unsettled) issues of the Twentieth Century. This edition includes an introduction by Amos Elon.”

Ashman, Charles R., and Robert J. Wagman. The Nazi Hunters. New York: Pharos, 1988. Print. “Focuses on the Nazi hunters Simon Wiesenthal, the Klarsfelds, Edgar Bronfman, Elan Steinberg, Israel Singer of the World Jewish Congress, Rabbi Marvin Hier, Neal Sher, and the Justice Department’s Office of Special Investigations.”

The Attorney-General of the Government of Israel v. Eichmann. 56 The American Journal of International Law 805-845. 17 Sept. 2013. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “Judicial Decisions by Covey Oliver of the Board of Editors. Jurisdiction of Israel to try Eichmann–international law in relationship to the Israeli Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law.”

Baade, Hans W. “The Eichmann Trial: Some Legal Aspects.” Duke Law Journal 1961.3 (1961): 400-20. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “In Israel, Mr. Eichmann was charged with ‘crimes against the Jewish people’ and ‘crimes against humanity’ under the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law of August I, 1950. He is presently being tried under these charges by the District Court of Jerusalem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the legality of the Eichmann trial under Israeli law and under international law. While this discussion necessarily has to proceed from the assumption that the factual allegations of the prosecution are substantially correct and susceptible to legal proof, no opinion is expressed as to the facts. It need hardly be added that this would be highly improper at the present time.”

Bascomb, Neal. Hunting Eichmann: How a Band of Survivors and a Young Spy Agency Chased down the World’s Most Notorious Nazi. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009. Print. “When the Allies stormed Berlin in the last days of the Third Reich, Adolf Eichmann shed his SS uniform and vanished. Following his escape from two American POW camps, his retreat into the mountains and out of Europe, and his path to an anonymous life in Buenos Aires, his pursuers are a bulldog West German prosecutor, a blind Argentinean Jew and his beautiful daughter, and a budding, ragtag spy agency called the Mossad, whose operatives have their own scores to settle (and whose rare surveillance photographs are published here for the first time). The capture of Eichmann and the efforts by Israeli agents to secret him out of Argentina to stand trial is the stunning conclusion to this thrilling historical account, told with the kind of pulse-pounding detail that rivals anything you’d find in great spy fiction.”

Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale?: Nazi-Jewish Negotiations, 1933-1945. New Haven: Yale UP, 1994. Print. “In this riveting book, a leading Holocaust scholar examines the dramatic attempts to negotiate with the Nazis for the release of Jews in exchange for money, goods, or political benefits, and explores the moral issues raised by the negotiations.”

Black, Ian, and Benny Morris. Israel’s Secret Wars: A History of Israel’s Intelligence Services. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991. Print. “This is the first documented, comprehensive history of all three of Israel’s intelligence services, from their origins in the 1930s, through Israel’s five wars, up to the present, with a new chapter updating the book through the Gulf War. Highly readable and exhaustively researched, it provides the most balanced view yet of this controversial subject.”

Braham, Randolph L., and Scott Miller. The Nazis’ Last Victims: The Holocaust in Hungary. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1998. Print. “The Nazis’ Last Victims articulates and historically scrutinizes both the uniqueness and the universality of the Holocaust in Hungary, a topic often minimized in general works on the Holocaust. The result of the 1994 conference at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on the fiftieth anniversary of the deportation of Hungarian Jewry, this anthology examines the effects on Hungary as the last country to be invaded by the Germans. The Nazis’ Last Victims questions what Hungarians knew of their impending fate and examines the heightened sense of tension and haunting drama in Hungary, where the largest single killing process of the Holocaust period occurred in the shortest amount of time. Through the combination of two vital components of history writing—the analytical and the recollective—The Nazis’ Last Victims probes the destruction of the last remnant of European Jewry in the Holocaust.”

Braham, Randolph L. Eichmann and the Destruction of Hungarian Jewry. New York: World Federation of Hungarian Jews; Distributed by Twayne, 1961. Print.

Brayard, Florent. “Grasping the Spokes of the Wheel of History.” History & Memory 20.1 (2008): 48-88. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “Since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the access to new archives previously kept secret by the Soviet Union, historians of Nazism have had a growing tendency to believe that the historical narrative should be based exclusively on archives and refrain from using eyewitness testimonies, which are such fragile sources. This article argues, on the basis of the case of Adolf Eichmann’s involvement in Zyklon B deliveries to the extermination camps, that such an approach is unsatisfactory. Without eyewitness testimonies, neither Eichmann’s implication in this activity (which he of course always denied) nor the role played by Kurt Gerstein could be narrated. Taking into account only what is documented in archives would, therefore, mean relinquishing the aim of creating as complete a picture of the past as possible. In the case discussed in the article, this would mean forfeiting information that can alter the usual perception of Eichmann, Gerstein, or the workings of the RSHA.”

Breitman, Richard. “Plans for the Final Solution in Early 1941.” German Studies Review 17.3 (1994): 483-93. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “In the last fifteen years historians have felled many trees debating whether the Nazi regime had long planned or hastily improvised the Holocaust. This controversy has often focused on a seemingly small matter of timing: determination of the date when the SS moved to a continentwide program of mass murder, which they euphemistically called the Final Solution of the Jewish Question. The date of a decision to embark on the Final Solution is not only of interest in itself, but also because it helps us establish with greater precision the range of influences on, and participants in, the process-in laymen’s terms, the causes and the villains.” Adolf Eichmann had a big part in the Final Solution.

Breton, Albert, and Ronald Wintrobe. “The Bureaucracy of Murder Revisited.” Journal of Political Economy 94.5 (1986): 905. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “The paper reexamines the question of the guilt of subordinates in large organizations, a question posed with special force by Hannah Arendt in her book on Adolf Eichmann. He consistently claimed innocence on the ground that he was only following orders. Arendt accepted this picture of the regime but nevertheless indicted him for ‘crimes against humanity.’ The paper suggests that this model of the Nazi bureaucracy is false: in the Nazi bureaucracy of murder, as in other large bureaucracies, subordinates competed with each other to advance the goals of superiors they trusted. In this context, their guilt is easily established.”

Cesarani, David. “Adolf Eichmann: The Mind of a War Criminal.” BBC News. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/genocide/eichmann_01.shtml>. “Adolf Eichmann systematically applied the logistics of commerce to the annihilation of Jews during the Holocaust. David Cesarani examines the mind of a Nazi war criminal.”

Cohen, Roger. “Why? New Eichmann Notes Try to Explain: [Biography].” New York Times 13 Aug. 1999. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “So, early on in memoirs published today by the German daily Die Welt, does Adolf Eichmann seek to explain his central role in the killing of six million European Jews by the Nazis. The statement, part of an attempt by Eichmann to portray himself as a man driven by a visceral sense of duty rather than hatred to organize the mass murder of Jews, appears on page 6 of 127 pages of handwritten reflections that Die Welt said it found at the Center for Research on Nazi Crimes in the southern German town of Ludwigsburg. The photocopied pages in Ludwigsburg — whose authenticity was confirmed by several German historians and has not been contested by Eichmann’s family — appear to be a synopsis of, or an introduction to, the larger body of Eichmann’s writings that Israel has said it intends to release.”

Donovan, John. Eichmann, Man of Slaughter. New York: Avon Book Division, Hearst, 1960. Print.

Draper, G.I.A.D. “THE EICHMANN TRIAL A JUDICIAL PRECEDENT.” International Affairs 38.4 (1962): 485-93. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “‘IF there is any regret in their hearts it is because the loathsome work was not completed. If there is sorrow, it is because the means chosen were not effective enough to complete the task.’ In these words the Israeli Attorney-General described to the judges of the District Court of Jerusalem the present state of mind of those Germans, many of whom are still alive and thriving, who made possible and carried out mass murders on a scale and in a manner more frightful than the world has ever had the misfortune to know. The occasion was the trial of Adolf Eichmann, a former S.S. police official who, from his desk in Berlin, put in motion, operated and controlled the extermination of some six millions of European Jews. This trial has made reflecting men and women aware, everywhere and for ever, that the limits of man’s inhumanity to man are solely those of time, opportunity, and scientific knowledge. The rate of expansion of the latter needs no description.”

Eichmann, Adolf, Jochen Von. Lang, and Claus Sibyll. Eichmann Interrogated: Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1983. Print. “As head of the Gestapo’s ‘Jewish Evacuation Department,’ Lieutenant Colonel Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962) was the driving force in the impoverishment, deportation, and extermination of millions of Jews. In 1945 he escaped with a Vatican passport and fled to South America. In May 1960 the Israelis located and kidnapped Eichmann from Argentina, and brought him to trial in Israel, where he was convicted and hanged, his remains cremated and scattered. For nearly a year prior to his trial Eichmann was interrogated by Captain Avner W. Less, a German Jew whose father and numerous relatives perished in Nazi concentration camps. Eichmann Interrogated is a superbly edited condensation of their 275-hour exchange, representing ten percent of the 3,564-page total. Amid his lies, distortions, evasions, half-truths, and startling admissions, Eichmann fully acknowledges the reality of the Holocaust while attempting to minimize his central role in its execution. As his life from traveling salesman to mass murderer unfolds, Eichmann’s defense becomes a chilling self-indictment and a warning of Evil’s often unassuming visage.”

Goñi, Uki. The Real Odessa: How Perón Brought the Nazi War Criminals to Argentina. London: Granta, 2002. Print. “Drawing on American and European intelligence documents, Uki Goni shows how from 1946 onward a Nazi escape operation was based at the presidential palace in Buenos Aires, harboring such war criminals as Adolf Eichmann and Josef Mengele. Goni uncovers an elaborate network that relied on the complicity of the Vatican, the Argentine Catholic Church, and the Swiss authorities. The discoveries made in this meticulously researched book reveal the entangled web of the Nazi regime and its sympathizers and has prompted Argentine officials to demand closed files on the Nazi era from their current government.”

Harel, Isser, and Shlomo J. Shpiro. The House on Garibaldi Street. London: Frank Cass, 1997. Print. “This is the true story of the kidnapping of Adolf Eichmann in Argentina by the Mossad, Israel’s secret intelligence serviceunder the leadership of Isser Harel. This is his account, revised and updated, with the real names and details of all Mossad personnel.”

Harris, Whitney R. Tyranny on Trial: The Trial of the Major German War Criminals at the End of World War II at Nuremberg, Germany, 1945-1946. Dallas: Southern Methodist UP, 1999. Print. “Tyranny on Trial relates the full story of the historic Nuremberg Trial. In this classic work, now in revised and expanded edition, Whitney R. Harris presents indisputable evidence of the horrific crimes of Adolph Hitler and Nazism, and irrefutable proof of the realities of the Holocaust.”

Kerr, Peter. “Man Who Seized Eichmann Recalls Secret Role.” New York Times 28 Apr. 1986, Late Edition East Coast ed.: B2. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “‘Here I see a man like you and me,’ said Mr. [Peter Malkin], staring into the distance as he envisioned the bedroom of the villa where [Adolf Eichmann] was manacled by the leg to a bed. ‘I had held his hand and I wondered, ‘How could this be?’ I tried to imagine six million, a row of six million waiting for their trains. It didn’t work. I couldn’t see it. It wasn’t real.’ Mr. Malkin describes his occupation today as a consultant with expertise in ‘security and antiterrorism.’ He is 58 years old and barrel-chested. He speaks English with a Hebrew accent, and when interviewed, he chain-smoked cigarettes and sipped Perrier water through a straw. ‘I told him, ‘You have a beautiful boy – I saw him through the window,’ Mr. Malkin recalled. ‘He reminds me of another boy that could be have been his brother. It was my sister’s son. The only difference is that this boy is dead.’ ‘He said, ‘It’s not my fault; he was Jewish!’ Mr. Malkin recalled. ‘He said, ‘I have nothing against the Jews. On the contrary, I love Jews.’ ”

Kraft, Jessica. “The Eichmann Trial – My Jewish Learning.” Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/1914-1948/The_Holocaust/Aftermath/Eichmann_Trial.shtml>. “Eichmann was found guilty on all counts and sentenced to death. On June 1, 1962 he was hanged. This was the only time that the death penalty was used in the history of the state of Israel. Eichmann was prosecuted under the provisions of the Nazi and Nazi Collaborators Punishment Law, established in 1950 by Ben Gurion’s government. The trial was only possible because a sovereign Jewish state with its own political structure, legal system, and intelligence and security agencies existed. For the first time in history, the Jewish people had the means to bring about justice to those who persecuted them. Ben Gurion and other founders of the state saw this as an intrinsic value of Israel’s national identity.”

Lasok, D. “The Eichmann Trial.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 11.2 (1962): 355-74. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “THE trial of Adolf Eichmann will go down in history as a trial without precedent not only because of the enormity of the charges but mainly because it is likely to perpetuate and deepen the controversy provoked by the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal.’ Reference had already been made to Eichmann at Nuremberg and the account of his activities recorded in a two-volume report of the Polish War Crimes Commission. But the drama unfolded with his seizure by Israeli agents and abduction from Argentina in May 1960. From the reaction of the Argentinian government to this obvious act of violation of Argentina’s sovereignty one might have expected a repetition of the Jacob-Salomon Case in reverse, but history did not repeat itself and Eichmann had no alternative but to go into the glass cage provided for him at the Jerusalem court.”

Levin, Meyer. “Eichmann’s Last Victim.” Coronet July 1961: 98+. Old Magazine Articles. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/Rudolf_Kastner_Article_pdf>. The tragic fate of Dr. Rudolf Kastner, Eichmann’s last victim is explored. He was a Hungarian Jewish underground leader who negotiated with the Nazis and saved many of his people from extermination.

“The Long Road to Eichmann’s Arrest: A Nazi War Criminal’s Life in Argentina.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 1 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/the-long-road-to-eichmann-s-arrest-a-nazi-war-criminal-s-life-in-argentina-a-754486.html>. “Before his arrest by Israel’s Mossad intelligence service, Adolf Eichmann boasted openly to other foreigners in Argentina of the war crimes he had committed. He confided in one journalist that his only mistake was not having murdered all the Jews. ‘We didn’t do our work correctly,’ he said.”

Mulisch, Harry. Criminal Case 40/61, the Trial of Adolf Eichmann: An Eyewitness Account. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2005. Print. “The trial of Adolf Eichmann began in 1961 under a deceptively simple label, ‘criminal case 40/61.’ Hannah Arendt covered the trial for the New Yorker magazine and recorded her observations in Eichmann in Jerusalem: The Banality of Evil. Harry Mulisch was also assigned to cover the trial for a Dutch news weekly. Arendt would later say in her book’s preface that Mulisch was one of the few people who shared her views on the character of Eichmann. … Mulisch modestly called his book on case 40/61 a report, and it is certainly that, as he gives firsthand accounts of the trial and its key players and scenes (the defendant’s face strangely asymmetric and riddled by tics, his speech absurdly baroque). Eichmann’s character comes out in his incessant bureaucratizing and calculating, as well as in his grandiose visions of himself as a Pontius Pilate-like innocent. As Mulisch intersperses his dispatches from Jerusalem with meditative accounts of a divided and ruined Berlin, an eerily rebuilt Warsaw, and a visit to the gas chambers of Auschwitz, Criminal Case 40/61, the Trial of Adolf Eichmann becomes as a disturbing and highly personal essay on the Nazi extermination of European Jews and on the human capacity to commit evil ever more efficiently in an age of technological advancement.”

Rein, Raanan. “The Eichmann Kidnapping: Its Effects on Argentine-Israeli Relations and the Local Jewish Community.” Jewish Social Studies 7.3 (2001): 101-30. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “This article will examine the consequences of the Eichmann kidnapping for the Jewish community of Argentina and for Buenos Aires’ relations with Jerusalem. The contrast between the very speedy resolution of the crisis in Israeli-Argentine relations and the affair’s long-lasting effects on Argentina’s Jews indicates once again that the interests of the local Jewish community and those of the state of Israel-which defined itself on the day of its birth as ‘the Jewish state’-are not completely congruent and involve, at times, different dynamics. It also indicates that Argentine authorities were too often unwilling or unable to put a stop to antisemitic attacks by nationalist groups. Instead, they opted for closer relations with the Jewish state, hoping in this way to prevent such attacks from blackening Argentina’s image in Western public opinion in general and in the American media in particular. Securing U.S. support and economic cooperation was, after all, a prime goal for all Argentine governments in the post-World War II era.”

Rohter, Larry. “Half-century Later, a New Look at Argentine-Nazi Ties.” New York Times 4 Apr. 2005: A8. Pro. Web. “That scores of fugitive Nazis found their way to Argentina after World War II, aided and abetted by Gen. Juan D. Peron, is no secret. But according to a book just published here [Buenos Aires] that draws extensively on archival material only now being made available to researchers, his government also offered a haven for the profits of German companies that had been part of the Nazi war machine and whose assets the victorious Allies would otherwise have seized.” “The German Connection: The Laundering of Nazi Money in Argentina’ by Gaby Weber.

Scott, Shane. “C.I.A. Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show.” New York Times 7 June 2006: A3. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “The Central Intelligence Agency took no action after learning the pseudonym and whereabout of the fugitive Holocaust administrator Adolf Eichmann in 1958, according to C.I.A. document released Tuesday that shed new light on the spy agency’s of of former Nazis as informants after World War II.”

“‘Vatican Aided Eichmann’s Escape’” Www.JPost.com. 14 Mar. 2010. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/International/Vatican-aided-Eichmanns-escape>. “Campaigners in Germany are challenging the 50-year secrecy order that binds files on Adolf Eichmann’s flight from Germany after World War II, the Daily Mail reported on Sunday. According to the dissenters, led by German journalist Gabriele Weber, the dossier may contain information that shows Eichmann’s post-war escape from the country was aided by the Vatican and by German officials.”

Weitz, Yechiam. “In the Name of Six Million Accusers: Gideon Hausner as Attorney-General and His Place in the Eichmann Trial.” Israel Studies 14.2 (2009): 26-49. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “The article examines Gideon Hausner’s (1915-1990) appointment as attorney-general and later chief prosecutor in the Eichmann trial, his attitude towards the main issues that arose during the trial, his position on the issue of Jewish heroism during the Holocaust, how he became the definitive personification of the trial, and Shmuel Tamir’s opposition to the trial.”

Wiegrefe, Klaus. “West Germany’s Efforts to Influence the Eichmann Trial.” SpigelOnline. 15 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/the-holocaust-in-the-dock-west-germany-s-efforts-to-influence-the-eichmann-trial-a-756915.html>. “The 1961 trial in Israel of Holocaust organizer Adolf Eichmann was a global sensation. But it made West Germany nervous. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was afraid the trial could expose the Nazi pasts of government officials in Bonn. And his government did everything it could to influence the proceedings.”

 

 

Recent Nonfiction Books

 

Adelman, Jonathan R. Hitler and His Allies in World War II. London: Routledge, 2007. Print. “In an area where in-depth studies of Hitler’s relations with Nazi Germany’s allies, and the failure of Nazi Germany to make more effective use of them during the war, are scant, this is a survey that looks at the Soviet Union, Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Romania and Hungary and their relationship to Nazi Germany.”

“‘Angry Days’ Shows An America Torn Over Entering World War II.” NPR. 26 Mar. 2013. Web. 1 Aug. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/2013/03/26/175288241/angry-days-shows-an-america-torn-over-entering-world-war-ii>. “During the debate over whether to invade Iraq, or whether to stay in Afghanistan, many people looked back to World War II, describing it as a good and just war — a war the U.S. knew it had to fight. In reality, it wasn’t that simple. When Britain and France went to war with Germany in 1939, Americans were divided about offering military aid, and the debate over the U.S. joining the war was even more heated. It wasn’t until two years later, when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and Germany declared war against the U.S., that Americans officially entered the conflict. … Olson’s new book, Those Angry Days, shines the spotlight on the national debate over whether to go to war in Europe. President Franklin Roosevelt led the interventionist charge, while aviator Charles Lindbergh became an unofficial leader of the isolationist movement.”

Bacque, James. Crimes and Mercies: The Fate of German Civilians under Allied Occupation, 1944-1950. Toronto: Little, Brown and (Canada), 2006. Print. “More than 9 million Germans died as a result of deliberate Allied starvation and expulsion policies after World War II—one quarter of the country was annexed, and about 15 million people expelled in the largest act of ethnic cleansing the world has ever known. Over 2 million of these alone, including countless children, died on the road or in concentration camps in Poland and elsewhere. That these deaths occurred at all is still being denied by Western governments.”

Baranowski, Shelley. Strength through Joy: Consumerism and Mass Tourism in the Third Reich. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 2004. Print. “The giant Nazi leisure and tourism agency, Strength through Joy (KdF)’s low cost cultural events, factory beautification programs, organized sports, and, especially, mass tourism mitigated the tension between the Nazi regime’s investment in rearmament and German consumers’ desire for a higher standard of living. Shelley Baranowski reveals how Strength through Joy de-emphasized the sacrifices of the present while its programs presented visions of a prosperous future–that would materialize as soon as ‘living space’ was acquired. As an agency open to racially acceptable Germans only, it segregated the regime’s victims from the Nazi ‘racial community.’”

Beaumont, Roger A. The Nazis’ March to Chaos: The Hitler Era through the Lenses of Chaos-complexity Theory. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000. Print. “Rather than a technical treatise based on equations, this study of the Hitler era in Germany from the standpoint of chaos-complexity theory is a narrative history based on a non-linear perspective. After defining basic chaos-complexity concepts and terms, like sensitivity to initial conditions and fractals, the book explores the Third Reich as a chaotic system; the clash between the image of Nazi technical prowess and the anti-modernism in National Socialist ideology; and German and Nazi military tactics and doctrine as ways of coping with the chaos of war and imposing it upon the enemy.

Berhahn, V. R. “The Big Lie.” New York Times: Books. New York Times, 10 Dec. 2000. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/12/10/reviews/001210.10berghat.html>. “Since then [1960s] there have been any number of Hitler biographies and histories of the Third Reich. Now, with ”The Third Reich: A New History,” Michael Burleigh successfully adds another interpretation, one that, as he puts it, tells a ”very 20th-century story” about the ”almost total, moral collapse of an advanced industrial society at the heart of Europe’ and about ‘sections of the German elites and masses of ordinary people’ who ‘chose to abdicate their individual critical faculties in favor of a politics based on faith, hope, hatred and sentimental collective self-regard for their own race and nation.”’

Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2004. Print. “Karel Berkhoff provides a searing portrait of life in the Third Reich’s largest colony. Under the Nazis, a blend of German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and racist notions about the Slavs produced a reign of terror and genocide. But it is impossible to understand fully Ukraine’s response to this assault without addressing the impact of decades of repressive Soviet rule. Berkhoff shows how a pervasive Soviet mentality worked against solidarity, which helps explain why the vast majority of the population did not resist the Germans. He also challenges standard views of wartime eastern Europe by treating in a more nuanced way issues of collaboration and local anti-Semitism.”

Best, Nicholas. Five Days That Shocked the World: Eyewitness Accounts from Europe at the End of World War II. New York: Thomas Dunne /St. Martin’s, 2012. Print. “In the momentous days from April 28 to May 2, 1945, the world witnessed the death of two Fascist dictators and the fall of Berlin. Mussolini’s capture and execution by Italian partisans, the suicide of Adolf Hitler, and the fall of the German capital signaled the end of the four-year war in the European Theater. In Five Days That Shocked the World, Nicholas Best thrills readers with the first-person accounts of those who lived through this dramatic time.”

Blood, Philip W. Hitler’s Bandit Hunters: The SS and the Nazi Occupation of Europe. Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 2006. Print. “An original and thought-provoking work grounded in extensive research in German archives, Hitler’s Bandit Hunters focuses on this counterinsurgency campaign, the anvil of Hitler’s crusade for empire. Bandenbekämpfung portrayed insurgents as political and racial bandits, criminalized to a greater degree than enemies of the state; moreover, violence against them was not constrained by the prevailing laws of warfare. Philip Blood explains how German forces embraced the Bandenbekämpfung doctrine, demonstrating the equal culpability of both the SS police forces and the ‘heroic’  Waffen-SS combat arm and shattering the contrived postwar distinctions between them.”

Breitman, Richard, and Allan J. Lichtman. FDR and the Jews. Belknap of Harvard UP, 2013. Print. “Nearly seventy-five years after World War II, a contentious debate lingers over whether Franklin Delano Roosevelt turned his back on the Jews of Hitler’s Europe. Defenders claim that FDR saved millions of potential victims by defeating Nazi Germany. Others revile him as morally indifferent and indict him for keeping America’s gates closed to Jewish refugees and failing to bomb Auschwitz’s gas chambers.”

Campt, Tina. Other Germans: Black Germans and the Politics of Race, Gender, and Memory in the Third Reich. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2004. Print. “It’s hard to imagine an issue or image more riveting than Black Germans during the Third Reich. Yet accounts of their lives are virtually nonexistent, despite the fact that they lived through a regime dedicated to racial purity. Tina Campt’s Other Germans tells the story of this largely forgotten group of individuals, with important distinctions from other accounts. Most strikingly, Campt centers her arguments on race, rather than anti-semitism. She also provides oral history as background for her study, interviewing two Black Germans for the book.”

Citino, Robert Michael. Death of the Wehrmacht: The German Campaigns of 1942. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 2007. Print. “For Hitler and the German military, 1942 was a key turning point of World War II, as an overstretched but still lethal Wehrmacht replaced brilliant victories and huge territorial gains with stalemates and strategic retreats. In this major reevaluation of that crucial year, Robert Citino shows that the German army’s emerging woes were rooted as much in its addiction to the ‘war of movement’–attempts to smash the enemy in ‘short and lively’ campaigns–as they were in Hitler’s deeply flawed management of the war.”

Citino, Robert Michael. The Wehrmacht Retreats: Fighting a Lost War, 1943. Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, 2012. Print. “Throughout 1943, the German army, heirs to a military tradition that demanded and perfected relentless offensive operations, succumbed to the realities of its own overreach and the demands of twentieth-century industrialized warfare. In his new study, prizewinning author Robert Citino chronicles this weakening Wehrmacht, now fighting desperately on the defensive but still remarkably dangerous and lethal.”

Connelly, John. From Enemy to Brother: The Revolution in Catholic Teaching on the Jews, 1933-1965. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2012. Print. “In 1965 the Second Vatican Council declared that God loves the Jews. Yet the Church had taught for centuries that Jews were cursed by God, and had mostly kept silent as Jews were slaughtered by Nazis. How did an institution whose wisdom is said to be unchanging undertake one of the largest, yet most undiscussed, ideological swings in modern history?”

De, Zayas Alfred M. A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Print. “This book covers a part of history that many either do not know or would prefer to forget, in this case the forced expulsion of Ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe in the months following the end the World War Two. The book is balanced and has dozens of first-person accounts as well as archive material. It is a heartbreaking read. Highly recommended for those with any interest in human rights and opposing war crimes or crimes against humanity.”

DiNardo, Roichard L. Germany and the Axis Powers: From Coalition to Collapse. Lawrence, Kan.: Univ. of Kansas, 2005. Print. “It seemed that whenever Mussolini acted on his own, it was bad news for Hitler. Indeed, the Führer’s relations with his Axis partners were fraught with an almost total lack of coordination. Compared to the Allies, the coalition was hardly an alliance at all. Focusing on Germany’s military relations with Italy, Romania, Hungary, and Finland, Richard DiNardo unearths a wealth of information that reveals how the Axis coalition largely undermined Hitler’s objectives from the Eastern Front to the Balkans, Mediterranean, and North Africa.”

Douglas, R. M. Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War. New Haven [Conn.: Yale UP, 2012. Print. “Immediately after the Second World War, the victorious Allies authorized and helped to carry out the forced relocation of German speakers from their homes across central and southern Europe to Germany. The numbers were almost unimaginable—between 12,000,000 and 14,000,000 civilians, most of them women and children—and the losses horrifying—at least 500,000 people, and perhaps many more, died while detained in former concentration camps, while locked in trains en route, or after arriving in Germany exhausted, malnourished, and homeless.”

Edsel, Robert M. Saving Italy: The Race to Rescue a Nation’s Treasures from the Nazis. New York: W.W. Norton &, 2013. Print. “Saving Italy is an astonishing account of a little known American effort to save Italy’s vast store of priceless monuments and art during World War II. While American warriors were fighting the length of the country, other Americans were courageously working alongside to preserve the irreplaceable best of Italy’s culture. Read it and be proud of those who were on their own front lines of a cruel war.” (Tom Brokaw)

Fritzsche, Peter. Life and Death in the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2008. Print. “On January 30, 1933, hearing about the celebrations for Hitler’s assumption of power, Erich Ebermayer remarked bitterly in his diary, ‘We are the losers, definitely the losers.’ Learning of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, which made Jews non-citizens, he raged, ‘hate is sown a million-fold.’ Yet in March 1938, he wept for joy at the Anschluss with Austria: ‘Not to want it just because it has been achieved by Hitler would be folly.’”

Grier, Howard D. Hitler, Dönitz, and the Baltic Sea: The Third Reich’s Last Hope, 1944-1945. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 2007. Print. “The popular conception of Hitler in the final years of World War II is that of a deranged Fuhrer stubbornly demanding the defense of every foot of ground on all fronts and ordering hopeless attacks with nonexistent divisions. To imply that Hitler had a rational plan to win the war flies in the face of widely accepted interpretations, but historian Howard D. Grier persuasively argues here that Hitler did possess a strategy to regain the initiative in 1944-45 and that the Baltic theater played the key role in his plan.”

Hansen, Randall. Fire and Fury: The Allied Bombing of Germany, 1942-1945. New York: New American Library, 2008. Print. “During the Second World War, Allied air forces dropped nearly two million tons of bombs on Germany, destroying some 60 cities, killing more than half a million German citizens, and leaving 80,000 pilots dead. But the terrible truth is that much of the bombing was carried out against the expressed demands of the Allied military leadership, leading to the needless deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians.”

Hoffmann, Peter. Behind Valkyrie: German Resistance to Hitler : Documents. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 2011. Print. “While the ‘Valkyrie’ plot by Nazi officers to kill Adolf Hitler is the best known instance of German opposition to his dictatorship, there were many other significant acts of resistance. Behind Valkyrie collects documents, letters, and testimonies of Germans who fought Hitler from within, making many of them available in their entirety and in English for the first time. Peter Hoffmann assembles the words of citizens protesting the National Socialists’ dismantling of the first democratic German republic, socialists and conservatives arguing for civil liberties, and dissatisfied senior military officials. Behind Valkyrie’s first-hand accounts of reactions to crimes by the SS, mistreatment of millions of Soviet prisoners of war, mass murder of Jews, and the mismanagement of military campaigns show that attempts to maintain freedom, justice, and human rights often came from unexpected sources.”

Ingrao, Christian, and Andrew Brown. Believe and Destroy: Intellectuals in the SS War Machine. Polity. Print. “For a study of intellectuals, Believe and Destroy remains curiously coy about who or what intellectuals are and why we might expect their personal and professional experiences to be distinctive in the first place. We thus find ourselves back with Arendt’s Eichmann and Tarantino’s Landa, unsure who is the greater villain: the bland functionary or the brilliant careerist. If Ingrao’s book invites us to reflect on our own prejudices about education, erudition, and moral agency, it only hints at what a more thoroughgoing exposition of the foundational relationships between knowledge, power, and violence might look like.”

Jones, Michael K. The Retreat: Hitler’s First Defeat. New York: Thomas Dunne /St. Martin’s, 2010. Print. “At the moment of crisis in late 1941 on the Eastern Front, with the forces of Hitler massing on the outskirts of Moscow, the miraculous occurred: Moscow was saved. Yet this feat of endurance was a prelude to a long and arduous retreat in which Soviet troops, inspired by deep beliefs in the sacred Motherland, pushed back German forces steeled by the vision of the Ubermensch—the iron-willed fighter. Supported by tanks and ski battalions, Soviet troops engaged in this desperate struggle in the harshest Russian weather.”

Kershaw, Ian. The End: The Defiance and Destruction of Hitler’s Germany, 1944-1945. New York: Penguin, 2011. Print. “Countless books have been written about why Nazi Germany lost the Second World War, yet remarkably little attention has been paid to the equally vital questions of how and why the Third Reich did not surrender until Germany had been left in ruins and almost completely occupied. Drawing on prodigious new research, Ian Kershaw, an award-winning historian and the author of Fateful Choices, explores these fascinating questions in a gripping and focused narrative that begins with the failed bomb plot in July 1944 and ends with the death of Adolf Hitler and the German capitulation in 1945. The End paints a harrowing yet enthralling portrait of the Third Reich in its last desperate gasps.

Kershaw, Ian. Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich: Bavaria 1933 – 1945. Oxford: Clarendon, 2005. Print. “Now updated with a new introduction and bibliography, Kershaw’s classic study of popular responses to Nazi policy and ideology explores the political mentality of ‘ordinary Germans’ in one part of Hitler’s Reich. Basing his account on many unpublished sources, the author analyzes socioeconomic discontent and the popular reaction to the anti-Church and anti-Jewish policies of the Nazis, and reveals the bitter divisions and dissent of everyday reality in the Third Reich, in stark contrast to the propaganda image of a ‘National Community’ united behind its leaders.”

Kitchen, Martin. Rommel’s Desert War: Waging World War II in North Africa, 1941-1943. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2009. Print. “”Rommel’s Desert War brings fresh sources and a fresh perspective to the North African campaign. Kitchen’s skillful blend of policy and strategy, operations and tactics, pulls no punches. His stringent, well-documented critique of Rommel’s performance in particular makes this a significant contribution to the literature on the Second World War.”

Kochavi, Arieh J. Confronting Captivity: Britain and the United States and Their POWs in Nazi Germany. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2005. Print. “How was it possible that almost all of the nearly 300,000 British and American troops who fell into German hands during World War II survived captivity in German POW camps and returned home almost as soon as the war ended? In Confronting Captivity, Arieh J. Kochavi offers a behind-the-scenes look at the living conditions in Nazi camps and traces the actions the British and American governments took–and didn’t take–to ensure the safety of their captured soldiers.”

Koker, David, R. J. Van Pelt, Michiel Horn, and John Irons. At the Edge of the Abyss: A Concentration Camp Diary, 1943-1944. Evanston, IL: Northwestern UP, 2012. Print. “David Koker’s diary is one of the most notable accounts of life in a German concentration camp written by a Jew during the years of the Holocaust. First brought to attention when the Dutch historian Jacob Presser-Koker’s history teacher in high school-quoted from Koker’s diary in his monumental history, published in English as The Destruction of the Dutch Jews (1968), the diary itself became a part of the Dutch literary canon when it was published in 1977.”

Laqueur, Walter. “Hitler’s Jews: Max Von Oppenheim and the Myth of German Jewish Guilt.” Tablet Magazine. 21 Aug. 2013. Web. 21 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/141788/hitler-jews-oppenheim>. “New biographies shed light on the cohort of Germans of Jewish descent who historians have portrayed as having served the Nazis.”

Lineberry, Cate. The Secret Rescue: An Untold Story of American Nurses and Medics behind Nazi Lines. New York: Little, Brown, 2013. Print. “The compelling untold story of a group of stranded U.S. Army nurses and medics fighting to escape Nazi-occupied Europe. When 26 Army nurses and medics-part of the 807th Medical Air Evacuation Transport Squadron-boarded a cargo plane for transport in November 1943, they never anticipated the crash landing in Nazi-occupied Albania that would lead to their months-long struggle for survival. A drama that captured the attention of the American public, the group and its flight crew dodged bullets and battled blinding winter storms as they climbed mountains and fought to survive, aided by courageous villagers who risked death at Nazi hands to help them.”

Lowe, Keith. Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II. New York: St. Martin’s, 2012. Print. “A graphic and chilling account of the murderous vengeance, terroristic reprisals, and ferocious ethnic cleansing that gripped Europe following—and often as a direct continuation of—the Second World War. Keith Lowe’s excellent book paints a little-known and frightening picture of a continent in the embrace of lawlessness, chaos, and unconstrained violence.”

Ludewig, Joachim. Rückzug: The German Retreat from France, 1944. Lexington: University of Kentucky, 2012. Print. “The Allied invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, marked a critical turning point in the European theater of World War II. The massive landing on France’s coast had been meticulously planned for three years, and the Allies anticipated a quick and decisive defeat of the German forces. Many of the planners were surprised, however, by the length of time it ultimately took to defeat the Germans.”

Lunde, Henrik. Finland’s War of Choice: The Troubled German-Finnish Alliance in World War II. Casemate, 2011. Print. “This book describes the odd coalition between Germany and Finland in World War II, and their joint military operations from 1941 to 1945. This is a topic often missing in English, though in stark contrast to the numerous books on the shorter and less bloody Winter War. That conflict represented a gallant fight of a democratic ‘David’ against a totalitarian ‘Goliath’ that caught the imagination of the world. The story of Finland fighting alongside a ‘Goliath’ of its own has not brought pride to that nation and was a period many Finns would rather forget.”

Marks, Leo. Between Silk and Cyanide: A Codemaker’s War, 1941-1945. New York: Free, 1998. Web. “In 1942, Leo Marks left his father’s famous bookshop, 84 Charing Cross Road, and went off to fight the war. He was twenty-two. Soon recognized as a cryptographer of genius, he became head of communications at the Special Operations Executive (SOE), where he revolutionized the codemaking techniques of the Allies and trained some of the most famous agents dropped into occupied Europe, including ‘the White Rabbit’ and Violette Szabo. As a top codemaker, Marks had a unique perspective on one of the most fascinating and, until now, little-known aspects of the Second World War.”

Megargee, Geoffrey P. War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006. Print. “On June 22, 1941, Hitler began what would be the most important campaign of the European theater. The war against the Soviet Union would leave tens of millions of Soviet citizens dead and large parts of the country in ruins. The death and destruction would result not just from military operations but also from the systematic killing and abuse that the German army, police, and SS directed against Jews, Communists, and ordinary citizens.”

Melvin, Mungo. Manstein: Hitler’s Greatest General. New York: Thomas Dunne /St. Martin’s, 2011. Print. “Among students of military history, the genius of Field Marshal Erich von Manstein (1887–1973) is respected perhaps more than that of any other World War II soldier. He displayed his strategic brilliance in such campaigns as the invasion of Poland, the Blitzkrieg of France, the sieges of Sevastopol, Leningrad, and Stalingrad, and the battles of Kharkov and Kursk.”

Mikies, David. “Hollywood’s Creepy Love Affair With Adolf Hitler, in Explosive New Detail.” Tablet Magazine. 10 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/134503/hollywood-nazi-urwand>. Book – The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact with Hitler, Harvard University Press, 2013. “As it turns out, Hitler’s love for American movies was reciprocated by Hollywood. A forthcoming book by the young historian Ben Urwand, to be published by Harvard University Press …  presents explosive new evidence about the shocking extent of the partnership between the Nazis and major Hollywood producers. Urwand … takes the subject personally: His parents were Jewish refugees from Egypt and Hungary. Digging through archives in Berlin and Washington, D.C., he has unearthed proof that Hollywood worked together with the Nazis much more closely than we ever imagined. Urwand has titled his riveting book The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact With Hitler, and as you turn its pages you realize with dismay that collaboration is the only fitting word for the relationship between Hitler and Hollywood in the 1930s. Using new archival discoveries, Urwand alleges that some of the Hollywood studio heads, nearly all of whom were Jewish, cast their lot with Hitler almost from the moment he took power, and that they did so eagerly—not reluctantly. What they wanted was access to German audiences.”

Mitcham, Samuel W. Defenders of Fortress Europe: The Untold Story of the German Officers during the Allied Invasion. Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 2009. Print. “Yet, as the Wehrmacht retreated, Germans still had hope. If the men of the Western Front could repulse the great invasion, dozens of units—including panzer divisions, SS regiments, and paratrooper formations—would arrive to thwart the Red advance. German scientists needed at least another year to develop their ‘wonder weapons,’ such as V-2 rockets, submarines, jet airplanes, and perhaps even an atomic bomb. Everything depended on the Western Front’s warlords. ”

Mitcham, Samuel W. The Men of Barbarossa: Commanders of the German Invasion of Russia, 1941. Philadelphia: Casemate, 2009. Print. “The story of history’s greatest military operation and the commanders who nearly led it to success … This book not only tells the story of Operation Barbarossa but describes the expertise, skills, and decision-making powers of the men who directed it. The result is an illuminating look at the personalities behind the carnage, as summer triumph turned to winter crisis, including new insights into the invasion’s many tactical successes, as well as its ultimate failure.”

Mosier, John. Deathride: Hitler vs. Stalin : The Eastern Front, 1941-1945. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2010. Print. “The German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, began a war that lasted nearly four years and created by far the bloodiest theater in World War II. In the conventional narrative of this war, Hitler was defeated by Stalin because, like Napoleon, he underestimated the size and resources of his enemy. In fact, says historian John Mosier, Hitler came very close to winning and lost only because of the intervention of the western Allies. Stalin’s great triumph was not winning the war, but establishing the prevailing interpretation of the war. The Great Patriotic War, as it is known in Russia, would eventually prove fatal, setting in motion events that would culminate in the collapse of the Soviet Union.”

Neiberg, Michael S. The Blood of Free Men: The Liberation of Paris, 1944. Basic, 2012. Print. “As the Allies struggled inland from Normandy in August of 1944, the fate of Paris hung in the balance. Other jewels of Europe—sites like Warsaw, Antwerp, and Monte Cassino—were, or would soon be, reduced to rubble during attempts to liberate them. But Paris endured, thanks to a fractious cast of characters, from Resistance cells to Free French operatives to an unlikely assortment of diplomats, Allied generals, and governmental officials. Their efforts, and those of the German forces fighting to maintain control of the city, would shape the course of the battle for Europe and color popular memory of the conflict for generations to come.”

O’Brien, Mary-Elizabeth. Nazi Cinema as Enchantment: The Politics of Entertainment in the Third Reich. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2004. Print. “Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh have long been exalted as two of the greatest American icons of the twentieth century. Now award-winning journalist Max Wallace uncovers groundbreaking and astonishing revelations about the poisonous effect these two so-called American heroes had on Western democracy and how the two of them—acting in league with the Nazis—almost brought democratic Europe to the verge of extinction.”

Ossian, Lisa L. The Forgotten Generation: American Children and World War II. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri, 2011. Print. “Two days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt addressed the nation by radio, saying, ‘We are all in it—all the way. Every single man, woman, and child is a partner in the most tremendous undertaking of our American history.’ So began a continuing theme of the World War II years: the challenges of wartime would not be borne by adults alone. Men, women, and children would all be involved in the work of war.”

Paterson, Lawrence. Black Flag: The Surrender of Germany’s U-boat Forces. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith/MBI Pub., 2009. Print. “On the eve of Germany’s surrender in May 1945, Grossadmiral Karl Dönitz commanded thousands of loyal and active men of the U-boat service. Still fully armed and unbroken in morale, enclaves of these men occupied bases stretching from Norway to France, where cadres of Uboat men fought on in ports that defied besieging Allied troops to the last. At sea U-boats still operated on a war footing around Britain, the coasts of the United States and as far as Malaya.”

Payne, Stanley G. Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II. New Haven: Yale UP, 2008. Print. “Was Franco sympathetic to Nazi Germany? Why didn’t Spain enter World War II? In what ways did Spain collaborate with the Third Reich? How much did Spain assist Jewish refugees?”

“Putting a Human Face to Hitler.” Ginger Musings. 6 July 2013. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://milambc.wordpress.com/2013/07/06/putting-a-human-face-to-hitler/>. “The Reader” by Bernhard Schlink. “Something that fascinates me with respect to one’s understanding of history is tangibility. I have yet to see a work of literature tackle that subject better than Bernhard Schlink’s The Reader. The main character, Michael Berg, struggles with history in two ways. 1.) He’s a German, so he struggles with the intimacy with which he is interlocked with his country’s history, even if he wasn’t literally there to have made the history; it’s still very much his as a German citizen. 2.) Juxtapose to that intimacy is the idea of distance or related to my idea, tangibility. That is, Berg has a difficult time truly understanding the events of the Holocaust and the extent of what the Nazis did, as Germans. In a bit of irony, Michael talks about how movies and books have shaped his perception of the Holocaust and in that perception manifest the distance he feels to the Holocaust.”

Reese, Roger R. Why Stalin’s Soldiers Fought: The Red Army’s Military Effectiveness in World War II. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas, 2011. Print. “Inept leadership, inefficient campaigning, and enormous losses would seem to spell military disaster. Yet despite these factors, the Soviet Union won its war against Nazi Germany thanks to what Roger Reese calls its ‘military effectiveness’: its ability to put troops in the field even after previous forces had been decimated.”

Rigg, Bryan Mark. Lives of Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers: Untold Tales of Men of Jewish Descent Who Fought for the Third Reich. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 2009. Print. “They were foot soldiers and officers. They served in the regular army and the Waffen-SS. And, remarkably, they were also Jewish, at least as defined by Hitler’s infamous race laws. Pursuing the thread he first unraveled in Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, Bryan Rigg takes a closer look at the experiences of Wehrmacht soldiers who were classified as Jewish. In this long-awaited companion volume, he presents interviews with twenty-one of these men, whose stories are both fascinating and disturbing.”

Rosenfeld, Gavriel David. Munich and Memory: Architecture, Monuments, and the Legacy of the Third Reich. Berkeley: University of California, 2000. Print. “Munich, notorious in recent history as the capital of the Nazi movement, is the site of Gavriel Rosenfeld’s stimulating inquiry into the German collective memory of the Third Reich. Rosenfeld shows, with the aid of a wealth of photographs, how the city’s urban form developed after 1945 in direct reflection of its inhabitants’ evolving memory of the Second World War and the Nazi dictatorship. In the second half of the twentieth century, the German people’s struggle to come to terms with the legacy of Nazism has dramatically shaped nearly all dimensions of their political, social, and cultural life.”

Schoonover, Thomas David. Hitler’s Man in Havana: Heinz Lüning and Nazi Espionage in Latin America. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 2008. Print. “When Heinz Lüning posed as a Jewish refugee to spy for Hitler’s Abwehr espionage agency, he thought he had discovered the perfect solution to his most pressing problem: how to avoid being drafted into Hitler’s army. Lüning was unsympathetic to Fascist ideology, but the Nazis’ tight control over exit visas gave him no chance to escape Germany. He could enter Hitler’s army either as a soldier… or a spy. In 1941, he entered the Abwehr academy for spy training and was given the code name ‘Lumann.’ Soon after, Lüning began the service in Cuba that led to his ultimate fate of being the only German spy executed in Latin America during World War II. Lüning was not the only spy operating in Cuba at the time. Various Allied spies labored in Havana; the FBI controlled eighteen Special Intelligence Service operatives, and the British counterintelligence section subchief Graham Greene supervised Secret Intelligence Service agents.”

Staff, NPR. “‘Guns At Last Light’ Illuminates Final Months Of World War II.” NPR. 14 May 2013. Web. 01 Aug. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/2013/05/14/182269189/guns-at-last-light-illuminates-final-months-of-world-war-ii>. “In December 1944, the Nazis looked like a spent force: The U.S. and its allies had pushed Hitler’s armies across France in the fight to liberate Europe from German occupation. The Allies were so confident that the Forest of Ardennes, near the front lines in Belgium, became a rest and recreation area, complete with regular USO performances. … The Guns at Last Light is the final volume of Atkinson’s trilogy about World War II and covers the events between D-Day and the final Allied victory.”

Stansky, Peter. The First Day of the Blitz: September 7, 1940. New Haven: Yale UP, 2007. Print. “On September 7, 1940, the long-feared and anticipated attack by the German Luftwaffe plunged London into a cauldron of fire and devastation. This compelling book recreates that day in all its horror, using rich archival sources and first-hand accounts, many never before published. Eminent historian Peter Stansky weaves together the stories of people who recorded their experiences of the opening hours of the Blitz. Then, exploring more deeply, the author examines what that critical day meant to the nation at the time, and what it came to mean in following years.”

Thacker, Toby. The End of the Third Reich: Defeat, Denazification & Nuremburg January 1944 – November 1946. Stroud: Tempus, 2006. Print. “This book is an interesting, albeit not complete, account of this period of history, covering roughly the time of the buildup for the D-Day landings to the surrender of Germany to the denazification efforts, including the Nuremberg trials, whereby the Allies efforts to destroy Nazism culminated in the trials of those of its remaining leaders who could still be found, of whom many were executed.”

Tuszyńska, Agata. Vera Gran: The Accused. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2013. Print. This book discusses “the nature of the accusations made against Gran, and about the slow process of discovery that has followed from Tuszyńska’s learning, at age 19, that her mother was a Jew.”

Waite, Robert G. L. Kaiser and Führer: A Comparative Study of Personality and Politics. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1998. Print. “Thoroughly documented and engagingly written this is a classic work of scholarship that will fascinate historians, psychologists, and general readers alike.”

Wallace, Max. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the Rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin’s, 2003. Print. “Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh have long been exalted as two of the greatest American icons of the twentieth century. Now award-winning journalist Max Wallace uncovers groundbreaking and astonishing revelations about the poisonous effect these two so-called American heroes had on Western democracy and how the two of them—acting in league with the Nazis—almost brought democratic Europe to the verge of extinction.”

Additional Holocaust, Jews

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Sachsenhausen at Oranienburg, where from 1936 to the end of the war 200,000 people were locked up, beaten, hanged, shot and worked to death, ground down by pitiless slave labor and gassed.

 

“4,000 Jewish Survivors of Nazi Camps Issue Manifesto to World, Ask Justice for Jews.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 1 Aug. 1945. Web. 28 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1945/08/01/archive/4000-jewish-survivors-of-nazi-camps-issue-manifesto-to-world-ask-justice-for-jews?utm_source=Newsletter%20subscribers&utm_campaign=974b681e79-TWJH_2013_6-08&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-974b681e79-26652337>. “An appeal to ‘all the free peoples of the world’ for justice for the Jews, in the form of a manifesto which will soon be published throughout the world, was completed here today by representatives of 4,000 surviving victims of the concentration camps of Buchenwald, Bergen-Belsen, Dachau, Auswitz, Theresienstadt and Mauthausen, who are now in Switzerland.”

“Belgium Reported Not Anxious to Encourage Return of Jewish Diamond Dealers.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 1 Aug. 1945. Web. 28 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1945/08/01/archive/belgium-reported-not-anxious-to-encourage-return-of-jewish-diamond-dealers>. “There is little like lihood [sic] that the Belgian Government will offer any inducement to encourage the return of Jewish diamond dealers who fled abroad after the Nazi occupation, it was learned here today. … Antwerp, incidentally, is known for having saved the smallest number of Jews during the occupation and as the city where large numbers of Jews were denounced to the Gestapo by Belgian collaborationists.”

Bonish, Georg. “Nazi Atrocities, Committed by Ordinary People.” Spiegel Online. SPIEGELnet GmbH, 18 Mar. 2008. Web. 07 Aug. 2012. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/everyday-murder-nazi-atrocities-committed-by-ordinary-people-a-542245.html>. “From doctors to opera singers, teachers to truant schoolchildren, the extermination of European Jews was the work of roughly 200,000 ordinary Germans and their helpers. Years of research — not yet complete — reveal how sane members of a modern society committed murder for an evil regime.”

Brice, James S. “German Holocaust Literature: Trendencies.” Diss. Universitat Konstanz, 20006. Konstanzer Online-Publikations-System (KOPS), 12 Jan. 2006. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. <http://kops.ub.uni-konstanz.de/handle/urn:nbn:de:bsz:352-opus-58461>. A 391 page dissertation in English in a pdf. “The development of German Holocaust literature is traced from the war to the present. Basic concepts and definitions relevant to the study are presented. A variety of texts from the sub- jects of history, social science, memoirs, and creative literature are used to illustrate key de- velopments. Memory, silence, trauma and representation are also considered. The trends and tendencies are placed in the context of social and political developments, alongside trends in historiography and social science.”

(Bruno) Bar-On, D. “Holocaust Perpetrators and Their Children: A Paradoxical Morality.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 29.4 (1989): 424-43. Print. “Thru study attempts to trace evidence of a suppressed moral conflict in perpetrators of the extermination process during the Third Reich and in perpetrators’ children.”

Chandler, Adam. “What We’ve Learned from the St. Louis.” Tablet Magazine. 4 June 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/scroll/133871/what-weve-learned-from-the-st-louis>. “One of the most grievous emblems of the world’s indifference to the rise of Nazi Germany and its persecution of European Jews is the MS St. Louis, a German ocean liner that brought nearly 1,000 Jewish passengers across the Atlantic, only to be denied entry by the United States, Cuba, and Canada. As it’s well-known, the St. Louis had little choice but eventually turn around and return to Europe, where roughly a quarter of the passengers perished. By many accounts, it was June 4, 1939, when the refugee ship was officially denied entry to the United States while it idled near the coast of Florida, taunted by the lights of Miami.”

Cohen, Patricia. “Italian Praised for Saving Jews Is Now Seen as Nazi Collaborator.” The New York Times 19 June 2013. The New York Times. 20 June 2013. Web. 20 June 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/20/arts/an-italian-saint-in-the-making-or-a-collaborator-with-nazis.html?nl=todaysheadlines>. He [Giovanni Palatucci] has been called the Italian Schindler, credited with helping to save 5,000 Jews during the Holocaust. Giovanni Palatucci, a wartime police official, has been honored in Israel, in New York and in Italy, where squares and promenades have been named in his honor, and in the Vatican, . . . But at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, the tale of his heroic exploits is being removed from an exhibition after officials there learned of new evidence suggesting that, far from being a hero, he was an enthusiastic Nazi collaborator involved in the deportation of Jews to Auschwitz.”

Edelheit, Abraham J., and Hershel Edelheit. History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder: Westview, 1994. Print. “The scholarly and well-organized presentation of the material notably fulfills the Edelheits’ stated purpose of providing a concise overview of Jewish history during the Nazi era, a comprehensive Holocaust glossary, and a tabular and graphic presentation of applicable information.”

Engelmayer, Juda. “Film-maker Chronicles Holocaust Connections of Multinational I.G. Farben.” Spero News. 20 May 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.speroforum.com/a/YUCWCUTFMQ25/74015-Filmmaker-chronicles-Holocaust-connections-of-multinational-IG-Farben>. “I.G. Farben was perhaps the first true ‘multinational corporation’; it was the very model of a modern major conglomerate: brilliant, inventive, diversified—and ruthless in its pursuit of the bottom line. As the largest company in Europe during World War II, its rise and fall provides a shocking example of a profit-driven culture run amok. … Gruber’s film, tentatively entitled A Deal with the Devil, is based on the seminal book The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben by Joseph Borkin. It traces the company’s remarkable history from the middle of the 19th century to the present day. Gruber’s production company, Black Eye Productions, is fundraising for an imminent aspect of the film—to interview Holocaust survivor Branko Lustig, who was a slave laborer at I.G. Farben’s infamous Auschwitz concentration camp.”

“Exploring the Vilnius Ghetto.” ReVilna. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.revilna.org/>. “reVilna is a digital mapping project dedicated to understanding how the residents of the Ghetto lived, how the ghetto functioned — even, given the circumstances, flourished — how it emerged, and how, ultimately, it was liquidated. Using geographical science and technology, reVilna seeks to reimagine the Vilna Ghetto.”

“Faces of World’s Most Wanted Nazis: The Last Chance to Bring Third Reich War Criminals to Justice.” Mail Online. 27 July 2013. Web. 28 July 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2380039/Nazi-war-criminals-Faces-worlds-wanted-Nazis.html>. “These are the faces of some of the most wanted war criminals of the Third Reich who have been named by Nazi hunters in a bid to bring them to justice. The Simon Wiesenthal Center is offering rewards of £20,000 for information to help with the last round-ups of up to 60 Nazis who committed atrocities during the Second World War. Among those identified is Danish-born SS officer Soren Kam, 91, who is accused of murdering a journalist in 1943 and is currently believed to live in Bavaria, Germany.”

First, Alan. “Sad Missions.” Tablet Magazine. 14 Oct. 2010. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/47203/sad-missions>. “The spy novelist rediscovers Menahem Bader’s Aliyah B book, about the brave men and women who smuggled Jews from prewar Europe to Mandate Palestine. Not the usual book review, maybe, a book you can’t buy. At all, I thought initially, but it can apparently be downloaded from Google Books, so at least it can be read. The book is Sad Missions, by Menahem Bader—he is “Menachem” in his Wikipedia article—translated from Hebrew, copyright by Sifriat Poalim and printed in Israel by Hidakel Press in 1979. . . . I’m a veteran of the hard-to-find book war, but at this I had to work hard, because the book had practically disappeared. Eventually, I managed.”

“Fishermen Establish Regular Ferry Service for Refugees Between Denmark and Sweden.” JTA Jewish News Archive. 6 Oct. 1943. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1943/10/11/2860931/fishermen-establish-regular-ferry-service-for-refugees-between-denmark-and-sweden>. “[Eight?] hundred Danish Jews were landed in Sweden yesterday and another 800 reached here on Friday. German naval vessels continue to patrol Danish waters, however, and four of the ships carrying refugees have been sunk. Several Danish fishermen have also been arrested.”

Friedlander, Albert. “Is Forgiveness Possible?A Jewish Perspective.” BBC – History – World Wars. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/genocide/forgive_01.shtml>. A rabbi explores the question “Can Jewish people forgive the atrocities of the Holocaust?”

“Full Text of AJC Letter to Minister.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 4 Dec. 1934. Web. 18 June 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1934/12/04/archive/full-text-of-ajc-letter-to-minister>. “On November 22, 1934, a committee of the American Jewish Congress consisting of Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Professor Horace M. Kallen, Dr. Samuel Margoshes, Nathan D. Perlman and Dr. Joshua Goldberg, had the honor of calling upon you by appointment for the purpose of expressing to you, and asking you to transmit to your government, the deep concern of the officers and members of the American Jewish Congress over the increasing disabilities imposed upon the Jewish citizens of Austria.”

Glazer, Susan D. “Ghettos under the Nazis.” My Jewish Learning. Web. 04 Aug. 2013. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/1914-1948/The_Holocaust/War/Ghettos.shtml>. “During World War II, the Nazis established more than 400 ghettos for the purpose of isolating and controlling the Jews. The term “ghetto” originated in sixteenth-century Venice where it was used to refer to the Jewish quarter. As medieval restrictions on Jewish residence spread across Italy and beyond to central and western Europe, the word ‘ghetto’ followed, referring to the section of the city where Jews were forced to live. The following article chronicles the Nazis’ use of the medieval concept of ghettos to isolate Jews during World War II.”

Goss, Jennifer L. “Evian Conference.” About.com 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/a/Evian.htm>. “From July 6 to 15, 1938, representatives from 32 countries met at the resort town of Evian-les-Bains, France, at the request of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, to discuss the issue of Jewish immigration from Nazi Germany. It was the hope of many that these countries could find a way to open their doors to allow more than their usual quotas of immigrants into their countries. Instead, although they commiserated with the plight of the Jews under the Nazis, every country but one refused to allow in more immigrants; the Dominican Republic was the only exception. In the end, the Evian Conference showed Germany that no one wanted the Jews, leading the Nazis to a different solution to the ‘Jewish question’ – extermination.”

Gross, Jan T. “The Treblinka Gold Rush.” Tablet Magazine. 21 May 2013. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/99982/the-treblinka-gold-rush>. “After World War II, Polish peasants hunted for jewels and gold amid the human remains at former Nazi death camps. . . . We are in the middle of Europe right after World War II. The peasants in the photograph are standing atop the ashes of 800,000 Jews gassed and cremated in the Treblinka extermination camp between July 1942 and October 1943. The peasants have been digging through remains of Holocaust victims, hoping to find gold and precious stones that their Nazi executioners may have overlooked.”

Grunwald-Spier, Agnes. The Other Schindlers: Why Some People Chose to save Jews in the Holocaust. Stroud: History, 2010. Print. “Thanks to Thomas Keneally’s book Schindler’s Ark, and the film based on it, Schindler’s List, people have become more aware of the fact that, in the midst of Hitler’s extermination of the Jews, courage and humanity could still overcome evil. While six million Jews were murdered by the Nazi regime, some were saved through the actions of non-Jews whose consciences would not allow them to pass by on the other side, and many are honored by Israel’s official memorial to Jewish Holocaust victims, Yad Vashem, as ‘Righteous among the Nations’ for their actions. As a baby, Agnes Grunwald-Spier was herself saved from the horrors of Auschwitz by an unknown official, and is now a trustee of the Holocaust Memorial Day Trust. She has collected the stories of 30 individuals who rescued Jews, providing a new insight into why these people were prepared to risk so much for their fellow men and women.”

“Hidden from Nazis, Ancient Jewish Headstones Unearthed in Vienna.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 11 July 2013. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/07/11/news-opinion/world/hidden-from-nazis-ancient-jewish-headstones-unearthed-in-vienna>. “Twenty ancient headstones that were hidden in the ground during the Nazi occupation were discovered during renovation work at Vienna’s oldest Jewish cemetery.”

Kaiser, Menachem. “A New Interactive Map of the Vilna Ghetto Asks: What Good Is History If It Isn’t Told?” Tablet Magazine. 20 June 2013. Web. 20 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/135233/revilna?utm_source=tabletmagazinelist>. “The history of the Vilna Ghetto usually goes something like this. On June 22, 1941, the German army invaded Soviet-occupied Lithuania and, within days, captured the capital, Vilna (today’s Vilnius). By July, the German military administration had seized control of all major civilian institutions; and on Sept. 6, 1941, 40,000 Jewish inhabitants were driven into two ghettos. The smaller Ghetto 2 was liquidated on Oct. 21. Ghetto 1—whose population by early 1942 had stabilized at about 15,000 to 20,000 Jews—was liquidated in September 1943. There were very few survivors. … reVILNA, a just-launched digital mapping project of the Vilna Ghetto, is the response: a virtual reclamation of the space. Using filters and a search function, visitors to the site can explore the ghetto on their own, or follow built-in storylines—sort of like virtual tours—which are either chronological or topical in nature and include resistance, health, education, government, art and culture, and more.”

Kershaw, I. “The Persecution of the Jews and German Popular Opinion in the Third Reich.” The Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 26.1 (1981): 261-89. Leobaeck.orfordjournals.org. Leo Baeck Institute. Web. 5 July 2013. <http://leobaeck.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/1/261.extract#>. “To what extent did antisemitism serve to integrate the German people an mobilize them behind the Nazi leadership during the Third Reich? That is the central question which this article seeks to answer.”

Klemperer, Victor, and Martin Chalmers. I Will Bear Witness 1942-1945: A Diary of the Nazi Years. New York: Modern Library, 2001. Print. “This second volume of Klemperer’s diary of the Nazi years confirms its place alongside Anne Frank’s diary and Elie Wiesel’s Night in the pantheon of Holocaust literature. Yet in many ways it is a more valuable source for the historian and general reader, as Klemperer gives the most finely detailed and intricately delineated portrait of the Nazi era for the man-in-the-street. Granted, as a Jew married to an “Aryan” woman, and with his incredible capacity to see what his fellow Germans couldn’t or wouldn’t see, Klemperer was no ordinary German. Rather, he was an ordinary man in his desire to live freely–and in his empathy. The defining characteristic of the diary is how he maintains a capacity for the human in the face of the barbaric.”

Kuttler, Hillel. “Seeking Kin: Photo Brings Desperate Hope for a Holocaust Miracle.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 6 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/06/06/life-religion/photo-brings-desperate-hope-for-a-holocaust-miracle>. “Picking up her mail about a year ago, 88-year-old Rose Goteiner stopped in her tracks upon seeing the photo on a newsletter cover. Posing shortly after the Holocaust ended, 21 people were standing before a truck marked “American Joint Distribution Committee” — the relief organization later known as the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. There were young children and teenagers, plus a few adults. In the middle of the front row was a girl wearing a light-colored dress, hands at her sides and staring into the camera.”

“Letters to Afar at the Museum of the History of Polish Jews.” YIVO. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.yivoinstitute.org/about/index.php?tid=154&aid=1172>. “Letters to Afar Museum of the History of Polish Jews May 18 – September 30, 2013 Video installation by Péter Forgács with music by The Klezmatics, commissioned by the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw and the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research in New York The audiovisual installation Letters to Afar is based on home movies made by Jewish immigrants from the United States visiting their hometowns in Poland during the 1920s and 30s. Filming for their families back in America, they recorded relatives and friends in their daily surroundings, capturing unique moments that allow the viewer to be at once ‘there’ and ‘now.’ These films also provide a glimpse of the autonomy and richness of Jewish life in interwar Poland—a snapshot of the diversity of school, youth, self-help and cultural organizations that existed even in the smallest towns. This broad social panorama can be discerned best in the films made by members of American landsmanshaftn, organizations of immigrant Jews from the same locality that often tried to organize help for their former communities in Poland.”

Medina, Jennifer. “Many Holocaust Survivors Living in Poverty, Report Says.” The New York Times. 16 Apr. 2007. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/world/africa/16iht-web-holocaust16.5309346.html>. “JERUSALEM — Every year here, Holocaust Memorial Day is marked with a solemn focus. The cafés close early. Air raid sirens are blasted throughout the country for two full minutes. Television stations devote hours of programs to commemorate the killing of six million Jews. But another number received a laser-sharp focus Monday: Nearly one-third of the estimated 260,000 Holocaust survivors here are now living in poverty.”

Medoff, Rafel. “Tarzan and The Holocaust.” JNS.org. 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/9/10/tarzan-and-the-holocaust.html>. “In one of the Hebrew novellas, Tarzan helps smuggle Jewish refugees out of Europe and past the British naval blockade of Palestine. At one point in the story, Tarzan is captured by the British and imprisoned, although he later escapes. In real life, the Irgun Zvai Leumi underground militia in Palestine initiated the Aliyah Bet (unauthorized immigration) campaign in 1937. It brought an estimated 20,000 Jews to the Holy Land during the next four years. About 7,500 miles away, a handful of Jewish activists were looking for donors in Hollywood to help bankroll the Aliyah Bet operations.”

Memory of the Camps. Frontline. PBS, 3 May 2005. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/camp/>. “For more than thirty years this film of the death camps had been stored in a vault of the Imperial War Museum, London. Today it is recognized as one of the most definitive and unforgettable records of the 20th century’s darkest hour.”

“New York Museums Have Not Returned Nazi-seized Art.” New York Post. 7 Oct. 2012. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/that_nazi_loot_art_is_mein_18eatpbSRGsvvvUlrDROII>. “Between 1933 and 1945, the Nazis seized an estimated 650,000 works of art, taking them from Jewish families and grabbing so-called ‘degenerate’ art — including works by Picasso, Matisse, Chagall and van Gogh — off the walls of German museums. Many of the plundered paintings and other works were destroyed, but others were sold abroad with the cash going back to the Nazi war machine. It took 50 years, but Jewish families thought they might finally receive some justice for this massive theft.” But they haven’t.

Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. “Holocaust Reparations: The Back Story.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/4734/features/holocaust-reparations-the-back-story/>. “On July 10th [2012], dignitaries from the U.S., German, and Israeli governments attended a curious ceremony at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. The gathering marked the 60th anniversary of the first agreement by the West German government with the Israeli government and the Jewish ‘Claims Conference’ to grant modest financial compensation for the Holocaust. Some of the Jews in the room had spent the years since the agreement in seemingly interminable haggling.”

Playing for Time. Dir. Daniel Mann. Perf. Vanessa Redgrave. Szygzy Productions, 1980. IMDb. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0081344/?ref_=sr_1>. “Female prisoners in a Nazi concentration camp (Auschwitz) are spared from death in return for performing music for their captors.”

“Poster Collection Looted by Nazis to Be Auctioned.” JTA Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraph Agency, 5 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/11/05/3111096/poster-collection-looted-by-nazis-to-go-on-sale>. “The more than 4,300 posters collected by Hans Sachs and looted by the Nazis will be auctioned at Guernsey’s in New York on Jan. 18 [2013], though the auction house is seeking to sell the entire collection to one buyer. The posters are worth about $5.8 million, according to Bloomberg.”

“Rescue.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia: Rescue. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 29 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005185>. “Despite the indifference of most Europeans and the collaboration of others in the murder of Jews during the Holocaust, individuals in every European country and from all religious backgrounds risked their lives to help Jews.”

“Rescuers of Jews.” Traces.org Website. Northwest Minnesota Center, Minnesota State University Moorhead. Web. 09 May 2011. <http://www.traces.org/>. This website’s purpose is help people “to learn more about the subjects of Jewish Refugees and the Holocaust.” Herman Stern, an American German-Jewish immigrant, helped 125 Jews flee Nazi Germany, during the depression with proceeds from his business to “buy the lives of individuals who otherwise might have perished.”

Rosenberg, Anat. “Holocaust Graphic Novels Give Israelis a Way To Connect to a Past Not Quite Theirs.” Tablet Magazine. 31 July 2013. Web. 31 July 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/139468/holocaust-graphic-novels?utm_source=tabletmagazinelist>. “With two recent publications, Israel has further embraced the form of the Holocaust-related graphic novel: The first is Michel Kichka’s memoir Second Generation: Things I Never Told My Father, which was originally released in French and, like Maus, recounts growing up in the shadow of a Holocaust survivor. The second is Rutu Modan’s The Property, a fictional account of a young Israeli woman and her grandmother who travel to Poland to reclaim an apartment belonging to the family before the war, published simultaneously in Hebrew and English.”

Rosensaft, Menchem Z. “A Meditation on Remembrance.” The Washington Post. 25 June 2013. Web. 1 July 2013. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/on-faith/wp/2013/06/25/a-meditation-on-remembrance/>. While attending a multi-media program on the “Lost Music of the Holocaust” the author was startled to see “the photograph of my father, Josef Rosensaft, as a young man standing near the castle in his hometown of Będzin. At that moment I remembered the lyrics of a song by the Yiddish poet Yosef Papiernikov and I could almost hear my father singing it in his beautiful tenor voice: Zol zayn az ikh boy in der luft mayne shlesser Zol zayn az mayn Got iz ingantsn nishto In troym iz mir heller, in troym iz mir besser In kholem – der himl – nokh bloyer fun bloy.”

Roth, Mtthue. “Bambi…and the Holocaust.” Jewniverse. My Jewish Learning, 24 June 2013. Web. 24 June 2013. <http://thejewniverse.com/2013/bambi-in-the-holocaust/>. “In 1936 … Bambi was banned by the ruling Nazi party because of its ‘political allegory on the treatment of Jews in Europe.’ Burnings of the book were organized across Nazi states.”

Rupnow, Dirk. “Racializing Historiography: Anti-Jewish Scholarship in the Third Reich.” Patterns of Prejudice 42.1 (2008): 27-59. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. “Despite continued debates about the role of German historians in the Third Reich, current scholarship views the work that was conducted under National Socialism under the rubric of Judenforschung (research on Jews as a marginal and pseudo-scientific phenomenon.”

“Russian Lawmaker Wants to Strip Holocaust Survivors of Privileges.” JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People. Jewish Telegraph Agency. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jta.org/news/article/2012/11/04/3111056/russian-lawmaker-wants-to-strip-holocaust-survivors-of-priviliges>. ” A Russian lawmaker from President Vladimir Putin’s ruling United Russia party reportedly opposed making public transportation free for Holocaust survivors.”

Sacks, Sam. “Vasily Grossman: Loser, Saint.” The New Yorker. 25 June 2013. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2013/06/vasily-grossman-loser-saint.html>. “There were two major acts in the life of Jewish-Russian writer Vasily Grossman, and in each he played a different role. The first is bound up in the epochal events of the twentieth century: the battles of Stalingrad, Kursk, and Berlin; the genocides at Treblinka and Auschwitz. In the travel memoir he wrote late in his life, published for the first time in English earlier this year, under the title ‘An Armenian Sketchbook,’ Grossman brushes the surface of his experiences in the Second World War: ‘I crossed the Volga more than once under German fire. I experienced both massive bombing raids and barrages of mortar and artillery fire.’ He was the star correspondent for the Red Army, and his dispatches for the newspaper Red Star documented with thrilling immediacy the Nazi lightning attack upon the U.S.S.R., the decisive reversal at Stalingrad, and the Soviet’s slow, bloody bulldozer-march to the German capital. That westward advance took him through the Nazi camps in Poland and his 1944 report ‘The Hell Called Treblinka”’was the first article about a death camp ever published. It remains one of the finest, providing firsthand forensic documentation—Grossman meticulously lays out the physical dimensions of the camp, down to the square footage—and then icily explaining the engineering of genocide.”

Schorsch, Ismar. “From Reparations to Atonement.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 28 Jan. 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/5832/features/from-reparations-to-atonement-the-stages-of-germanys-coming-to-terms-with-its-past/>. “Ismar Schorsch, former chancellor of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, delivered these remarks in German more than a year ago, in Hanover, where he was born and where his father served for 11 years as rabbi. He repeated them yesterday, on International Holocaust Remembrance Day, in Esslingen, his mother’s birthplace. They are presented here in his translation.”

Schorsch, Ismar. “Today’s Germans Atone for the Holocaust.” Letter. 23 July 1994. The New York Times. Nytimes. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/1994/07/23/opinion/l-today-s-germans-atone-for-the-holocaust-752487.html>. ISMAR SCHORSCH Chancellor, Jewish Theological Seminary of America New York, July 13, 1994. “The Germany of 1994 is not the Germany of 1944, and American Jews ought not to allow the spectacular and deserved success of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington to perpetuate this destructive myth. The widespread initiatives by Germans at the local level amount to a form of spiritual restitution that surely warrants tempering the feelings of hatred on the other side.”

Shriver Jr., Donald W. “Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust.” Rev. of Bystanders. Christian Century 2 Aug. 2000: 812. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Aug. 2012. “Bystanders is a powerful argument against such moral-empirical flippancy. Victoria Barnett, a consultant for the Department of Church Relations of the Holocaust Museum, explores an area that has received relatively scant attention in Holocaust studies. Her thesis matches Bauer’s: ‘In the long term, Nazism was powerful not just because of the numbers of party stalwarts, but because millions of Germans were prepared to inform on one another, obey orders, and remain passive while others became victims.’”

Smith, Jordan M. “Life inside the Camps.” Tablet Magazine. 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 30 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/95282/life-inside-the-camps>. “Dutch Jew David Koker’s extraordinary diary, a clear-eyed and sensitive account of life inside a concentration camp, is finally available in English. … At the Edge of the Abyss: A Concentration Camp Diary, 1943-1944, was first published in Dutch in 1977 as Diary Written in Vught. Despite immediately being recognized as a classic in the Netherlands, it has never seen publication in English, until now.”

Snyder, Donald. “After Decades, Family Unravels Holocaust Mystery.” NBC News. 14 Apr. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/04/14/17723483-after-decades-family-unravels-holocaust-mystery>. “While Israel recently marked its annual Holocaust Remembrance Day dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Warsaw ghetto uprising, it’s hard to imagine that anyone could still just be learning the fate of their loved ones from that tragic era. But that’s exactly what happened to Amos Cohen, a shipbuilder living in Haifa, Israel. He only recently learned the fate of his long-lost relative Rose Kobylinski, who died in a German death march and was buried in a Roman Catholic cemetery in a small village in Poland.”

Steal a Pencil for Me. Dir. Michele Ohayon. 2007. IMDb. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1045889/plotsummary?ref_=tt_ov_pl>. “Director Michèle Ohayon’s moving documentary chronicles the unshakeable romance between Jack Polak and Ina Soep of Amsterdam, who met and fell in love despite their deportation to Nazi concentration camps during the war. As they corresponded with love letters composed on any scrap of paper they could find, the couple’s blossoming relationship coincided with the horrors of the Holocaust and their internment in Westerbork and Bergen-Belsen.”

“Stefan Terlezki.” Telegraph.com. Telegraphic Media Group, 27 Feb. 2006. Web. 2 Aug. 2012. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1511541/Stefan-Terlezki.html>. “Stefan Terlezki, who died on February, aged 78, endured an appalling youth as a slave of the Nazis during the Second World War, and even survived being rescued by the Russians …”

Steinfeld, Irena. “Tracing the Memory of Goodness.” Ehri-project-eu. European Holocaust Research Infrastructure. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.ehri-project.eu/drupal/tracing-goodness>. “The Righteous Among the Nations program is an unprecedented attempt by victims to pay tribute to people who stood by them at a time of persecution and tragedy. Its purpose is to single out, within the nations of perpetrators, collaborators, and bystanders, individuals who bucked the general trend and protected Jews from death and deportation.”

Surghroue, Lorri. “From Hell to Here — Southwest Nebraska Helped Death Camp Survivor Start New Life.” McCook Daily Gazette. 14 June 2013. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://www.mccookgazette.com/story/1978273.html>. “A recently-deceased survivor of Nazi death camps began a new life in America more than 60 years ago, thanks to an American GI from Lebanon, Nebraska. Benny Hochman was 89 when he passed away May 29 in Sidney, Nebraska, a life marked with atrocities he suffered in Auschwitz and Buchenwald but ending with an untiring love of his adopted country.”

“Swiss Banks’ Holocaust Fund Has Paid out $1.24 Billion.” JTA.org. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 15 July 2013. Web. 16 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/07/15/news-opinion/world/swiss-banks-holocaust-fund-has-paid-out-1-24-billion?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=11d83f1049-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_18_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-11d83f1049-26652337>. “Holocaust survivors and victims’ heirs have received $1.24 billion from a Swiss fund set up in 1998 following a scandal over dormant accounts of Jews killed in World War II, according to a Jewish weekly.”

“Underground Tunnel Discovered at Sobibor.” JTA.org. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/06/06/news-opinion/world/underground-tunnel-discovered-at-sobibor>. “Polish and Israeli archaeologists discovered traces of an underground tunnel at the site of the former death camp in Sobibor. The tunnel, whose discovery was announced on Wednesday, ran from a barracks to outside the camp fence. It may have been dug by the prisoners of the Sonderkommando who worked in the camp burning the corpses of murdered Jews.”

“Victor Klemperer: ‘I Am German, the Others Are Un-German’” SPIEGEL ONLINE. Spiegel.de, 11 Feb. 2005. Web. 21 May 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/victor-klemperer-i-am-german-the-others-are-un-german-a-341147.html>. “The Nazis made Victor Klemperer’s life a living hell. Baptized Christian but of Jewish descent, Hitler’s henchmen labeled him ‘un-German.’ In a bizarre twist of fate, Klemperer could essentially thank a catastrophe — the bombing of Dresden sixty years ago — for saving him from the terror of the Nazi regime.”

“Voice/Vision Holocaust Survivor Oral History Archive.” Holocust.umd.umich. University of Michigan. Web. 05 July 2013. <http://holocaust.umd.umich.edu/>. “Since 1981, Dr. Sidney Bolkosky, Professor of History at the University of Michigan-Dearborn, has interviewed Holocaust survivors. The University’s Mardigian Library has been the repository of these interviews. It has been our privilege to provide a forum for those voices, ‘listening ears,’ as one survivor notes, and the facilities to record the testimonies. As a University of distinction, the campus has demonstrated its dignity and character because of the respect it has accorded the tapes and the people who made them.”

Ward, Lucy. “Kindertransport: ‘To My Dying Day, I Will Be Grateful to This Country’” The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 26 May 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/britain-at-war/10080264/Kindertransport-To-my-dying-day-I-will-be-grateful-to-this-country.html>. “Seventy-five years after the first evacuation to Britain of Jewish children from Nazi Europe – known as the Kindertransport – we hear from some of those rescued who made a new life here.”

Wygoda, Mark, ed. Shadow of the Swaskita. Chicago: University of Illinois, 1998. Print. This book tells the story of a Polish Jew whose harrowing wartime adventures reached their amazing end when he received the American Bronze Star in June 1946.

Zeltserman, Lea. “Ghosts of Soviet Holocaust Cinema Finally Escape From the Censors’ Files.” Tablet Magazine. 12 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/134722/soviet-holocaust-cinema>. “Olga Gershenson, a professor of Judaic and Near Eastern Studies at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and the preeminent name in Soviet Holocaust film history. Wherever a Soviet Holocaust movie is screened, Gershenson is there, leading the discussion and translating the Soviet messaging for contemporary audiences. Her third book, The Phantom Holocaust: Soviet Cinema and Jewish Catastrophe, which will be released next week, traces the story of a shadow Soviet film industry that only rarely managed to represent the tragedy that filmmakers, directors, and screenwriters sought to warn against or memorialize. While films like Schindler’s List are often the way Westerners are first exposed to the Holocaust, there are no parallels in Soviet/Russian culture—Professor Mamlock was shown briefly after Hitler invaded the USSR, but had disappeared from Soviet theaters by the end of the 1940s.”

 

Additional Hitler

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Nazi propaganda poster made for the Reichskommissariat Ukraine with the portrait of Hitler and the inscription reading in Ukrainian language HITLER THE LIBERATOR.

 In Mein Kampf  Hitler … promised,  ”to do away with the idea that what he does with his own body is each individiual’s own business.”

“Beer Hall Putsch.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 03 July 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/beer-hall-putsch>. “From November 8 to November 9, 1923, Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and his followers staged the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, a failed takeover of the government in Bavaria, a state in southern Germany. Since 1921, Hitler had led the Nazi Party, a fledgling political group that promoted German pride and anti-Semitism and was unhappy with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the peace settlement that ended World War I (1914-18) and required many concessions and reparations from Germany. In the aftermath of the failed ‘putsch,’ or coup d’état, Hitler was convicted of treason and sentenced to five years in prison.”

Bessel, Richard. The Hidden Hitler: Richard Bessel Reviews the Controversial New Book by Lothar Machtan. Perseus. History Today. Web. 19 May 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/richard-bessel/hidden-hitler>. “Opening his biography of Adolf Hitler nearly three decades ago, Joachim Fest observed: ‘Hardly any other prominent figure in history so covered his tracks, as far as his personal life was concerned.’ With his new book on The Hidden Hitler, Lothar Machtan offers a fascinating picture of what the Nazi dictator may have been trying to hide: a history of homosexual relationships beginning during his spell as a young man in Vienna, extending through his wartime military service, and continuing into his early postwar years in Munich.”

Deutsch, Harold C. Hitler and His Generals; the Hidden Crisis, January-June 1938. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1974. Print. This book “focuses on sensational events centering about Hitler’s successful efforts to oust Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, the War Minister, and Colonel General Baron von Fritsch, the Army commander in chief, in order to consolidate control of the military in his own hands.”

“Did Hitler Ban Gun Ownership?”. 16 June 2000. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/1791/did-hitler-ban-gun-ownership>. “I’ve seen references to, and bumper stickers stating, that Hitler took all the guns away from law abiding Germans in 1936. The inference is that this led to the disarming of the populace and its fall into a dictatorship. I’ve read extensively about the Third Reich and have never seen a mention of this.”

Eberle, Henrik, ed. The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Hitler’s Personal Aides. New York: Public Affairs, 2005. Print. “Even after Hitler’s death, Stalin remained so intrigued by his nemesis that he commissioned a top-secret dossier detailing every aspect of the late dictator’s private life, political behavior and personality. The result—File No. 462a, now known as The Hitler Book—was discovered hidden in the Soviet archives just two years  [2007] ago by Uhl, of the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich and Berlin, who presents it with Eberle, a historian at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg.”

Evans, Richard J. Hitler’s Philosophers by Yvonne Sherrratt. Yale UP, 2013. Print. “An effort to blame German thinkers for Nazism revives a discredited tradition, says Richard J. Evans.”

Fawcett, Bill. Trust Me, I Know What I’m Doing: 100 More Mistakes That Lost Elections, Ended Empires, and Made the World What It Is Today. New York: Berkley, 2012. Print. Hitler’s mistakes are #53 to #78. If he hadn’t made these errors, the world would be in worst shape now.

Hall, Allan. “Hitler’s Confidantes Describe His Last Days in Extraordinary Never-before-seen Interviews.” Mail Online. Web. 20 May 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2317588/Adolf-Hitlers-confidantes-days-extraordinary-seen-interviews.html>. “Remarkable interviews with the circle of confidantes who surrounded Adolf Hitler in the days before his suicide have been shown for the first time on German television. In testimony from beyond the grave, the group of aides, secretaries and friends described life in the squalid bunker retreat beneath the Reich Chancellery in Berlin as Russian troops moved in. They revealed intimate domestic details of Hitler’s favourite tea, the love letters from his admirers and the love song that he and Eva Braun, the woman he married in the underground hide, listened to over and over again. ”

Haltenborn, Hans V., and Adolf Hitler. “An Interview with Hitler.” The Wisconsin Magazine of History 50.4 (1967): 283-90. JSTOR. Web. 3 May 2011. From previously unpublished documents on Nazi Germany.

Herzog, Dagmar. The Great Mediocrity. Rev. of Hitler by A. N. Wilson. The New York Times 22 June 2012. Print. “A. N. Wilson’s ‘Hitler’ ultimately falls short as a satisfactory substitute for something more substantial.”

“Hitler Becomes Fuhrer.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/hitler-becomes-fuhrer>. “With the death of German President Paul von Hindenburg, Chancellor Adolf Hitler becomes absolute dictator of Germany under the title of Fuhrer, or ‘Leader.’ The German army took an oath of allegiance to its new commander-in-chief, and the last remnants of Germany’s democratic government were dismantled to make way for Hitler’s Third Reich. The Fuhrer assured his people that the Third Reich would last for a thousand years, but Nazi Germany collapsed just 11 years later.”

“Hitler Receives an Ultimatum, 1939.” EyeWitnesstoHistory. 2004. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/ultimatum.htm>. “Hitler’s aggressive acquisition of territory began in 1936 when he ordered his army to reoccupy the Rhineland district of Germany. Bordering France, the Rhineland had been designated as a demilitarized zone by the Versailles Treaty ending World War I. It was a high-risk endeavor for Hitler. The German troops were unprepared, poorly equipped and had orders to retreat if the French offered any resistance. In the end, the maneuver went smoothly without any hindrance. Encouraged by this result, Hitler went on to absorb Austria and the German dominated Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia into the German Third Reich in 1938. In March of the next year he occupied the remainder of Czechoslovakia.” The radio report of the surrender of Germany May 8, 1945 is included.

“Hitler Sworn in As German Chancellor; Names Nazi Aides to Two Key Cabinet Positions.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 31 Jan. 1933. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1933/01/31/archive/hitler-sworn-in-as-german-chancellor-names-nazi-aides-to-two-key-cabinet-positions>. “Defying all forecasts that the strength of the Nationalist Socialist Party was on the wane, would not attain executive power, following its loss of 35 seats in the last November’s election, Adolph Hitler today realized a boast of three years and became Chancellor of Germany. … With the appointment of Hitler the Jewish population of Germany are faced with their worst fears that now the Nazis will put into effect the threats they have been levelling ever since their Parliamentary victory in 1930 made them a leading party in the German republic.”

“Hitler’s Bride Eva Braun’s Farewell Letters Unveiled.” Business Standard. 11 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/hitler-s-bride-eva-braun-s-farewell-letters-unveiled-113061100227_1.html>. “Hitler’s bride Eva Braun spoke about her days with the Nazi leader in her farewell letters, before they committed suicide in a Berlin bunker.”

“Hollywood, Adolf Hitler And The Book ‘The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact With Hitler’ The Young Historian Ben Urwand: The Movies Nazis Loved and Hated [SLIDESHOW].” Entertainment & Stars. Inernational Business Times, 2 Aug. 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2013. <http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/496288/20130802/hollywood-adolf-hitler-movies-nazis-loved-hated.htm>. “Adolf Hitler loved Hollywood movies. Every night at about 9:00, after the Fuehrer had tired out his listeners with his hours-long monologues, he would lead his dinner guests to his private screening room. The lights would go down, and Hitler would fall silent, probably for the first time that day. He laughed heartily at his favorites Laurel and Hardy and Mickey Mouse, and he adored Greta Garbo: Camille brought tears to the Fuehrer’s eyes. Tarzan, on the other hand, he thought was silly.”

Hurst, Fabienne. “Hitler Food Taster Margot Wölk Speaks about Her Memories.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 2 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/hitler-food-taster-margot-woelk-speaks-about-her-memories-a-892097.html>. “Each meal could have been her last, but Adolf Hitler’s food taster Margot Wölk lived to tell her story. Forced to test the Nazi leader’s meals for more than two years, the 95-year-old tells SPIEGEL ONLINE that she lived in constant fear.”

“If Hitler Should Become German President: Nazi Official Election Programme Issued: Jen [Jews] Cannot Be Cit[izens].” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 1 Mar. 1932. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1932/03/01/2793041/if-hitler-should-become-german-president-nazi-official-election-programme-issued-jen-cannot-be-citizen-and-will-be-placed-under-alien-laws-then-there-is-shortage-of-food-states-first-duty-is-to-its-ci>. “With Hitler in the field as a candidate against President Hindenburg in the presidential election, in which ballotting takes place on March 13th., the Nazi Party is to-day distributing to all houscholders the official Nazi programme, outlining the policy which would be pursued under the Hitlerist regime if Hitler should be elected President.”

Jeltsen, Melissa. “These Photos Of Adolf Hitler After Prison Release Are Unbelievable.” Huffington Post. 11 July 2013. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/11/hitler-photos_n_3579507.html?utm_hp_ref=mostpopular&utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=200b15c15d-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_18_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-200b15c15d-26652337>. “These are the private photographs Adolf Hitler didn’t want anyone to see. Taken by photographer Heinrich Hoffmann, the extraordinary pictures show Hitler rehearsing while listening to a recording of one of his own speeches. They were reportedly taken in 1925, soon after Hitler was released from a nine-month stint in prison during which he dictated his autobiography, Mein Kampf. After seeing the photographs, Hitler requested that Hoffmann destroy the negatives, but he did not. They were published in his memoir, Hitler Was My Friend, which came out in 1955.”

“Jewish News & Israel News – JNS.org.” JNS.org. Jewish News & Israel News. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2013/3/11/grim-75th-anniversary-hitlers-dream-austrian-jewrys-nightmare>. “Adolf Hitler had long dreamed of making his native Austria a part of Germany and subjecting Austria’s Jews to the same fate he had in mind for the Jews of Germany. Seventy-five years ago this month, he made his move.”

Jones, Nigel. “The Fuhrer Was Not Amused.” Spectator Blogs. The Spectator, 6 Nov. 2012. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://blogs.spectator.co.uk/books/2012/11/the-fuhrer-was-not-amused/>. “‘The German sense of humour,’ Mark Twain famously observed, ‘Is no laughing matter.’ Although many Greeks, stretched on the Euro’s rack at Berlin’s behest, may be inclined to agree, Rudolph Herzog’s intriguing study of humour in and against Hitler’s Germany, ‘Dead Funny: Telling Jokes in Hitler’s Germany,’ proves conclusively that the Teutonic funny bone, while it may be difficult to locate, definitely exists.”

Kershaw, Ian. “Hitler Kept Himself Aloof from the Dirtiest Work.” Telegraph.com. 23 Jan. 2005. Web. 2 Aug. 2012. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1481809/Hitler-kept-himself-aloof-himself-aloof-from-the-dirtiest-work.html>. “He never visited a single death camp and would not speak openly about his plans to annihilate the Jews, but the Fuhrer’s indelible imprint can be found at every stage of the ‘Final Solution’, writes Professor Ian Kershaw.”

“Killing Hitler: Assassination Attempts.” Hitler’s Third Reich and World War II in the News . Web. 15 June 2013. <http://hitlernews.cloudworth.com/killing-hitler-assassination-attempts.php>. Links to many articles about assassination attempts on Adolf Hitler. A section of “Welcome to World War II News.”

Kreis, Steven. “Lecture 11: Hitler and World War Two.” The History Guide. 11 Dec. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://www.historyguide.org/Europe/lecture11.html>. “Because of his experiences in Vienna, World War One, the Münich putsch and in prison, Adolf Hitler dreamed of building a vast German Empire sprawling across Central and Eastern Europe. Lebensraum could only be obtained and sustained by waging a war of conquest against the Soviet Union: German security demanded it and Hitler’s racial ideology required it. War, then, was essential. It was essential to Hitler the man as well as essential to Hitler’s dream of a new Germany.”

Lorenzi, Rosella. “Hitler Used Cocaine and Had Semen Injections.” Discovery News. 4 May 2012. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://news.discovery.com/history/hitler-medical-records-120504.htm>. “Adolf Hitler farted uncontrollably, used cocaine to clear his sinuses, ingested some 28 drugs at a time and received injections of bull testicle extracts to bolster his libido. The startling revelations come from Hitler’s medical records, now up for auction at Alexander Historical Auctions of Stamford, Conn.”

Lorenzi, Rosella. “Proof That Hitler Had An Illegitimate Son?” Discovery News. 18 Feb. 2012. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://news.discovery.com/history/hitlers-illefitimate-son-120218.htm>. “New evidence has emerged to support the controversial claim that Hitler had a son with a French teenager, the French magazine LePoint reported on Friday. The man, Jean-Marie Loret, claimed to be the Fuhrer’s son in 1981, when he published an autobiography called ‘Your Father’s Name Was Hitler.’ He died four years later aged 67, not being able to prove his family line.”

May, Ernest R. Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000. Print. “Strange Victory, a riveting study not only of those crucial six weeks [Germany's conquest of France] but of the years and days leading up to the German invasion, makes it clear how Hitler, though a lazy, illformed psychopath, outguessed his own experts as to how French and British leaders would respond to german actions.”

Medoff, Rafael. “A World Series Warning About Hitler.” JNS.org. 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/10/15/a-world-series-warningabout-hitler.html>. “The 1936 Olympics, scheduled to be held in Nazi Germany, marked the first time basketball would be part of the competition. The Long Islanders stood a strong chance of being chosen to represent the U.S. in Berlin—until the players’ consciences got the better of them. In March 1936, on the eve of the qualifying tournament at Madison Square Garden, university president Tristram Metcalfe shocked the sports world with his announcement that the Blackbirds had decided to boycott Hitler’s Olympics. In view of Hitler’s anti-Jewish abuses, Metcalfe explained, the players decided ‘that the United States should not participate in Olympic Games … ”

Megargee, Geoffrey P. Inside Hitler’s High Command. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 2000. Print. “Hitler emerges from these pages as an adept manipulator. He took full advantage of the tensions in the command structure to divide it and focus it on himself. But he took the officers nowhere they were not at least ready, if not immediately willing, to go.”

“NAZI RANKS SPLIT, REICH SURVEY SAYS.” New York Times 17 June 1934: 20. Print. “Adolf Hitler is still a ‘Messiah’ to the majority of the German people, according to a report on ‘The Political Structure of the Third Reich’ published today by the Foreign Policy Association. The report was prepared by Mildred B. Wertheimer and the research staff of the organization.”

Noakes, Jeremy. “Hitler and ‘Lebensraum’ in the East.” BBC History. BBC, 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 03 July 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/hitler_lebensraum_01.shtml>. “Between 1921 and 1925 Adolf Hitler developed the belief that Germany required Lebensraum (‘living space’) in order to survive. The conviction that this living space could be gained only in the east, and specifically from Russia, formed the core of this idea, and shaped his policy after his take-over of power in Germany in 1933. So where did he get this idea from? And why did he envisage his country’s future living space lying in the east?”

Olden, Rudolf. Hitler, the Pawn. London: V. Gollancz, 1936. Print. “The author’s conversations with a large number of German politicians–until March 1st, 1933, in Germany and subsequently in other countries–have contributed largely to the volume of historical material here presented. The conditions under which these politicians live, both in Germany and outside, make it inadvisable to give their names as evidence and confirmation.”

Peck, Patrice. “Did Hitler Really Snub Jesse Owens at 1936 Berlin Olympics?” BET.com. 3 Aug. 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2013. <http://www.bet.com/news/global/2013/08/03/did-hitler-really-snub-jesse-owens-at-1936-berlin-olympics.html>. “On Aug. 3, 1936, Jesse Owens launched his way into sports stardom at the Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he racked up his first of four gold medals in the 100 meter sprint. As legend goes, German leader Adolf Hitler snubbed the African-American athlete for humiliating Germany and the Aryan athletes whom he had defeated on the track. However, some have claimed to debunk this supposed myth. Veteran sports reporter Siegfried Mischner told the Daily Mail that Owens had a photograph of the Nazi leader shaking his hand at the sports event.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Hitler Facts.” About.com 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 24 July 2012. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/hitleradolf/a/Hitler-Facts.htm>.

Strupp, Christopher. “‘Only a Phase’: How Diplomats Misjudged Hitler’s Rise.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/marking-eighty-years-since-hitler-took-power-in-germany-a-880565.html>. “‘The political situation now is so complicated and is subject to so many psychological factors that it is impossible to make any definite forecast,’ George S. Messersmith, the United States consul general in Berlin from 1930 to 1934, wrote in a dispatch to the State Department on Feb. 3, 1933. … ‘It may, I believe, be accepted,’ wrote Messersmith, ‘that whether the Hitler regime lasts for a few months or for a longer period, it is only a phase in the development towards more stable political conditions and that this government will be followed by one which will show greater elements of stability than any which Germany has had for some years. The people are politically tired.’”

Sundberg, Walter. “Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis.” First Things. Mar. 2001. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/article/2007/01/hitler-1936-1945-nemesis-8>. “The question Ian Kershaw faces in the second volume of his massive biography is whether Hitler’s life has a coherent meaning for us, or whether it is as fragmented and partial as his earthly remains. His first volume, Hitler 1889–1936: Hubris (1998), covered Hitler’s early life and rise to power. In that volume the ultimate significance of Hitler’s life was not the urgent question. This final volume tells Hitler’s story from the height of his acclaim in March 1936, after German troops occupied the Rhineland, to his ‘extinction’ (Kershaw’s word) in his bunker in Berlin in April 1945. Kershaw, Professor of History at the University of Sheffield, summarizes the historical meaning of Hitler’s life at the outset: ‘Hitler’s legacy,’ he writes in the Preface, ‘is one of utter destruction.’”

Uzan, Elad. “Wagner and Hitler: Active or Passive Influence?” JPost.com. The Jerusalem Post, 20 Dec. 2012. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Magazine/Opinion/Wagner-and-Hitler-Active-or-passive-influence>. “The year 2013 marks the bicentennial of Richard Wagner’s birth. Once every several years, the debate ensues in Israel over whether or not this composer’s music should be performed publicly. … So, in order to properly examine the connection between Wagner and Hitler, it is imperative to create order in the time line. Wagner died 50 years before Hitler’s rise to power in 1933. However, I argue there is evidence to support the claim that Wagner’s anti-Semitism affected Hitler through indirect channels.”

Waldman, Simon. “At Home with the Fuhrer.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 02 Nov. 2003. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/nov/03/secondworldwar.blogging>. “Simon Waldman came across a copy of Homes and Gardens from 1938 which featured an article about Hitler’s house, and posted it to his weblog. This started a bizarre series of events that saw him embroiled in legal wrangles and denounced as a Nazi sympathiser.”

“When Did Hitler Lose The War ?” 2worldwar2. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.2worldwar2.com/when-hitler-lost.htm>. “When did Adolf Hitler lose the chance to win World War 2 ? What was the moment in time that before it he could still possibly win the war, and after it his defeat was a matter of time ? (and long continued fighting that still cost so many lives). When was it? How early or late was it ?”