Anti-Semitism

Henry Ford   “In the early 1920s, Ford sponsored a weekly newspaper that published …  strongly anti-Semitic views. … The newspaper published The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which was discredited by The Times of London as a forgery during the Independent’s publishing run. The American Jewish Historical Society described the ideas presented in the magazine as “anti-immigrant, anti-labor, anti-liquor, and anti-Semitic.” In February 1921, the New York World published an interview with Ford, in which he said: ‘The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on.’ … In Germany, Ford’s anti-Semitic articles from The Dearborn Independent were issued in four volumes, cumulatively titled The International Jew, the World’s Foremost Problem published by Theodor Fritsch, …  a member of the Reichstag. In a letter written in 1924, Heinrich Himmler described Ford as ‘one of our most valuable, important, and witty fighters.’” Wikipedia

 

“Adolf Hitler, Nazi Germany: Christian Nationalism, Christian Anti-Semitism, Anti-Communism.” Agnosticism / Atheism – Skepticism & Atheism for Atheists & Agnostics. About.com. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/od/adolfhitlernazigermany/Adolf_Hitler_Nazi_Germany_Christian_Nationalism_AntiSemitism.htm>. “The Nazis and Adolf Hitler are commonly thought of as representing the antithesis of Christianity and Christian values. If that’s true, why did tens of millions of German Christians adore Hitler, join the Nazis, and participate in the Holocaust (among other atrocities)? Hitler and the Nazis promoted a Christian nationalism, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, and return to traditional values which most Christians appreciated. The Nazi party platform specifically endorsed ‘positive’ Christianity.” Bibliography.

“Ahmadinejad Calls Holocaust Denial Major Achievement of His Presidency.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 7 July 2013. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/07/07/news-opinion/israel-middle-east/ahmadinejad-calls-holocaust-denial-major-achievement-of-his-presidency>. “Outgoing Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said during a farewell ceremony that publicizing his Holocaust denial was a major achievement of his presidency.”

Alperin, Michele. “A Tale of Mutual Empathy: Jewish Refugee Scholars at Historically Black colleges.” JNS.Org. 13 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2013/1/13/a-tale-of-mutual-empathy-jewish-refugee-scholars-at-historic.html>. “In Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love, an exhibition … will highlight a historical moment of mutual respect and cooperation between the African American and Jewish communities. Although their relationship has often been tense, especially after the rise of the black power movement and its expressions of anti-Semitism, the hiring of Jewish refugee scholars in the 1930s by historically black colleges stands as a beacon to the potential for common ground between the two groups.”

Anti-Defamation League. ADL Appalled at Reports That Turkish Deputy P.M. Blamed ‘Jewish Diaspora’ for Fueling Demonstrations. ADL. Anti-Defamation League, 2 July 2013. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.adl.org/press-center/press-releases/anti-semitism-international/adl-appalled-at-reports-that-turkish-deputy-pm-blamed-jewish-diaspora-for-demonstrations.html>. “The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today urged the prime minister of Turkey and other government leaders to immediately, strongly and publicly reject disturbing conspiratorial statements reportedly made by the deputy prime minister who blamed, among others, the ‘Jewish diaspora’ for instigating and fueling recent demonstrations in Turkey.”

“Anti-Semitic Hate for Kids … and Adults.” Commentary Magazine. 9 July 2013. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.commentarymagazine.com/2013/07/08/anti-semitic-hate-for-kids-and-adults-palestinians/>. “Part of the answer to that puzzle is supplied from those who, unlike the mainstream media, do pay attention to what is written and broadcast in the official Palestinian media run by Abbas’s PA. Those wondering why the Palestinians would reject peace offers including an independent state (as they have three times since 2000), can do no better than to view this PA TV excerpt brought to our attention from Palestinian Media Watch in which two little Palestinian girls are asked to recite a hateful poem that refers to Jews in the following manner: ‘Most evil among creations, barbaric monkeys, wretched pigs,’ condemned to ‘humiliation and hardship.’ It also went on to say the following about the Jewish presence in Jerusalem: Jerusalem vomits from within it your impurity Because Jerusalem, you impure ones, is pious, immaculate And Jerusalem, you who are filth, is clean and pure.”

Attitudes Toward Jews in Ten European Countries. Rep. Anti-Defamation League, Mar. 2012. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://archive.adl.org/Anti_semitism/adl_anti-semitism_presentation_february_2012.pdf>. “As with previous surveys, data from this latest 2012 European tracking poll indicates that significant percentages of European respondents continue to believe in some of the most pernicious anti-Semitic stereotypes. Respondents across the continent were asked whether or not they thought the following four statements were ‘probably true’ or ‘probably false.’ 1) Jews are more loyal to Israel than to this country. 2) Jews have too much power in the business world. 3) Jews have too much power in international financial markets. 4) Jews still talk too much about what happened to them in the Holocaust.”

Barnett, Victoria J. “The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation.” Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies 12.2 (1998). ADL: Fighting Anti-Semitism, Bigotry and Extremism. Anti-Defamation League, 2000. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://www.adl.org/braun/dim_14_1_role_church.asp>. “[I]t has become abundantly clear that [the Churches'] failure to respond to the horrid events … was not due to ignorance; they knew what was happening. Ultimately, the Churches’ lapses during the Nazi era were lapses of vision and determination.”

Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2004. Print. “Karel Berkhoff provides a searing portrait of life in the Third Reich’s largest colony. Under the Nazis, a blend of German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and racist notions about the Slavs produced a reign of terror and genocide. But it is impossible to understand fully Ukraine’s response to this assault without addressing the impact of decades of repressive Soviet rule. Berkhoff shows how a pervasive Soviet mentality worked against solidarity, which helps explain why the vast majority of the population did not resist the Germans. He also challenges standard views of wartime eastern Europe by treating in a more nuanced way issues of collaboration and local anti-Semitism.”

Black, Edwin. “DISPOSSESSED How Iraq’s 2,600-year-old Jewish Community Was Decimated in One Decade.” Reform Judaism Online. Union for Reform Judaism, Winter 2004. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://reformjudaismmag.org/Articles/index.cfm?id=2369>. “Baghdad, June 22, 2004. Just days before the Coalition Provisional Authority is scheduled to return power to Iraqi control, four Iraqi Jews–two in their forties, two elderly–inconspicuously board a Royal Jordanian airplane to Amman. … With the exception of approximately eleven Jews who have not chosen to leave, these are the last vestiges of a 125,000-strong Jewish community whose ancestors flourished here for twenty-six centuries. The dismantling of Iraqi Jewry, once the most established and affluent Jewish community in the Arab Middle East, began at 3 PM on June 1, 1941, some forty years before Saddam Hussein came to power. In Europe, the events of the next thirty-six hours would have been called a pogrom. Iraqi Jews called it the Farhud. Perhaps Farhud is best translated as violent dispossession. The Farhud was not a spontaneous outburst; it was the culmination of an anti-Jewish campaign rooted in an alliance between the Mufti of Jerusalem and Adolf Hitler.”

Cardozo, Nathan L. “Unmasking Anti-Semitism.” JPost.com. 5 Jan. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/Unmasking-anti-Semitism-311730>. “As Europe and other countries around the world become aggressively more anti-Semitic, and antagonism towards the State of Israel escalates, there is a need for careful assessment of the nature of anti-Semitism.”

Cary, Noel D. “Antisemitism, Everyday Life, and the Devastation of Public Morals in Nazi Germany.” Central European History 35.04 (2002): 551. EbscoHost. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. Reviews of Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany; Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany; Probing the Depths of German Antisemitism: German Society and the Persecution of the Jews, 1933-1941; Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans, and other books.

“Confronting Antisemitism.” Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/antisemitism/>. “Early Christian thought held Jews collectively responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus. This religious teaching became embedded in both Catholic and Protestant theology during the first millennium, with terrible consequences for Jews. Following many centuries of persecution and exclusion, the Jewish minority in Europe achieved some rights after the Enlightenment. As Europe became more secular and Jews integrated into mainstream society, political forms of antisemitism emerged. Jews were targeted for their ideas and their role in society. In the late nineteenth century, pseudo-scientific theories that legitimized a racial form of antisemitism became popular with some intellectuals and political leaders. All of these centuries of hatred were exploited by the Nazis and their allies during World War II culminating in the Holocaust, the systematic murder of Europe’s Jews.”

“Confronting Antisemitism.” Resources on Antisemitism. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/antisemitism/related/?lang=en>. Includes Holocaust Encyclopedia articles, Library bibliography, Photo Archives, For educators/students, Selected Scholarly Programs, and External Links from the United States, European institutions, Belgium, Canada, France, Israel, Netherlands, Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom.

“Danish Jewry Dwindling Due in Part to Anti-Semitism, Community Leader Says.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 7 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/2013/10/07/news-opinion/world/danish-jewry-dwindling-due-to-anti-semitism-community-leader-says?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=04ea4cbd09-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_18_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-04ea4cbd09-26655725>. “Denmark’s Jewish community has lost 25 percent of its registered members over the past 15 years, partly due to anti-Semitism, its president said. The Jewish Community in Denmark, or Mosaisk Troessamfund, currently has 1,899 members compared to 2,639 in 1997, Mosaisk President Finn Schwarz told the Danish daily Jyllands-Posten in an interview published last week.”

Darring, Jerry. “Catholic Timeline on Antisemitism.”  Spring Hill College. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/Timeline.htm>. “Origen of Alexandria writes that the Jews ‘have committed the most abominable of crimes’ in conspiring against Christ, and for that reason ‘the Jewish nation was driven from its country, and another people was called by God to the blessed election’.”

Darring, Gerald. “Western European Churches and the Holocaust.” Spring Hill College. Web. 09 Feb. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/09Western.htm>. Italy: Before Germany took over military control of Italy in September 1943, Italian Jews were relatively safe. But from that date to the end of the war, they were subjected to hostile legal actions, forced labor, arrest, and deportation. France: In the face of so great and utter a tragedy, too many of the Church’s pastors committed an offense, by their silence, against the Church itself and its mission. The Netherlands: There was no protest from the Catholic hierarchy. Indeed, Ger van Roon asserts that protests against anti-Jewish measures came earlier from Protestants than from Catholics, and they came more from pastors, priests and laity than from bishops and church leaders. Denmark: There is no other Holocaust story similar to that of the rescue of Danish Jews. Most of the country’s 8,000 Jews were saved by being ferried in boats to neutral Sweden.”

Darring, Jerry. “A Catholic Timeline of Events Relating to Jews, Anti-Judaism, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust From the 3rd Century to the Beginning of the Third Millennium.”  Spring Hill College. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <http://www.shc.edu/theolibrary/resources/Timeline.htm>. Timeline from c. 240 to 2000. In c. 240. “Origen of Alexandria writes that the Jews ‘have committed the most abominable of crimes’ in conspiring against Christ, and for that reason ‘the Jewish nation was driven from its country, and another people was called by God to the blessed election’.”

Davidzon, Vladislav. “Secrets of English World War II Upper-Class Nazi Club Revealed by a Venetian Dandy.” Tablet Magazine. 26 June 2013. Web. 27 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/135982/english-nazi-club-revealed>. “A new film about England’s avowed anti-Semites stirs a champion of European tolerance, liberalism, and civilization.” A discussion of the book The Red Book: The Membership List of the Right Club – 1939 and the documentary Churchill and the Fascist Plot.

Fox, Tamar. “The Jew Who Gave Roosevelt a Bad Rap.” Jewniverse. MyJewishLearning, 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 30 Aug. 2013. <http://thejewniverse.com/2013/the-jew-who-gave-roosevelt-a-bad-rap/>. “Close your eyes and picture the one person who did the most to save Jews from the Holocaust. Did you picture Oskar Schindler? Irena Sendler? Raoul Wallenberg? How about…Franklin Delano Roosevelt? If a Zionist activist named Peter Bergson had his way, you might have. So say some historians, anyway.” Excellent video included.

Friedlander, Saul. “Anti-Semitism.” My Jewish Learning. Web. 25 July 2013. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/1700-1914/Modern_Anti-Semitism.shtml>. “In a pamphlet published in 1873, Der Sieg des Judentums uber das Germanentum (‘The Victory of Judaism over Germandom’), Wilhelm Marr, the German political agitator, coined the term ‘antisemit­ism.’ Fortuitous though it may have been, the coincidence of the inven­tion of the word and the manifesta­tions of what could be considered early modern anti-Semitism was cer­tainly very symbolic.”

Gerdmar, Anders. Roots of Theological Anti-Semitism: German Biblical Interpretation and the Jews, from Herder and Semler to Kittel and Bultmann. Leiden: Brill, 2009. Print. “As Adolf Hitler strategised his way to power, he knew that it was necessary to gain the support of theology and the Church. This study begins two hundred years earlier, however, looking at roots of theological anti-Semitism and how Jews and Judaism were constructed, positively and negatively, in the biblical interpretation of German Protestant theology. Following the two main streams of German theology, the salvation-historical and the Enlightenment-oriented traditions, it examines leading exegetes from the 1750s to the 1950s and explores how theology legitimises or delegitimises oppression of Jews, in part through still-prevailing paradigms.”

“German Chancellor Scores Antisemitic Movement.” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 17 Jan. 1924. Web. 21 Apr. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1924/01/17/2757892/german-chancellor-scores-antisemitic-movement>. “‘In certain German circles’ declared the German Chancellor Marx in an exclusive interview granted the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, there is an attempt to exploit the distress of the German people for the purpose of anti-Semitic agitation. This movement is not only unsupport by the Central Government and the various state governments, but is uncompromisingly opposed as harmful to the general interests of Germany.”

“The German Churches and the Nazi State.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005206>. “The population of Germany in 1933 was around 60 million. Almost all Germans were Christian, belonging either to the Roman Catholic (ca. 20 million members) or the Protestant (ca. 40 million members) churches. The Jewish community in Germany in 1933 was less than 1% of the total population of the country. How did Christians and their churches in Germany respond to the Nazi regime and its laws, particularly to the persecution of the Jews? The racialized anti-Jewish Nazi ideology converged with antisemitism that was historically widespread throughout Europe at the time and had deep roots in Christian history. For all too many Christians, traditional interpretations of religious scriptures seemed to support these prejudices.”

Gilbert, Martin. Churchill and the Jews: A Lifelong Friendship. New York: Henry Holt and, 2007. Print. “An insightful history of Churchill’s lifelong commitment—both public and private—to the Jews and Zionism, and of his outspoken opposition to anti-Semitism Winston Churchill’s commitment to Jewish rights, to Zionism, and ultimately to the State of Israel never wavered. In 1922, he established on the bedrock of international law the right of Jews to emigrate to Palestine. During his meeting with David Ben-Gurion in 1960, Churchill presented the Israeli prime minister with an article he had written about Moses, praising the patriarch. In between these events he fought harder and more effectively for the Jewish people than the world has ever realized.”

Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. The Devil That Never Dies: The Rise and Threat of Global Antisemitism. New York: Little, Brown and (Canada), 2013. Print. “Antisemitism never went away, but since the turn of the century it has multiplied beyond what anyone would have predicted. It is openly spread by intellectuals, politicians and religious leaders in Europe, Asia, the Arab world, America and Africa and supported by hundreds of millions more. Indeed, today antisemitism is stronger than any time since the Holocaust. In THE DEVIL THAT NEVER DIES, Daniel Jonah Goldhagen reveals the unprecedented, global form of this age-old hatred; its strategic use by states; its powerful appeal to individuals and groups; and how technology has fueled the flames that had been smoldering prior to the millennium.”

“Hitler’s Aide Attacks Him for Preaching Racial Anti-semitism.” Jewish News Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 15 Dec. 1930. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/12/15/2788988/hitlers-aide-attacks-him-for-preaching-racial-antisemitism>. “An attack on Adolf Hitler, National Socialist party leader, by Captain Ehrhardt, one of his chief lieutenants, in today’s Boersen Zeitung, created a sensation here. Ehrhardt’s vigorous attack on the Fascist chieftain has aroused particular interest not only because he was the military leader of the abortive Munich putsch but because his anti-Hitler stand marks a further split in the Nazis’ ranks and indicates that Hitler is losing some of his effective military support.”

“International Peace Conference Sees Menace to World Peace in Spread of Anti-semitism.” JTA The Global News Service of the Jewish People. 17 Sept. 1926. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1926/09/17/archive/international-peace-conference-sees-menace-to-world-peace-in-spread-of-anti-semitism?utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=f94ede5f07-TWJH_2013_6-08&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-f94ede5f07-26655725>. “Steps to combat the activities of the Anti-Semitic International were taken an the International Peace Conference which is in session here. The conference unanimously adopted a resolution submitted to it by the International Women’s Peace League, which recently held its sessions here, on behalf of the League of Jewish Women. The resolution draws attention to the activities of the anti-Semitic International and protests against these activities as being closely connected with the militaristic and anti-democratic reactionary elements who are diverting the attention of the people from the real causes of suffering, by alleging that the Jews are responsible for everything.”

Jones, Leslie. “The German-Jewish Soldiers of the First World War.” History Today. 11 June 2013. Web. 18 July 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/print/88831>. “In October 1935 Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels peremptorily announced that ‘It is forbidden to list the names of fallen Jews on memorials and memorial plaques for the fallen of the world war.’ According to Nazi ideology a Jew, even a Jew who had died for Germany, was not a real German. Following Goebbels’ edict, some war memorials duly underwent ‘Aryanisation’.”

Karady, Victor. “Political Antisemitism and Its Christian Antecedent. Trying to Make Sense of Nonsense.” Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History 3 (July 2012). Quest.cdecjournal.it. Journal of Fondazione CDEC, July 2012. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/focus.php?id=289>. “The central thesis of this paper is that political antisemitism cannot be understood without taking into account what should be regarded as its Christian foundation proper, the perception and stigmatization of Jews as dangerous aliens. By introducing the differentiation between an ‘chimerical anti-Semitism’, a product of the pre-modern mental set-up, often generated by Christian religious phantasmagoria, and a modern anti-Semitism with concrete references to social relations in industrial and post-industrial societies with a trend to associate exclusively Jews to societal ills, it is argued that the latter can be regarded as an ideological construction which represent the rationalization of deeply inbred preconceptions about Jews as radical aliens and as bearers of a set of negative characteristics. The article presents a reflection on the Christian origins, the development of Jew-hatred during the Middle Ages and the early modern period and discusses the extension of secularized anti-Semitic conceptions in various European societies as well as the main observable topical patterns of judeophobia in modern times.”

Karradine, Karen. “New Agers Fall for Antisemitism.” Mosaic. 17 Sept. 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://mosaicmagazine.com/picks/2013/09/anti-semitism-watch/?utm_source=Mosaic+Daily+Email&utm_campaign=fe3bdd19cd-Mosaic_2013_9_18&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_0b0517b2ab-fe3bdd19cd-41142621>. “It is only recently that this new form of hostility, which I call New Age antisemitism, has come about. It is a heartbreaking and troubling experience for me to watch as a movement for peace and enlightenment becomes sullied by an ancient form of hatred.”

Kertzer, David I. The Popes against the Jews: The Vatican’s Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-semitism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001. Print. “In this meticulously researched, unflinching, and reasoned study, … David I. Kertzer presents shocking revelations about the role played by the Vatican in the development of modern anti-Semitism. Working in long-sealed Vatican archives, Kertzer unearths startling evidence to undermine the Church’s argument that it played no direct role in the spread of modern anti-Semitism. In doing so, he challenges the Vatican’s recent official statement on the subject, We Remember. Kertzer tells an unsettling story that has stirred up controversy around the world and sheds a much-needed light on the past.”

Kirsch, Adam. “A World Without Jews.” Tablet Magazine. 13 Feb. 2013. Web. 09 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/123971/a-world-without-jews>. “The title of David Nirenberg’s new book, Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition, uses a term pointedly different from the one we are used to. The hatred and oppression of Jews has been known since the late 19th century as anti-Semitism—a label, it is worth remembering, originally worn with pride by German Jew-haters. What is the difference, then, between anti-Semitism and anti-Judaism? The answer, as it unfolds in Nirenberg’s scholarly tour de force, could be summarized this way: Anti-Semitism needs actual Jews to persecute; anti-Judaism can flourish perfectly well without them, since its target is not a group of people but an idea.”

Mikies, David. “The Diplomat of Shoah History.” Tablet. 26 July 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyb7Hjv_AVI&feature=related>. “The dispute between Poles and Jews about the Nazi period can move in unsettling directions, ones that make an unhealed wound hurt even worse. … The Polish role in the Holocaust had other roots, darker ones: traditional anti-Semitism and the greedy desire for Jewish property.”

Mikies, David. “Why Literally Everyone in the World Hates the Jews, and What To Do About It.” Tablet Magazine. 4 Sept. 2013. Web. 10 Sept. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/143487/academic-anti-semitism>. “Two new scholarly books show how even the most neutral academic can feel bound to answer anti-Semites’ demonic vigor in kind. In many parts of the world, Jews are increasingly unwelcome in the 21st century. The number of countries in which wearing visibly Jewish clothing such as a kippa means risking physical violence has hit an all-time high. On both the individual and the national level, Jews are targeted with extraordinary ferocity: We hear Israelis (but no one else) being compared to Nazis; we are told that Jewish nationalism is oppressive and archaic; that Israel is a uniquely racist country; that Israel’s terrible misdeeds explain why people hate Jews. Instead of being seen as ordinary or all too human, Jews are seen as carriers of a uniquely transcendent evil. No other group of people on the planet is accused so much and of such fantastic wrongs. For a few decades after the Holocaust, it seemed that anti-Semitism might wane or even die out. That hope has now been defeated. Could anything we do or say stem the tide, or will Jew-hatred persist as long as there are Jews to hate?”

Moynihan, Michael. “Hiding Judaism in Copenhagen.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc, 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/128077/hiding-judaism-in-copenhagen>. “Walking this length of Nørrebrogade, as I did on a freezing day last month, provides a street-level view of multicultural Denmark. It’s a perfectly pleasant experience, provided you are, like me, an unassuming gentile. For Jews exploring Nørrebro, it’s advisable to heed the advice of Israel’s ambassador to Denmark, Arthur Avnon, who last November suggested that Jews traveling in Copenhagen exercise extreme subtlety: Don’t speak Hebrew too loudly, cover up any visible Star of David jewelry, fold your kippot and slip them into your pockets. In other words, in certain areas of Copenhagen, it’s best to keep your Judaism to yourself.”

Nirenberg, David. Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2013. Print. “This incisive history upends the complacency that confines anti-Judaism to the ideological extremes in the Western tradition. With deep learning and elegance, David Nirenberg shows how foundational anti-Judaism is to the history of the West.”

“Pope Warns of Anti-semitism as Rome Commemorates Holocaust.” The Times of Israel. 12 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. <http://www.timesofisrael.com/pope-warns-of-anti-semitism-as-rome-commemorates-holocaust/>. “Pope Francis urged vigilance against any resurgence of anti-Semitism ahead of the 70th anniversary of the deportation of Rome’s Jews to Auschwitz. Commemoration of the 1943 deportation, he said, ‘will also be an occasion to recall the importance of remaining vigilant in order that we do not regress, under any pretext, to any forms of intolerance and anti-Semitism, in Rome and in the rest of the world.’ More than 1,000 Roman Jews were deported by Nazi occupiers on Oct. 16, 1943; only 16 survived.”

Rubin, Barry. “With an Anti-Semitic Holland, Where Is It Safe for Jews?” The Jewish Press. 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/analysis/rubin-reports/if-holland-is-becoming-anti-semitic-where-else-is-safe-for-jews/2013/04/03/>. “A few years ago in Amsterdam I was shown the most popular manual published in the Netherlands, in Dutch, on how to raise one’s children as proper Muslims. The book included virulently anti-Semitic passages, based on Muslim holy texts. After the Jewish community objected, the authorities forced the publisher to put white tape over the offending passages. The tape could easily be peeled off by purchases so that these words could be read.”

Rupnow, Dirk. “Racializing Historiography: Anti-Jewish Scholarship in the Third Reich.” Patterns of Prejudice 42.1 (2008): 27-59. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 July 2012. “Despite continued debates about the role of German historians in the Third Reich, current scholarship views the work that was conducted under National Socialism under the rubric of Judenforschung (research on Jews) as a marginal and pseudo-scientific phenomenon.”

Sedan, Gil. “German Bishops: Catholic Church Responsible for Lack of Resistance.” JTA Archives. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 Jan. 1995. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1995/01/25/2881746/german-bishops-catholic-church-responsible-for-lack-of-resistance>. “The Conference of German Bishops has admitted the ‘shared responsibility’ of the Catholic Church for anti-Semitism during World War II.”

Snowman, Daniel. “Pain and Deliverance.” History Today Aug. 2013. History Today. 18 July 2013. Web. 19 July 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/daniel-snowman/pain-and-deliverance>. “Daniel Snowman surveys four recent books that look at the impact of antisemitism on Jewish cultural identity during the 19th and 20th centuries: Forbidden Music by Michael Haas, The Exiles Return by Elisabeth de Waal, The Pope’s Jews by Gordon Thomas, and Giants: The Dwarfs of Auschwits by Yehuda Koren and Eilat Negev.”

“Soviet Authorities Investigate Long List of Anti-semitic Practices.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 July 1928. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1928/07/08/archive/soviet-authorities-investigate-long-list-of-anti-semitic-practices>. “Cases of anti-Semitic practices are being investigated by the Soviet authorities. A list of these activities published today shows the spread of anti-Semitism in various localities. Jewish workers in the factories Cemintern and Krasni Profinterin, in Werchnedne-Provsk were beaten. In Mosir a member of the district soviet refused to vote for a budget for a Jewish workmen’s club, declaring there is no need for a house for ‘Zhidovske dances.’”

Turner, David. “Chapter 20, “The Acquiescence of The United States Government in the Murder of the Jews.”  Jerusalem Post – Blogs. 26 Aug. 2013. Web. 27 Aug. 2013. <http://blogs.jpost.com/content/acquiescence-united-states-murder-jews>. “In response to the intensifying threat to German Jewry Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau approached Roosevelt in 1938 suggesting the president promote British Guiana as refuge for refugees. But, ‘Roosevelt did not favor that particular proposal.’ British Guiana was the first of several rejected suggestions of locations outside the U.S. for refuge. But administration reticence regarding European Jewry was not limited to ‘refuge’: ‘Pehle’s office [in Treasury] had authorized a number of charitable groups to use funds in the U.S. regulated under the Trading with the Enemy Act to pay for food, medicine, and other aid to refugees and other civilian victims of the war in Europe. Those efforts were systematically blocked by some officials in the U.S. State Department.’ It was this systematic antisemitic policy expressed by the Roosevelt Administration that led three senior members of Morgenthau’s staff to charge the administration as complicit in Germany’s Final Solution to the Jewish Problem.”

Unger-Sargon, Batya. “Is Jewish Control Over the Slave Trade a Nation of Islam Lie or Scholarly Truth?” Tablet Magazine. 5 Aug. 2013. Web. 08 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/137476/slave-trade-black-muslim>. “At a recent rally for the Voting Rights Act in Alabama, Minister Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam spoke of the Jews. Surrounded by a cadre of tall, glowering men with snappy suits, sunglasses, and folded arms, Farrakhan addressed an enthusiastic crowd in terms that would be unsurprisng to anyone familiar with his unique way of stirring up an audience. After asserting, with a benevolent smile, that he is not an anti-Semite, Farrakhan dove into his feelings about Jews: ‘I just don’t like the way they misuse their power,’ he said. ‘And I have a right to say that, without being labeled anti-Semitic, when I have done nothing to stop a Jewish person from getting an education, setting up a business, or doing whatever a Jewish person desires to do.’ The remarks were evocative of the sentiments he has shared widely throughout his decades-long career as a public figure—namely, that blacks should not trust Jews.”

“Von Prittwitz Says Anti-semitism Temporary Phase; Hitler Not Voice of Germany.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Oct. 1930. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1930/10/27/2787917/von-prittwitz-says-antisemitism-temporary-phase-hitler-not-voice-of-germany>. “A very young looking man for an ambassador, with a polite worldly manner, offered a statement to America, on his arrival to resume his duties as Ambassador, reassuring the citizens of the United States that any seeming disturbances in Germany were due only to the lack of economic stability and not to any untoward tendencies of the German public.”

Weeks, Theodor R. “Russians, Jews, and Poles: Russification and Antisemitism 1881-1914.” Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History 3 (July 2012). Quest.cdecjournal.it. Journal of Fondazione CDEC, July 2012. Web. 28 June 2013. <http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/img/header.gif>. “Relations between Poles and Jews deteriorated significantly in the three decades leading up to World War I. Many reasons for this phenomenon can be given, for example: economic competition, a general atmosphere of acute nationalism, increased migration, perceived threats to traditional forms of life and religion. Exacerbating all of these factors, however, was the fact of Polish statelessness and the extreme sensitivity of Poles to perceived threats to their culture and nation. In particular within the Russian Empire, Poles perceived the very future of their nation at risk. In such circumstances the continued existence of Jewish cultural difference combined with the development of specifically Jewish forms of national awakening (e.g., the Bund and Zionism) were understood by many in Polish society as ingratitude and collaboration with the Russian occupier.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “The Foundation of Antisemitism: We Want to Kill Too.” Sixmillioncrucifixions.com. 2011. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://sixmillioncrucifixions.com/The_Foundation_of_Antisemitism_-_We Want _to_Kill_Too.html>. “No one should be too surprised that these people kill with a clean conscience, given that they never heard from their pope, bishops, or parish priests that murdering Jews and stealing their property was a crime and a mortal sin, and that participation in mass murder would condemn their souls to hell.”

Wistrich, Robert S. “Kristallnacht Redux? Anti-Semitism Flourishes in Middle East.” Louisville Courier-Journal. 6 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <http://www.courier-journal.com/article/20111106/OPINION04/311060030/Kristallnacht-redux-Anti-Semitism-flourishes-Middle-East?odyssey=mod%7Cnewswell%7Ctext%7CHome%7Cs>. In the Middle East the hatred of Jews burns fiercely. There is insistence of the reality of the ‘Jewish conspiracy for world domination.’ There is also a revival of the medieval Christian blood-libel against the Jews.”

Zdiara, Kevin. “The Portuguese Dreyfus.” Jewish Ideas Daily. 14 Oct. 2012. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/5217/features/the-portuguese-dreyfus/>. “In 1894, the Jewish Captain Alfred Dreyfus was wrongly convicted of treason by an anti-Semitic French military court. It took 10 years before that injustice was rectified. The world remembers Dreyfus. It should also remember the Jewish military officer Artur Carlos de Barros Basto, wrongly convicted by an anti-Semitic Portuguese military court in 1937. The injustice suffered by Barros Basto took much longer to correct. The Portuguese government overturned his conviction only this year.”

 

 

Recent Nonfiction Books

 

Adelman, Jonathan R. Hitler and His Allies in World War II. London: Routledge, 2007. Print. “In an area where in-depth studies of Hitler’s relations with Nazi Germany’s allies, and the failure of Nazi Germany to make more effective use of them during the war, are scant, this is a survey that looks at the Soviet Union, Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Romania and Hungary and their relationship to Nazi Germany.”

“‘Angry Days’ Shows An America Torn Over Entering World War II.” NPR. 26 Mar. 2013. Web. 1 Aug. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/2013/03/26/175288241/angry-days-shows-an-america-torn-over-entering-world-war-ii>. “During the debate over whether to invade Iraq, or whether to stay in Afghanistan, many people looked back to World War II, describing it as a good and just war — a war the U.S. knew it had to fight. In reality, it wasn’t that simple. When Britain and France went to war with Germany in 1939, Americans were divided about offering military aid, and the debate over the U.S. joining the war was even more heated. It wasn’t until two years later, when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and Germany declared war against the U.S., that Americans officially entered the conflict. … Olson’s new book, Those Angry Days, shines the spotlight on the national debate over whether to go to war in Europe. President Franklin Roosevelt led the interventionist charge, while aviator Charles Lindbergh became an unofficial leader of the isolationist movement.”

Bacque, James. Crimes and Mercies: The Fate of German Civilians under Allied Occupation, 1944-1950. Toronto: Little, Brown and (Canada), 2006. Print. “More than 9 million Germans died as a result of deliberate Allied starvation and expulsion policies after World War II—one quarter of the country was annexed, and about 15 million people expelled in the largest act of ethnic cleansing the world has ever known. Over 2 million of these alone, including countless children, died on the road or in concentration camps in Poland and elsewhere. That these deaths occurred at all is still being denied by Western governments.”

Baranowski, Shelley. Strength through Joy: Consumerism and Mass Tourism in the Third Reich. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 2004. Print. “The giant Nazi leisure and tourism agency, Strength through Joy (KdF)’s low cost cultural events, factory beautification programs, organized sports, and, especially, mass tourism mitigated the tension between the Nazi regime’s investment in rearmament and German consumers’ desire for a higher standard of living. Shelley Baranowski reveals how Strength through Joy de-emphasized the sacrifices of the present while its programs presented visions of a prosperous future–that would materialize as soon as ‘living space’ was acquired. As an agency open to racially acceptable Germans only, it segregated the regime’s victims from the Nazi ‘racial community.’”

Beaumont, Roger A. The Nazis’ March to Chaos: The Hitler Era through the Lenses of Chaos-complexity Theory. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000. Print. “Rather than a technical treatise based on equations, this study of the Hitler era in Germany from the standpoint of chaos-complexity theory is a narrative history based on a non-linear perspective. After defining basic chaos-complexity concepts and terms, like sensitivity to initial conditions and fractals, the book explores the Third Reich as a chaotic system; the clash between the image of Nazi technical prowess and the anti-modernism in National Socialist ideology; and German and Nazi military tactics and doctrine as ways of coping with the chaos of war and imposing it upon the enemy.

Berhahn, V. R. “The Big Lie.” New York Times: Books. New York Times, 10 Dec. 2000. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/12/10/reviews/001210.10berghat.html>. “Since then [1960s] there have been any number of Hitler biographies and histories of the Third Reich. Now, with ”The Third Reich: A New History,” Michael Burleigh successfully adds another interpretation, one that, as he puts it, tells a ”very 20th-century story” about the ”almost total, moral collapse of an advanced industrial society at the heart of Europe’ and about ‘sections of the German elites and masses of ordinary people’ who ‘chose to abdicate their individual critical faculties in favor of a politics based on faith, hope, hatred and sentimental collective self-regard for their own race and nation.”’

Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2004. Print. “Karel Berkhoff provides a searing portrait of life in the Third Reich’s largest colony. Under the Nazis, a blend of German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and racist notions about the Slavs produced a reign of terror and genocide. But it is impossible to understand fully Ukraine’s response to this assault without addressing the impact of decades of repressive Soviet rule. Berkhoff shows how a pervasive Soviet mentality worked against solidarity, which helps explain why the vast majority of the population did not resist the Germans. He also challenges standard views of wartime eastern Europe by treating in a more nuanced way issues of collaboration and local anti-Semitism.”

Best, Nicholas. Five Days That Shocked the World: Eyewitness Accounts from Europe at the End of World War II. New York: Thomas Dunne /St. Martin’s, 2012. Print. “In the momentous days from April 28 to May 2, 1945, the world witnessed the death of two Fascist dictators and the fall of Berlin. Mussolini’s capture and execution by Italian partisans, the suicide of Adolf Hitler, and the fall of the German capital signaled the end of the four-year war in the European Theater. In Five Days That Shocked the World, Nicholas Best thrills readers with the first-person accounts of those who lived through this dramatic time.”

Blood, Philip W. Hitler’s Bandit Hunters: The SS and the Nazi Occupation of Europe. Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 2006. Print. “An original and thought-provoking work grounded in extensive research in German archives, Hitler’s Bandit Hunters focuses on this counterinsurgency campaign, the anvil of Hitler’s crusade for empire. Bandenbekämpfung portrayed insurgents as political and racial bandits, criminalized to a greater degree than enemies of the state; moreover, violence against them was not constrained by the prevailing laws of warfare. Philip Blood explains how German forces embraced the Bandenbekämpfung doctrine, demonstrating the equal culpability of both the SS police forces and the ‘heroic’  Waffen-SS combat arm and shattering the contrived postwar distinctions between them.”

Breitman, Richard, and Allan J. Lichtman. FDR and the Jews. Belknap of Harvard UP, 2013. Print. “Nearly seventy-five years after World War II, a contentious debate lingers over whether Franklin Delano Roosevelt turned his back on the Jews of Hitler’s Europe. Defenders claim that FDR saved millions of potential victims by defeating Nazi Germany. Others revile him as morally indifferent and indict him for keeping America’s gates closed to Jewish refugees and failing to bomb Auschwitz’s gas chambers.”

Campt, Tina. Other Germans: Black Germans and the Politics of Race, Gender, and Memory in the Third Reich. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2004. Print. “It’s hard to imagine an issue or image more riveting than Black Germans during the Third Reich. Yet accounts of their lives are virtually nonexistent, despite the fact that they lived through a regime dedicated to racial purity. Tina Campt’s Other Germans tells the story of this largely forgotten group of individuals, with important distinctions from other accounts. Most strikingly, Campt centers her arguments on race, rather than anti-semitism. She also provides oral history as background for her study, interviewing two Black Germans for the book.”

Citino, Robert Michael. Death of the Wehrmacht: The German Campaigns of 1942. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 2007. Print. “For Hitler and the German military, 1942 was a key turning point of World War II, as an overstretched but still lethal Wehrmacht replaced brilliant victories and huge territorial gains with stalemates and strategic retreats. In this major reevaluation of that crucial year, Robert Citino shows that the German army’s emerging woes were rooted as much in its addiction to the ‘war of movement’–attempts to smash the enemy in ‘short and lively’ campaigns–as they were in Hitler’s deeply flawed management of the war.”

Citino, Robert Michael. The Wehrmacht Retreats: Fighting a Lost War, 1943. Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, 2012. Print. “Throughout 1943, the German army, heirs to a military tradition that demanded and perfected relentless offensive operations, succumbed to the realities of its own overreach and the demands of twentieth-century industrialized warfare. In his new study, prizewinning author Robert Citino chronicles this weakening Wehrmacht, now fighting desperately on the defensive but still remarkably dangerous and lethal.”

Connelly, John. From Enemy to Brother: The Revolution in Catholic Teaching on the Jews, 1933-1965. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2012. Print. “In 1965 the Second Vatican Council declared that God loves the Jews. Yet the Church had taught for centuries that Jews were cursed by God, and had mostly kept silent as Jews were slaughtered by Nazis. How did an institution whose wisdom is said to be unchanging undertake one of the largest, yet most undiscussed, ideological swings in modern history?”

De, Zayas Alfred M. A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Print. “This book covers a part of history that many either do not know or would prefer to forget, in this case the forced expulsion of Ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe in the months following the end the World War Two. The book is balanced and has dozens of first-person accounts as well as archive material. It is a heartbreaking read. Highly recommended for those with any interest in human rights and opposing war crimes or crimes against humanity.”

DiNardo, Roichard L. Germany and the Axis Powers: From Coalition to Collapse. Lawrence, Kan.: Univ. of Kansas, 2005. Print. “It seemed that whenever Mussolini acted on his own, it was bad news for Hitler. Indeed, the Führer’s relations with his Axis partners were fraught with an almost total lack of coordination. Compared to the Allies, the coalition was hardly an alliance at all. Focusing on Germany’s military relations with Italy, Romania, Hungary, and Finland, Richard DiNardo unearths a wealth of information that reveals how the Axis coalition largely undermined Hitler’s objectives from the Eastern Front to the Balkans, Mediterranean, and North Africa.”

Douglas, R. M. Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War. New Haven [Conn.: Yale UP, 2012. Print. “Immediately after the Second World War, the victorious Allies authorized and helped to carry out the forced relocation of German speakers from their homes across central and southern Europe to Germany. The numbers were almost unimaginable—between 12,000,000 and 14,000,000 civilians, most of them women and children—and the losses horrifying—at least 500,000 people, and perhaps many more, died while detained in former concentration camps, while locked in trains en route, or after arriving in Germany exhausted, malnourished, and homeless.”

Edsel, Robert M. Saving Italy: The Race to Rescue a Nation’s Treasures from the Nazis. New York: W.W. Norton &, 2013. Print. “Saving Italy is an astonishing account of a little known American effort to save Italy’s vast store of priceless monuments and art during World War II. While American warriors were fighting the length of the country, other Americans were courageously working alongside to preserve the irreplaceable best of Italy’s culture. Read it and be proud of those who were on their own front lines of a cruel war.” (Tom Brokaw)

Fritzsche, Peter. Life and Death in the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2008. Print. “On January 30, 1933, hearing about the celebrations for Hitler’s assumption of power, Erich Ebermayer remarked bitterly in his diary, ‘We are the losers, definitely the losers.’ Learning of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, which made Jews non-citizens, he raged, ‘hate is sown a million-fold.’ Yet in March 1938, he wept for joy at the Anschluss with Austria: ‘Not to want it just because it has been achieved by Hitler would be folly.’”

Grier, Howard D. Hitler, Dönitz, and the Baltic Sea: The Third Reich’s Last Hope, 1944-1945. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 2007. Print. “The popular conception of Hitler in the final years of World War II is that of a deranged Fuhrer stubbornly demanding the defense of every foot of ground on all fronts and ordering hopeless attacks with nonexistent divisions. To imply that Hitler had a rational plan to win the war flies in the face of widely accepted interpretations, but historian Howard D. Grier persuasively argues here that Hitler did possess a strategy to regain the initiative in 1944-45 and that the Baltic theater played the key role in his plan.”

Hansen, Randall. Fire and Fury: The Allied Bombing of Germany, 1942-1945. New York: New American Library, 2008. Print. “During the Second World War, Allied air forces dropped nearly two million tons of bombs on Germany, destroying some 60 cities, killing more than half a million German citizens, and leaving 80,000 pilots dead. But the terrible truth is that much of the bombing was carried out against the expressed demands of the Allied military leadership, leading to the needless deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians.”

Hoffmann, Peter. Behind Valkyrie: German Resistance to Hitler : Documents. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 2011. Print. “While the ‘Valkyrie’ plot by Nazi officers to kill Adolf Hitler is the best known instance of German opposition to his dictatorship, there were many other significant acts of resistance. Behind Valkyrie collects documents, letters, and testimonies of Germans who fought Hitler from within, making many of them available in their entirety and in English for the first time. Peter Hoffmann assembles the words of citizens protesting the National Socialists’ dismantling of the first democratic German republic, socialists and conservatives arguing for civil liberties, and dissatisfied senior military officials. Behind Valkyrie’s first-hand accounts of reactions to crimes by the SS, mistreatment of millions of Soviet prisoners of war, mass murder of Jews, and the mismanagement of military campaigns show that attempts to maintain freedom, justice, and human rights often came from unexpected sources.”

Ingrao, Christian, and Andrew Brown. Believe and Destroy: Intellectuals in the SS War Machine. Polity. Print. “For a study of intellectuals, Believe and Destroy remains curiously coy about who or what intellectuals are and why we might expect their personal and professional experiences to be distinctive in the first place. We thus find ourselves back with Arendt’s Eichmann and Tarantino’s Landa, unsure who is the greater villain: the bland functionary or the brilliant careerist. If Ingrao’s book invites us to reflect on our own prejudices about education, erudition, and moral agency, it only hints at what a more thoroughgoing exposition of the foundational relationships between knowledge, power, and violence might look like.”

Jones, Michael K. The Retreat: Hitler’s First Defeat. New York: Thomas Dunne /St. Martin’s, 2010. Print. “At the moment of crisis in late 1941 on the Eastern Front, with the forces of Hitler massing on the outskirts of Moscow, the miraculous occurred: Moscow was saved. Yet this feat of endurance was a prelude to a long and arduous retreat in which Soviet troops, inspired by deep beliefs in the sacred Motherland, pushed back German forces steeled by the vision of the Ubermensch—the iron-willed fighter. Supported by tanks and ski battalions, Soviet troops engaged in this desperate struggle in the harshest Russian weather.”

Kershaw, Ian. The End: The Defiance and Destruction of Hitler’s Germany, 1944-1945. New York: Penguin, 2011. Print. “Countless books have been written about why Nazi Germany lost the Second World War, yet remarkably little attention has been paid to the equally vital questions of how and why the Third Reich did not surrender until Germany had been left in ruins and almost completely occupied. Drawing on prodigious new research, Ian Kershaw, an award-winning historian and the author of Fateful Choices, explores these fascinating questions in a gripping and focused narrative that begins with the failed bomb plot in July 1944 and ends with the death of Adolf Hitler and the German capitulation in 1945. The End paints a harrowing yet enthralling portrait of the Third Reich in its last desperate gasps.

Kershaw, Ian. Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich: Bavaria 1933 – 1945. Oxford: Clarendon, 2005. Print. “Now updated with a new introduction and bibliography, Kershaw’s classic study of popular responses to Nazi policy and ideology explores the political mentality of ‘ordinary Germans’ in one part of Hitler’s Reich. Basing his account on many unpublished sources, the author analyzes socioeconomic discontent and the popular reaction to the anti-Church and anti-Jewish policies of the Nazis, and reveals the bitter divisions and dissent of everyday reality in the Third Reich, in stark contrast to the propaganda image of a ‘National Community’ united behind its leaders.”

Kitchen, Martin. Rommel’s Desert War: Waging World War II in North Africa, 1941-1943. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2009. Print. “”Rommel’s Desert War brings fresh sources and a fresh perspective to the North African campaign. Kitchen’s skillful blend of policy and strategy, operations and tactics, pulls no punches. His stringent, well-documented critique of Rommel’s performance in particular makes this a significant contribution to the literature on the Second World War.”

Kochavi, Arieh J. Confronting Captivity: Britain and the United States and Their POWs in Nazi Germany. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2005. Print. “How was it possible that almost all of the nearly 300,000 British and American troops who fell into German hands during World War II survived captivity in German POW camps and returned home almost as soon as the war ended? In Confronting Captivity, Arieh J. Kochavi offers a behind-the-scenes look at the living conditions in Nazi camps and traces the actions the British and American governments took–and didn’t take–to ensure the safety of their captured soldiers.”

Koker, David, R. J. Van Pelt, Michiel Horn, and John Irons. At the Edge of the Abyss: A Concentration Camp Diary, 1943-1944. Evanston, IL: Northwestern UP, 2012. Print. “David Koker’s diary is one of the most notable accounts of life in a German concentration camp written by a Jew during the years of the Holocaust. First brought to attention when the Dutch historian Jacob Presser-Koker’s history teacher in high school-quoted from Koker’s diary in his monumental history, published in English as The Destruction of the Dutch Jews (1968), the diary itself became a part of the Dutch literary canon when it was published in 1977.”

Laqueur, Walter. “Hitler’s Jews: Max Von Oppenheim and the Myth of German Jewish Guilt.” Tablet Magazine. 21 Aug. 2013. Web. 21 Aug. 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/141788/hitler-jews-oppenheim>. “New biographies shed light on the cohort of Germans of Jewish descent who historians have portrayed as having served the Nazis.”

Lineberry, Cate. The Secret Rescue: An Untold Story of American Nurses and Medics behind Nazi Lines. New York: Little, Brown, 2013. Print. “The compelling untold story of a group of stranded U.S. Army nurses and medics fighting to escape Nazi-occupied Europe. When 26 Army nurses and medics-part of the 807th Medical Air Evacuation Transport Squadron-boarded a cargo plane for transport in November 1943, they never anticipated the crash landing in Nazi-occupied Albania that would lead to their months-long struggle for survival. A drama that captured the attention of the American public, the group and its flight crew dodged bullets and battled blinding winter storms as they climbed mountains and fought to survive, aided by courageous villagers who risked death at Nazi hands to help them.”

Lowe, Keith. Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II. New York: St. Martin’s, 2012. Print. “A graphic and chilling account of the murderous vengeance, terroristic reprisals, and ferocious ethnic cleansing that gripped Europe following—and often as a direct continuation of—the Second World War. Keith Lowe’s excellent book paints a little-known and frightening picture of a continent in the embrace of lawlessness, chaos, and unconstrained violence.”

Ludewig, Joachim. Rückzug: The German Retreat from France, 1944. Lexington: University of Kentucky, 2012. Print. “The Allied invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, marked a critical turning point in the European theater of World War II. The massive landing on France’s coast had been meticulously planned for three years, and the Allies anticipated a quick and decisive defeat of the German forces. Many of the planners were surprised, however, by the length of time it ultimately took to defeat the Germans.”

Lunde, Henrik. Finland’s War of Choice: The Troubled German-Finnish Alliance in World War II. Casemate, 2011. Print. “This book describes the odd coalition between Germany and Finland in World War II, and their joint military operations from 1941 to 1945. This is a topic often missing in English, though in stark contrast to the numerous books on the shorter and less bloody Winter War. That conflict represented a gallant fight of a democratic ‘David’ against a totalitarian ‘Goliath’ that caught the imagination of the world. The story of Finland fighting alongside a ‘Goliath’ of its own has not brought pride to that nation and was a period many Finns would rather forget.”

Marks, Leo. Between Silk and Cyanide: A Codemaker’s War, 1941-1945. New York: Free, 1998. Web. “In 1942, Leo Marks left his father’s famous bookshop, 84 Charing Cross Road, and went off to fight the war. He was twenty-two. Soon recognized as a cryptographer of genius, he became head of communications at the Special Operations Executive (SOE), where he revolutionized the codemaking techniques of the Allies and trained some of the most famous agents dropped into occupied Europe, including ‘the White Rabbit’ and Violette Szabo. As a top codemaker, Marks had a unique perspective on one of the most fascinating and, until now, little-known aspects of the Second World War.”

Megargee, Geoffrey P. War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006. Print. “On June 22, 1941, Hitler began what would be the most important campaign of the European theater. The war against the Soviet Union would leave tens of millions of Soviet citizens dead and large parts of the country in ruins. The death and destruction would result not just from military operations but also from the systematic killing and abuse that the German army, police, and SS directed against Jews, Communists, and ordinary citizens.”

Melvin, Mungo. Manstein: Hitler’s Greatest General. New York: Thomas Dunne /St. Martin’s, 2011. Print. “Among students of military history, the genius of Field Marshal Erich von Manstein (1887–1973) is respected perhaps more than that of any other World War II soldier. He displayed his strategic brilliance in such campaigns as the invasion of Poland, the Blitzkrieg of France, the sieges of Sevastopol, Leningrad, and Stalingrad, and the battles of Kharkov and Kursk.”

Mikies, David. “Hollywood’s Creepy Love Affair With Adolf Hitler, in Explosive New Detail.” Tablet Magazine. 10 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/134503/hollywood-nazi-urwand>. Book – The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact with Hitler, Harvard University Press, 2013. “As it turns out, Hitler’s love for American movies was reciprocated by Hollywood. A forthcoming book by the young historian Ben Urwand, to be published by Harvard University Press …  presents explosive new evidence about the shocking extent of the partnership between the Nazis and major Hollywood producers. Urwand … takes the subject personally: His parents were Jewish refugees from Egypt and Hungary. Digging through archives in Berlin and Washington, D.C., he has unearthed proof that Hollywood worked together with the Nazis much more closely than we ever imagined. Urwand has titled his riveting book The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact With Hitler, and as you turn its pages you realize with dismay that collaboration is the only fitting word for the relationship between Hitler and Hollywood in the 1930s. Using new archival discoveries, Urwand alleges that some of the Hollywood studio heads, nearly all of whom were Jewish, cast their lot with Hitler almost from the moment he took power, and that they did so eagerly—not reluctantly. What they wanted was access to German audiences.”

Mitcham, Samuel W. Defenders of Fortress Europe: The Untold Story of the German Officers during the Allied Invasion. Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 2009. Print. “Yet, as the Wehrmacht retreated, Germans still had hope. If the men of the Western Front could repulse the great invasion, dozens of units—including panzer divisions, SS regiments, and paratrooper formations—would arrive to thwart the Red advance. German scientists needed at least another year to develop their ‘wonder weapons,’ such as V-2 rockets, submarines, jet airplanes, and perhaps even an atomic bomb. Everything depended on the Western Front’s warlords. ”

Mitcham, Samuel W. The Men of Barbarossa: Commanders of the German Invasion of Russia, 1941. Philadelphia: Casemate, 2009. Print. “The story of history’s greatest military operation and the commanders who nearly led it to success … This book not only tells the story of Operation Barbarossa but describes the expertise, skills, and decision-making powers of the men who directed it. The result is an illuminating look at the personalities behind the carnage, as summer triumph turned to winter crisis, including new insights into the invasion’s many tactical successes, as well as its ultimate failure.”

Mosier, John. Deathride: Hitler vs. Stalin : The Eastern Front, 1941-1945. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2010. Print. “The German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, began a war that lasted nearly four years and created by far the bloodiest theater in World War II. In the conventional narrative of this war, Hitler was defeated by Stalin because, like Napoleon, he underestimated the size and resources of his enemy. In fact, says historian John Mosier, Hitler came very close to winning and lost only because of the intervention of the western Allies. Stalin’s great triumph was not winning the war, but establishing the prevailing interpretation of the war. The Great Patriotic War, as it is known in Russia, would eventually prove fatal, setting in motion events that would culminate in the collapse of the Soviet Union.”

Neiberg, Michael S. The Blood of Free Men: The Liberation of Paris, 1944. Basic, 2012. Print. “As the Allies struggled inland from Normandy in August of 1944, the fate of Paris hung in the balance. Other jewels of Europe—sites like Warsaw, Antwerp, and Monte Cassino—were, or would soon be, reduced to rubble during attempts to liberate them. But Paris endured, thanks to a fractious cast of characters, from Resistance cells to Free French operatives to an unlikely assortment of diplomats, Allied generals, and governmental officials. Their efforts, and those of the German forces fighting to maintain control of the city, would shape the course of the battle for Europe and color popular memory of the conflict for generations to come.”

O’Brien, Mary-Elizabeth. Nazi Cinema as Enchantment: The Politics of Entertainment in the Third Reich. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2004. Print. “Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh have long been exalted as two of the greatest American icons of the twentieth century. Now award-winning journalist Max Wallace uncovers groundbreaking and astonishing revelations about the poisonous effect these two so-called American heroes had on Western democracy and how the two of them—acting in league with the Nazis—almost brought democratic Europe to the verge of extinction.”

Ossian, Lisa L. The Forgotten Generation: American Children and World War II. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri, 2011. Print. “Two days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt addressed the nation by radio, saying, ‘We are all in it—all the way. Every single man, woman, and child is a partner in the most tremendous undertaking of our American history.’ So began a continuing theme of the World War II years: the challenges of wartime would not be borne by adults alone. Men, women, and children would all be involved in the work of war.”

Paterson, Lawrence. Black Flag: The Surrender of Germany’s U-boat Forces. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith/MBI Pub., 2009. Print. “On the eve of Germany’s surrender in May 1945, Grossadmiral Karl Dönitz commanded thousands of loyal and active men of the U-boat service. Still fully armed and unbroken in morale, enclaves of these men occupied bases stretching from Norway to France, where cadres of Uboat men fought on in ports that defied besieging Allied troops to the last. At sea U-boats still operated on a war footing around Britain, the coasts of the United States and as far as Malaya.”

Payne, Stanley G. Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II. New Haven: Yale UP, 2008. Print. “Was Franco sympathetic to Nazi Germany? Why didn’t Spain enter World War II? In what ways did Spain collaborate with the Third Reich? How much did Spain assist Jewish refugees?”

“Putting a Human Face to Hitler.” Ginger Musings. 6 July 2013. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://milambc.wordpress.com/2013/07/06/putting-a-human-face-to-hitler/>. “The Reader” by Bernhard Schlink. “Something that fascinates me with respect to one’s understanding of history is tangibility. I have yet to see a work of literature tackle that subject better than Bernhard Schlink’s The Reader. The main character, Michael Berg, struggles with history in two ways. 1.) He’s a German, so he struggles with the intimacy with which he is interlocked with his country’s history, even if he wasn’t literally there to have made the history; it’s still very much his as a German citizen. 2.) Juxtapose to that intimacy is the idea of distance or related to my idea, tangibility. That is, Berg has a difficult time truly understanding the events of the Holocaust and the extent of what the Nazis did, as Germans. In a bit of irony, Michael talks about how movies and books have shaped his perception of the Holocaust and in that perception manifest the distance he feels to the Holocaust.”

Reese, Roger R. Why Stalin’s Soldiers Fought: The Red Army’s Military Effectiveness in World War II. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas, 2011. Print. “Inept leadership, inefficient campaigning, and enormous losses would seem to spell military disaster. Yet despite these factors, the Soviet Union won its war against Nazi Germany thanks to what Roger Reese calls its ‘military effectiveness’: its ability to put troops in the field even after previous forces had been decimated.”

Rigg, Bryan Mark. Lives of Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers: Untold Tales of Men of Jewish Descent Who Fought for the Third Reich. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 2009. Print. “They were foot soldiers and officers. They served in the regular army and the Waffen-SS. And, remarkably, they were also Jewish, at least as defined by Hitler’s infamous race laws. Pursuing the thread he first unraveled in Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, Bryan Rigg takes a closer look at the experiences of Wehrmacht soldiers who were classified as Jewish. In this long-awaited companion volume, he presents interviews with twenty-one of these men, whose stories are both fascinating and disturbing.”

Rosenfeld, Gavriel David. Munich and Memory: Architecture, Monuments, and the Legacy of the Third Reich. Berkeley: University of California, 2000. Print. “Munich, notorious in recent history as the capital of the Nazi movement, is the site of Gavriel Rosenfeld’s stimulating inquiry into the German collective memory of the Third Reich. Rosenfeld shows, with the aid of a wealth of photographs, how the city’s urban form developed after 1945 in direct reflection of its inhabitants’ evolving memory of the Second World War and the Nazi dictatorship. In the second half of the twentieth century, the German people’s struggle to come to terms with the legacy of Nazism has dramatically shaped nearly all dimensions of their political, social, and cultural life.”

Schoonover, Thomas David. Hitler’s Man in Havana: Heinz Lüning and Nazi Espionage in Latin America. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 2008. Print. “When Heinz Lüning posed as a Jewish refugee to spy for Hitler’s Abwehr espionage agency, he thought he had discovered the perfect solution to his most pressing problem: how to avoid being drafted into Hitler’s army. Lüning was unsympathetic to Fascist ideology, but the Nazis’ tight control over exit visas gave him no chance to escape Germany. He could enter Hitler’s army either as a soldier… or a spy. In 1941, he entered the Abwehr academy for spy training and was given the code name ‘Lumann.’ Soon after, Lüning began the service in Cuba that led to his ultimate fate of being the only German spy executed in Latin America during World War II. Lüning was not the only spy operating in Cuba at the time. Various Allied spies labored in Havana; the FBI controlled eighteen Special Intelligence Service operatives, and the British counterintelligence section subchief Graham Greene supervised Secret Intelligence Service agents.”

Staff, NPR. “‘Guns At Last Light’ Illuminates Final Months Of World War II.” NPR. 14 May 2013. Web. 01 Aug. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/2013/05/14/182269189/guns-at-last-light-illuminates-final-months-of-world-war-ii>. “In December 1944, the Nazis looked like a spent force: The U.S. and its allies had pushed Hitler’s armies across France in the fight to liberate Europe from German occupation. The Allies were so confident that the Forest of Ardennes, near the front lines in Belgium, became a rest and recreation area, complete with regular USO performances. … The Guns at Last Light is the final volume of Atkinson’s trilogy about World War II and covers the events between D-Day and the final Allied victory.”

Stansky, Peter. The First Day of the Blitz: September 7, 1940. New Haven: Yale UP, 2007. Print. “On September 7, 1940, the long-feared and anticipated attack by the German Luftwaffe plunged London into a cauldron of fire and devastation. This compelling book recreates that day in all its horror, using rich archival sources and first-hand accounts, many never before published. Eminent historian Peter Stansky weaves together the stories of people who recorded their experiences of the opening hours of the Blitz. Then, exploring more deeply, the author examines what that critical day meant to the nation at the time, and what it came to mean in following years.”

Thacker, Toby. The End of the Third Reich: Defeat, Denazification & Nuremburg January 1944 – November 1946. Stroud: Tempus, 2006. Print. “This book is an interesting, albeit not complete, account of this period of history, covering roughly the time of the buildup for the D-Day landings to the surrender of Germany to the denazification efforts, including the Nuremberg trials, whereby the Allies efforts to destroy Nazism culminated in the trials of those of its remaining leaders who could still be found, of whom many were executed.”

Tuszyńska, Agata. Vera Gran: The Accused. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2013. Print. This book discusses “the nature of the accusations made against Gran, and about the slow process of discovery that has followed from Tuszyńska’s learning, at age 19, that her mother was a Jew.”

Waite, Robert G. L. Kaiser and Führer: A Comparative Study of Personality and Politics. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1998. Print. “Thoroughly documented and engagingly written this is a classic work of scholarship that will fascinate historians, psychologists, and general readers alike.”

Wallace, Max. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the Rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin’s, 2003. Print. “Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh have long been exalted as two of the greatest American icons of the twentieth century. Now award-winning journalist Max Wallace uncovers groundbreaking and astonishing revelations about the poisonous effect these two so-called American heroes had on Western democracy and how the two of them—acting in league with the Nazis—almost brought democratic Europe to the verge of extinction.”

Additional Hitler

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Nazi propaganda poster made for the Reichskommissariat Ukraine with the portrait of Hitler and the inscription reading in Ukrainian language HITLER THE LIBERATOR.

 In Mein Kampf  Hitler … promised,  ”to do away with the idea that what he does with his own body is each individiual’s own business.”

“Beer Hall Putsch.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 03 July 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/beer-hall-putsch>. “From November 8 to November 9, 1923, Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and his followers staged the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, a failed takeover of the government in Bavaria, a state in southern Germany. Since 1921, Hitler had led the Nazi Party, a fledgling political group that promoted German pride and anti-Semitism and was unhappy with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the peace settlement that ended World War I (1914-18) and required many concessions and reparations from Germany. In the aftermath of the failed ‘putsch,’ or coup d’état, Hitler was convicted of treason and sentenced to five years in prison.”

Bessel, Richard. The Hidden Hitler: Richard Bessel Reviews the Controversial New Book by Lothar Machtan. Perseus. History Today. Web. 19 May 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/richard-bessel/hidden-hitler>. “Opening his biography of Adolf Hitler nearly three decades ago, Joachim Fest observed: ‘Hardly any other prominent figure in history so covered his tracks, as far as his personal life was concerned.’ With his new book on The Hidden Hitler, Lothar Machtan offers a fascinating picture of what the Nazi dictator may have been trying to hide: a history of homosexual relationships beginning during his spell as a young man in Vienna, extending through his wartime military service, and continuing into his early postwar years in Munich.”

Deutsch, Harold C. Hitler and His Generals; the Hidden Crisis, January-June 1938. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1974. Print. This book “focuses on sensational events centering about Hitler’s successful efforts to oust Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, the War Minister, and Colonel General Baron von Fritsch, the Army commander in chief, in order to consolidate control of the military in his own hands.”

“Did Hitler Ban Gun Ownership?”. 16 June 2000. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. <http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/1791/did-hitler-ban-gun-ownership>. “I’ve seen references to, and bumper stickers stating, that Hitler took all the guns away from law abiding Germans in 1936. The inference is that this led to the disarming of the populace and its fall into a dictatorship. I’ve read extensively about the Third Reich and have never seen a mention of this.”

Eberle, Henrik, ed. The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Hitler’s Personal Aides. New York: Public Affairs, 2005. Print. “Even after Hitler’s death, Stalin remained so intrigued by his nemesis that he commissioned a top-secret dossier detailing every aspect of the late dictator’s private life, political behavior and personality. The result—File No. 462a, now known as The Hitler Book—was discovered hidden in the Soviet archives just two years  [2007] ago by Uhl, of the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich and Berlin, who presents it with Eberle, a historian at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg.”

Evans, Richard J. Hitler’s Philosophers by Yvonne Sherrratt. Yale UP, 2013. Print. “An effort to blame German thinkers for Nazism revives a discredited tradition, says Richard J. Evans.”

Fawcett, Bill. Trust Me, I Know What I’m Doing: 100 More Mistakes That Lost Elections, Ended Empires, and Made the World What It Is Today. New York: Berkley, 2012. Print. Hitler’s mistakes are #53 to #78. If he hadn’t made these errors, the world would be in worst shape now.

Hall, Allan. “Hitler’s Confidantes Describe His Last Days in Extraordinary Never-before-seen Interviews.” Mail Online. Web. 20 May 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2317588/Adolf-Hitlers-confidantes-days-extraordinary-seen-interviews.html>. “Remarkable interviews with the circle of confidantes who surrounded Adolf Hitler in the days before his suicide have been shown for the first time on German television. In testimony from beyond the grave, the group of aides, secretaries and friends described life in the squalid bunker retreat beneath the Reich Chancellery in Berlin as Russian troops moved in. They revealed intimate domestic details of Hitler’s favourite tea, the love letters from his admirers and the love song that he and Eva Braun, the woman he married in the underground hide, listened to over and over again. ”

Haltenborn, Hans V., and Adolf Hitler. “An Interview with Hitler.” The Wisconsin Magazine of History 50.4 (1967): 283-90. JSTOR. Web. 3 May 2011. From previously unpublished documents on Nazi Germany.

Herzog, Dagmar. The Great Mediocrity. Rev. of Hitler by A. N. Wilson. The New York Times 22 June 2012. Print. “A. N. Wilson’s ‘Hitler’ ultimately falls short as a satisfactory substitute for something more substantial.”

“Hitler Becomes Fuhrer.” History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/hitler-becomes-fuhrer>. “With the death of German President Paul von Hindenburg, Chancellor Adolf Hitler becomes absolute dictator of Germany under the title of Fuhrer, or ‘Leader.’ The German army took an oath of allegiance to its new commander-in-chief, and the last remnants of Germany’s democratic government were dismantled to make way for Hitler’s Third Reich. The Fuhrer assured his people that the Third Reich would last for a thousand years, but Nazi Germany collapsed just 11 years later.”

“Hitler Receives an Ultimatum, 1939.” EyeWitnesstoHistory. 2004. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/ultimatum.htm>. “Hitler’s aggressive acquisition of territory began in 1936 when he ordered his army to reoccupy the Rhineland district of Germany. Bordering France, the Rhineland had been designated as a demilitarized zone by the Versailles Treaty ending World War I. It was a high-risk endeavor for Hitler. The German troops were unprepared, poorly equipped and had orders to retreat if the French offered any resistance. In the end, the maneuver went smoothly without any hindrance. Encouraged by this result, Hitler went on to absorb Austria and the German dominated Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia into the German Third Reich in 1938. In March of the next year he occupied the remainder of Czechoslovakia.” The radio report of the surrender of Germany May 8, 1945 is included.

“Hitler Sworn in As German Chancellor; Names Nazi Aides to Two Key Cabinet Positions.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 31 Jan. 1933. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.jta.org/1933/01/31/archive/hitler-sworn-in-as-german-chancellor-names-nazi-aides-to-two-key-cabinet-positions>. “Defying all forecasts that the strength of the Nationalist Socialist Party was on the wane, would not attain executive power, following its loss of 35 seats in the last November’s election, Adolph Hitler today realized a boast of three years and became Chancellor of Germany. … With the appointment of Hitler the Jewish population of Germany are faced with their worst fears that now the Nazis will put into effect the threats they have been levelling ever since their Parliamentary victory in 1930 made them a leading party in the German republic.”

“Hitler’s Bride Eva Braun’s Farewell Letters Unveiled.” Business Standard. 11 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/hitler-s-bride-eva-braun-s-farewell-letters-unveiled-113061100227_1.html>. “Hitler’s bride Eva Braun spoke about her days with the Nazi leader in her farewell letters, before they committed suicide in a Berlin bunker.”

“Hollywood, Adolf Hitler And The Book ‘The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact With Hitler’ The Young Historian Ben Urwand: The Movies Nazis Loved and Hated [SLIDESHOW].” Entertainment & Stars. Inernational Business Times, 2 Aug. 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2013. <http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/496288/20130802/hollywood-adolf-hitler-movies-nazis-loved-hated.htm>. “Adolf Hitler loved Hollywood movies. Every night at about 9:00, after the Fuehrer had tired out his listeners with his hours-long monologues, he would lead his dinner guests to his private screening room. The lights would go down, and Hitler would fall silent, probably for the first time that day. He laughed heartily at his favorites Laurel and Hardy and Mickey Mouse, and he adored Greta Garbo: Camille brought tears to the Fuehrer’s eyes. Tarzan, on the other hand, he thought was silly.”

Hurst, Fabienne. “Hitler Food Taster Margot Wölk Speaks about Her Memories.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 2 Apr. 2013. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/hitler-food-taster-margot-woelk-speaks-about-her-memories-a-892097.html>. “Each meal could have been her last, but Adolf Hitler’s food taster Margot Wölk lived to tell her story. Forced to test the Nazi leader’s meals for more than two years, the 95-year-old tells SPIEGEL ONLINE that she lived in constant fear.”

“If Hitler Should Become German President: Nazi Official Election Programme Issued: Jen [Jews] Cannot Be Cit[izens].” JTA Archive. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 1 Mar. 1932. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <http://archive.jta.org/article/1932/03/01/2793041/if-hitler-should-become-german-president-nazi-official-election-programme-issued-jen-cannot-be-citizen-and-will-be-placed-under-alien-laws-then-there-is-shortage-of-food-states-first-duty-is-to-its-ci>. “With Hitler in the field as a candidate against President Hindenburg in the presidential election, in which ballotting takes place on March 13th., the Nazi Party is to-day distributing to all houscholders the official Nazi programme, outlining the policy which would be pursued under the Hitlerist regime if Hitler should be elected President.”

Jeltsen, Melissa. “These Photos Of Adolf Hitler After Prison Release Are Unbelievable.” Huffington Post. 11 July 2013. Web. 15 July 2013. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/11/hitler-photos_n_3579507.html?utm_hp_ref=mostpopular&utm_source=Newsletter+subscribers&utm_campaign=200b15c15d-JTA_Daily_Briefing_6_18_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_2dce5bc6f8-200b15c15d-26652337>. “These are the private photographs Adolf Hitler didn’t want anyone to see. Taken by photographer Heinrich Hoffmann, the extraordinary pictures show Hitler rehearsing while listening to a recording of one of his own speeches. They were reportedly taken in 1925, soon after Hitler was released from a nine-month stint in prison during which he dictated his autobiography, Mein Kampf. After seeing the photographs, Hitler requested that Hoffmann destroy the negatives, but he did not. They were published in his memoir, Hitler Was My Friend, which came out in 1955.”

“Jewish News & Israel News – JNS.org.” JNS.org. Jewish News & Israel News. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2013/3/11/grim-75th-anniversary-hitlers-dream-austrian-jewrys-nightmare>. “Adolf Hitler had long dreamed of making his native Austria a part of Germany and subjecting Austria’s Jews to the same fate he had in mind for the Jews of Germany. Seventy-five years ago this month, he made his move.”

Jones, Nigel. “The Fuhrer Was Not Amused.” Spectator Blogs. The Spectator, 6 Nov. 2012. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://blogs.spectator.co.uk/books/2012/11/the-fuhrer-was-not-amused/>. “‘The German sense of humour,’ Mark Twain famously observed, ‘Is no laughing matter.’ Although many Greeks, stretched on the Euro’s rack at Berlin’s behest, may be inclined to agree, Rudolph Herzog’s intriguing study of humour in and against Hitler’s Germany, ‘Dead Funny: Telling Jokes in Hitler’s Germany,’ proves conclusively that the Teutonic funny bone, while it may be difficult to locate, definitely exists.”

Kershaw, Ian. “Hitler Kept Himself Aloof from the Dirtiest Work.” Telegraph.com. 23 Jan. 2005. Web. 2 Aug. 2012. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1481809/Hitler-kept-himself-aloof-himself-aloof-from-the-dirtiest-work.html>. “He never visited a single death camp and would not speak openly about his plans to annihilate the Jews, but the Fuhrer’s indelible imprint can be found at every stage of the ‘Final Solution’, writes Professor Ian Kershaw.”

“Killing Hitler: Assassination Attempts.” Hitler’s Third Reich and World War II in the News . Web. 15 June 2013. <http://hitlernews.cloudworth.com/killing-hitler-assassination-attempts.php>. Links to many articles about assassination attempts on Adolf Hitler. A section of “Welcome to World War II News.”

Kreis, Steven. “Lecture 11: Hitler and World War Two.” The History Guide. 11 Dec. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://www.historyguide.org/Europe/lecture11.html>. “Because of his experiences in Vienna, World War One, the Münich putsch and in prison, Adolf Hitler dreamed of building a vast German Empire sprawling across Central and Eastern Europe. Lebensraum could only be obtained and sustained by waging a war of conquest against the Soviet Union: German security demanded it and Hitler’s racial ideology required it. War, then, was essential. It was essential to Hitler the man as well as essential to Hitler’s dream of a new Germany.”

Lorenzi, Rosella. “Hitler Used Cocaine and Had Semen Injections.” Discovery News. 4 May 2012. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://news.discovery.com/history/hitler-medical-records-120504.htm>. “Adolf Hitler farted uncontrollably, used cocaine to clear his sinuses, ingested some 28 drugs at a time and received injections of bull testicle extracts to bolster his libido. The startling revelations come from Hitler’s medical records, now up for auction at Alexander Historical Auctions of Stamford, Conn.”

Lorenzi, Rosella. “Proof That Hitler Had An Illegitimate Son?” Discovery News. 18 Feb. 2012. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://news.discovery.com/history/hitlers-illefitimate-son-120218.htm>. “New evidence has emerged to support the controversial claim that Hitler had a son with a French teenager, the French magazine LePoint reported on Friday. The man, Jean-Marie Loret, claimed to be the Fuhrer’s son in 1981, when he published an autobiography called ‘Your Father’s Name Was Hitler.’ He died four years later aged 67, not being able to prove his family line.”

May, Ernest R. Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000. Print. “Strange Victory, a riveting study not only of those crucial six weeks [Germany's conquest of France] but of the years and days leading up to the German invasion, makes it clear how Hitler, though a lazy, illformed psychopath, outguessed his own experts as to how French and British leaders would respond to german actions.”

Medoff, Rafael. “A World Series Warning About Hitler.” JNS.org. 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jns.org/latest-articles/2012/10/15/a-world-series-warningabout-hitler.html>. “The 1936 Olympics, scheduled to be held in Nazi Germany, marked the first time basketball would be part of the competition. The Long Islanders stood a strong chance of being chosen to represent the U.S. in Berlin—until the players’ consciences got the better of them. In March 1936, on the eve of the qualifying tournament at Madison Square Garden, university president Tristram Metcalfe shocked the sports world with his announcement that the Blackbirds had decided to boycott Hitler’s Olympics. In view of Hitler’s anti-Jewish abuses, Metcalfe explained, the players decided ‘that the United States should not participate in Olympic Games … ”

Megargee, Geoffrey P. Inside Hitler’s High Command. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 2000. Print. “Hitler emerges from these pages as an adept manipulator. He took full advantage of the tensions in the command structure to divide it and focus it on himself. But he took the officers nowhere they were not at least ready, if not immediately willing, to go.”

“NAZI RANKS SPLIT, REICH SURVEY SAYS.” New York Times 17 June 1934: 20. Print. “Adolf Hitler is still a ‘Messiah’ to the majority of the German people, according to a report on ‘The Political Structure of the Third Reich’ published today by the Foreign Policy Association. The report was prepared by Mildred B. Wertheimer and the research staff of the organization.”

Noakes, Jeremy. “Hitler and ‘Lebensraum’ in the East.” BBC History. BBC, 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 03 July 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/hitler_lebensraum_01.shtml>. “Between 1921 and 1925 Adolf Hitler developed the belief that Germany required Lebensraum (‘living space’) in order to survive. The conviction that this living space could be gained only in the east, and specifically from Russia, formed the core of this idea, and shaped his policy after his take-over of power in Germany in 1933. So where did he get this idea from? And why did he envisage his country’s future living space lying in the east?”

Olden, Rudolf. Hitler, the Pawn. London: V. Gollancz, 1936. Print. “The author’s conversations with a large number of German politicians–until March 1st, 1933, in Germany and subsequently in other countries–have contributed largely to the volume of historical material here presented. The conditions under which these politicians live, both in Germany and outside, make it inadvisable to give their names as evidence and confirmation.”

Peck, Patrice. “Did Hitler Really Snub Jesse Owens at 1936 Berlin Olympics?” BET.com. 3 Aug. 2013. Web. 04 Aug. 2013. <http://www.bet.com/news/global/2013/08/03/did-hitler-really-snub-jesse-owens-at-1936-berlin-olympics.html>. “On Aug. 3, 1936, Jesse Owens launched his way into sports stardom at the Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he racked up his first of four gold medals in the 100 meter sprint. As legend goes, German leader Adolf Hitler snubbed the African-American athlete for humiliating Germany and the Aryan athletes whom he had defeated on the track. However, some have claimed to debunk this supposed myth. Veteran sports reporter Siegfried Mischner told the Daily Mail that Owens had a photograph of the Nazi leader shaking his hand at the sports event.”

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Hitler Facts.” About.com 20th Century History. About.com. Web. 24 July 2012. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/hitleradolf/a/Hitler-Facts.htm>.

Strupp, Christopher. “‘Only a Phase’: How Diplomats Misjudged Hitler’s Rise.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 30 Jan. 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/marking-eighty-years-since-hitler-took-power-in-germany-a-880565.html>. “‘The political situation now is so complicated and is subject to so many psychological factors that it is impossible to make any definite forecast,’ George S. Messersmith, the United States consul general in Berlin from 1930 to 1934, wrote in a dispatch to the State Department on Feb. 3, 1933. … ‘It may, I believe, be accepted,’ wrote Messersmith, ‘that whether the Hitler regime lasts for a few months or for a longer period, it is only a phase in the development towards more stable political conditions and that this government will be followed by one which will show greater elements of stability than any which Germany has had for some years. The people are politically tired.’”

Sundberg, Walter. “Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis.” First Things. Mar. 2001. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.firstthings.com/article/2007/01/hitler-1936-1945-nemesis-8>. “The question Ian Kershaw faces in the second volume of his massive biography is whether Hitler’s life has a coherent meaning for us, or whether it is as fragmented and partial as his earthly remains. His first volume, Hitler 1889–1936: Hubris (1998), covered Hitler’s early life and rise to power. In that volume the ultimate significance of Hitler’s life was not the urgent question. This final volume tells Hitler’s story from the height of his acclaim in March 1936, after German troops occupied the Rhineland, to his ‘extinction’ (Kershaw’s word) in his bunker in Berlin in April 1945. Kershaw, Professor of History at the University of Sheffield, summarizes the historical meaning of Hitler’s life at the outset: ‘Hitler’s legacy,’ he writes in the Preface, ‘is one of utter destruction.’”

Uzan, Elad. “Wagner and Hitler: Active or Passive Influence?” JPost.com. The Jerusalem Post, 20 Dec. 2012. Web. 15 June 2013. <http://www.jpost.com/Magazine/Opinion/Wagner-and-Hitler-Active-or-passive-influence>. “The year 2013 marks the bicentennial of Richard Wagner’s birth. Once every several years, the debate ensues in Israel over whether or not this composer’s music should be performed publicly. … So, in order to properly examine the connection between Wagner and Hitler, it is imperative to create order in the time line. Wagner died 50 years before Hitler’s rise to power in 1933. However, I argue there is evidence to support the claim that Wagner’s anti-Semitism affected Hitler through indirect channels.”

Waldman, Simon. “At Home with the Fuhrer.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 02 Nov. 2003. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/nov/03/secondworldwar.blogging>. “Simon Waldman came across a copy of Homes and Gardens from 1938 which featured an article about Hitler’s house, and posted it to his weblog. This started a bizarre series of events that saw him embroiled in legal wrangles and denounced as a Nazi sympathiser.”

“When Did Hitler Lose The War ?” 2worldwar2. Web. 04 May 2013. <http://www.2worldwar2.com/when-hitler-lost.htm>. “When did Adolf Hitler lose the chance to win World War 2 ? What was the moment in time that before it he could still possibly win the war, and after it his defeat was a matter of time ? (and long continued fighting that still cost so many lives). When was it? How early or late was it ?”