Nazi-Occupied Countries




File:Flag Map of Nazi Occupied Europe.png


Nazi-Occupied Europe


“1939: Germany Invades Poland.” BBC News. BBC, 09 Jan. 1939. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “German forces have invaded Poland and its planes have bombed Polish cities, including the capital, Warsaw. The attack comes without any warning or declaration of war. Britain and France have mobilised their forces and are preparing to wage war on Germany for the second time this century. Just before dawn today, German tanks, infantry and cavalry penetrated Polish territory on several fronts with five armies, a total of 1.5 million troops.”

“1940-1945 [OCCUPATION].” Greece 1923 -1945. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. ” “On 23 April 1941, the King and the government fled Athens [Greece] for Crete while the Germans advanced on the capital. Chaos and breakdown characterized the short period between the departure of the governors and the entry of the Germans into Athens. Many also left for Crete and the Middle East or simply made for the Peloponnese and the islands. The continuous bombardment of streets and harbours by enemy aircraft completed the atmosphere of disorder and fear. On 27 April the Germans entered an almost empty Athens, since the inhabitants remained stubbornly shut up in their houses. The hoisting of the Nazi swastika over the Acropolis marked the beginning of the German occupation. A quisling government was appointed with Georgios Tsolagoklou, the General who had signed the surrender, as first prime minister.”

“All about the Destruction of Lidice by the Occupying Nazi Forces in WWII.” Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “Lidice was a village that stood about 20 kilometres north-west of Prague until June 1942 when it was completely destroyed and erased from all maps by the occupying forces of Nazi Germany.”

Baranowski, Shelley. Nazi Empire: German Colonialism and Imperialism from Bismarck to Hitler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2011. Print. “Drawing on recent studies of the links between empire, colonialism, and genocide, Nazi Empire, 1871-1945 examines German history from 1871 to 1945 as an expression of the aspiration to imperialist expansion and the simultaneous fear of destruction by rivals. Acknowledging the important differences between the Second Empire, the Weimar Republic, and the Third Reich, Shelley Baranowski nonetheless reveals a common thread: the drama of German imperialist ambitions that embraced ethnic homogeneity over diversity, imperial enlargement over stasis, and ‘living space’ as the route to the biological survival of the German Volk.” Chapter 5: “The Nazi Place in the Sun: German-Occupied Europe during World War II”

Birn, Ruth Bettina. “Collaboration with Nazi Germany in Eastern Europe: The Case of the Estonian Security Police.” Contemporary European History 10.2 (Jul 2001): 181-98. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Little has been written about collaboration with the Nazi occupiers in eastern Europe. Using new material from former Soviet archives, the issue of the security police in Estonia is presented as a case study. The commander of the German security police deliberately set up a structure whereby German and Estonian police officers worked closely together, thereby minimising the need for German personnel. Although the security police dealt with the issues which were politically and ideologically the most important, non-Germans like Estonians were accepted as collaborators.”

Callendar, Harold. “‘New Europe’ Rises in Nazi Word Drive.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1942 sep 26: 6. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “By radio, through the press and in numerous speeches, the Nazis in the last few days have been busily publicizing within Europe their contention that the suffering imposed by the war — which they admit outran their time schedule — is justified because the ‘European question’ is at last being solved.”

“Czechoslovakia.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “After the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, Germany demanded the ‘return’ of the ethnic German population of Czechoslovakia — and the land on which it lived — to the German Reich. In late summer 1938, Hitler threatened to unleash a European war unless the Sudetenland was ceded to Germany. The Sudetenland was a border area of Czechoslovakia containing a majority ethnic German population as well as all of the Czechoslovak Army’s defensive positions in event of a war with Germany. The leaders of Britain, France, Italy, and Germany held a conference in Munich on September 29-30, 1938. In what became known as the Munich Pact, they agreed to the German annexation of the Sudetenland in exchange for a pledge of peace from Hitler.” And how did that work out?

Danilenko, Vladimir. “German Occupation of Kiev in 1941-1943: Documents of the Nazi-Controlled City Administration.” Eastview. Eastview Information Services. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “The State Archive of the Kiev Oblast’ (GAKO) contains a collection designated as Fond R-2356 ‘Kievskaia gorodskaia uprava [Kiev City Administration]‘. Behind it is one of the most tragic pages in Ukraine’s recent history – the Great Patriotic War. Nazi Germany invaded the USSR on June 22nd, 1941. On September 19th, 1941, the capital of Ukraine was already taken by the Nazis. Kiev was occupied for more than two years until its liberation on November 6th, 1943. … The City Council documents stayed in GAKO’s secret stacks until December 1990, following which they were declassified and handed over for general storage. The Fond contains information on the economic position of the city during the occupation; the population’s political moods; appeals issues by the city mayor and German commanders; the organization of Ukrainian police force; the operation of housing management departments; the operation of schools, preschool centers, higher schools, libraries, theaters, and movies; massive deportations of the populations to forced labor in Germany; the use of child labor; the condition of medical establishments; incidences of diseases, documents of disabled and pensioners; and documents on the personnel of the Municipal Council and of institutions and enterprises under its control and the employment of experts. The documents are in Ukrainian, Russian and German.”

Daviess, Lawrence E. “Nazi Regime Is Duplicated In Europe, Says Marshall.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1948 mar 20: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2009) with Index (1851-1993). Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Prompt enactment and immediate application of the European Recovery Program are ‘fundamental’ to every future decision relative to a world situation, ‘as grave as any that has ever confronted this nation,’ the Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, asserted here today. The situation, he warned …  provides “duplication in Europe of the high-handed and calculated procedure of the Nazi regime.”

“Europe’s Industry a Giant Nazi Trust.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1943 jun 15: 5. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2009). Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “The Nazis, through plunder ‘and the severest economic pressure and political terror’ have seized every important industrial enterprise in the occupied countries of Europe and transformed Europe’s economy ‘into an enormous industrial empire,’ the Office of War Information stated today in its latest report on German domination.”

Fein, Esther B. “Soviets Confirm Nazi Pacts Dividing Europe.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1989 aug 19: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. “After decades of denial, the Kremlin conceded for the first time today that ‘without a doubt’ the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany secretly and illegally divided Eastern Europe into spheres of influence before the start of World War II.”

“German Invasion of Western Europe, May 1940.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “The campaign against the Low Countries and France lasted less than six weeks. Germany attacked in the west on May 10, 1940. Initially, British and French commanders had believed that German forces would attack through central Belgium as they had in World War I, and rushed forces to the Franco-Belgian border to meet the German attack. The main German attack however, went through the Ardennes Forest in southeastern Belgium and northern Luxembourg. German tanks and infantry quickly broke through the French defensive lines and advanced to the coast.”

“German Occupied Europe 1942 Map.” Jewish Virtual Library. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “In 1942, Germany dominated most of Europe. Greater Germany had been enlarged at the expense of its neighbors. Austria and Luxembourg were completely incorporated. Territories from Czechoslovakia, Poland, France, Belgium, and the Baltic states were seized by Greater Germany. German military forces occupied Norway, Denmark, Belgium, northern France, Serbia, parts of northern Greece, and vast tracts of territory in eastern Europe. Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Finland, Croatia, and Vichy France were all either allied to Germany or subject to heavy German influence. Between 1942 and 1944, German military forces extended the area under their occupation to southern France, central and northern Italy, Slovakia, and Hungary.”

“German Rule in Occupied Europe.” The Holocaust: A Learning Site for Students. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. Germany planned to annex most of the conquered eastern territories after they had been Germanized. While some areas were to serve as reservations for forced laborers, most were to be resettled by German colonists. Most German plans for resettlement were postponed until the end of the war. Meanwhile, the regions were ruthlessly exploited for the German war effort: foodstuffs, raw materials, and war stocks were confiscated. Members of the local population were drafted for forced labor in war industries or military construction projects. Millions more were deported to Germany to be used as forced laborers in German war industries or agriculture.”

“German-occupied Europe.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “Hitler’s racist ideology and his brutal conception of power politics caused him to pursue certain aims in those European countries conquered by the Germans in the period 1939–42. Hitler intended that those western and northern European areas in which civil administrations were installed—the Netherlands and Norway—would at some later date become part of the German Reich, or nation. Those countries left by Germany under military administration (which originally had been imposed everywhere), such as France and Serbia, would eventually be included more loosely in a German-dominated European bloc. Poland and the Soviet Union, on the other hand, were to be a colonial area for German settlement and economic exploitation.” Includes audio, video, and interactives.

“German-occupied Europe.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Oct. 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “German–occupied Europe or Nazi Empire refers to the countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945.” This site contains a really nice graphic of all the occupied countries.

Hagen, William W. “Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin.” Shofar 30.3 (Spring 2012): 178-81. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. [A] massive caveat looms against any argument that exposure to Soviet practice triggered Nazi genocide: already in fall 1939, in Nazi-occupied western and central Poland, public mass murder commenced of civilians, the victims numbering in the tens of thousands. Arendt derived twentieth-century political mass murder from the absorption of pseudo-scientific racial thinking into war-igniting western imperialism, from the ethnocentrism of the mass-mobilized nation-state and resultant exile of rejected human populations into the fatal limbo of dehumanized statelessness-and, too, from widespread popular anxiety and radicalization in crisis-ridden industrializing society.”

Hargrove, Charles R. “Nazi-Junker Drama Brings, Feeling Of Uncertainty to Europe’s Capitals.” Wall Street Journal (1923 – Current File) 1938 feb 14: 1. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. PARIS–The shadow of Germany’s latest weird drama hangs over the chancelleries of Europe. Until the meaning of this Nazi-Junker crisis is less obscure than it now is, tension will not disappear on the Continent.

Hertzberg, Sidney. “Nazi Activity in Northern Europe.” Current History (New York) 39.1 (1933 Oct 01): 113. Periodicals Archive Online; Periodicals Index Online. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Aided by Hitler’s God-given pan-Germanism, the Fascist elements in Northern Europe have given birth to an array of Feuhrer who are ready to lead their respective peoples to the National Socialist fountain of youth. How many followers they have it is difficult to judge.”

Hindley, Meredith. “Blockade before Bread: Allied Relief for Nazi Europe, 1939–1945.” Thesis. The American University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (2007): 479. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “This study provides the first analysis of Allied relief policy for Nazi-occupied territories–and by extension Allied humanitarian policy–during the Second World War. When the war began, Britain implemented an economic warfare campaign that sought to prevent Germany from importing any goods that would fuel the Nazi war machine. Food and clothing, the building blocks of relief programs, were included in the ban. In order for relief goods to pass Britain’s blockade against Germany, humanitarian organizations had to prove to Britain, and later the United States, that the goods would not aid the German war effort. Consequently, from the being of the war, a fundamental contradiction existed between Allied strategy and the humanitarian impulse. How the Allies negotiated that contradiction while pursuing victory is the subject of this study.”

Hollander, Ethan J.. “Implementing and Subverting the Final Solution in Nazi-occupied Europe.” Thesis. University of California, San Diego. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (2006): 511-11 P. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. This dissertation explains why levels of Jewish victimization varied among Nazi-occupied countries during World War II. I show that the ‘success’ of the German genocide program depended most importantly upon the relationship between Germany and each occupied country. I argue that where German rule was direct, its implementation of the Final Solution was unhindered, and therefore more effective. On the other hand, where Germany ruled through collaborators, the precise implementation of genocidal policies was the result of complex bargaining and negotiations: In return for their loyal cooperation in military or economic policy, collaborators could often get away with partial or simply ‘unenthusiastic’ implementation of the Final Solution. This was often a major factor in reducing rates of Jewish victimization.”

“Invasion of France.” ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “After taking over Lithuania, Latvia, Ethiopia, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Denmark, Germany turned its attention to Great Britain and France. Germany was now very powerful, but so were these two nations. Germany, deciding it needed more power, declared war on Great Britain and France. Even though they expected this, Great Britain and France were not prepared for the battle they would have with Germany.”

Jacobsohn, Peter. “A Witness to the Age of Nazi Europe.” Chicago Tribune (1963-Current File) 27 Oct. 1968: 1-L16. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. In “the 1930s Elizabeth Wiskemann was one of a small but determined band of journalists who devoted frustrating yet exciting years to warning the world against Nazi Germany. In England this was no small task.”

Kennedy, Robert M. “German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944).” U.S. Army Center of Military History. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “The purpose of this study is to describe briefly the German campaign against the guerrillas in the Balkans during the period of the European Axis occupation, from the end of hostilities against Greece and Yugoslavia in April 1941 to the capture of Belgrade by the Soviet forces and the Partisans in October 1944. The activities of Germany’s Italian, Bulgarian, Croatian, and other allies, as well as the British, Soviet, and United States forces in the area, are treated only to the extent that they affected German operations. In sequence of time, this study is a continuation of Department of the Army CMH Pub 104-18, The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941), of November 1953. The material for this study was obtained from German military records now in the custody of The Adjutant General, Department of the Army. In addition to these official records, monographs by former German officers who participated in these operations furnished considerable general information and were of assistance in supplementing the terse official reports of specific actions.”

Kuhn, Ferdinand Ferdinand. “Europe Redraws Lines to Meet Nazi Thrusts.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1938 apr 24: 62. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2009) with Index (1851-1993). Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Europe this week continued the uncomfortable process of adjusting itself to the dynamic outward pressure of Nazi Germany. It was a ‘quiet’ week with no violent changes except the hammer blow of Generalissimo Francisco Franco’s armies against Catalonia and the dramatic counterblow struck by King Carol against the Iron Guard in Rumania.”

“Lofoten War Museum – Occupation.” Lofoten War Museum. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. <>. “It was chaotic in every sense during the first week of the German occupation. In the early days of May, Norwegian forces surrendered themselves, quickly followed by the forces locating in and around Trondheim. In the northern part of Norway, the fight against Wehrmacht continued with the aid of British, French and Polish armies, resulting in regaining control over Narvik May 28th. But not for long. Because of the ‘blitzkrieg’ on the continent our allied forces had to withdraw and Norway capitulated to the Germans 10th June 1945. Norway is occupied.”

Morawetz, Jennifer. “The Lebensborn Organization in Nazi Germany and Occupied Europe.” Thesis. The University of Texas at Dallas. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (2011): 177. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. The Lebensborn Program was a Nazi eugenics program that ran from 1935 to 1945. Designed and governed by Himmler, it was an attempt to increase the number of ‘Aryan’ children produced each year. It was a numerical failure as both German civilians and the elite SS who were to have been the cornerstone of program refused to become involved. Himmler was determined to increase the number of children by all means possible, and so in 1938 began a system of kidnapping children who fit the overt racial characteristic of ‘Aryan’, and ‘re-educating’ them to believe they were German. Kidnapping for the purpose of Germanization occurred in all of occupied Europe and ultimately some 92,000 children were under the control of the Lebensborn program. Himmler and his fellow ideologues placed the Lebensborn as a crucial aspect of the Third Reich and held it to be a center point of Nazi ideology.”

“Nazi Combines Grab Industrial Rule of Europe.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) 1943 jun 15: 4. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. The giant Nazi industrial combines have transformed Europe’s economy into an industrial empire “which could maintain power despite changes in the leadership of Germany, the Nazi party, or the German army,” the office of war information [OWI] reported today.

“Nazi Coup Imminent in Southeast Europe.” Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) 1944 jan 11: 3. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Complete German military occupation of Southeastern Europe is imminent because of growing enmity, marked by ugly riots between the mutually hostile peoples of the Nazi puppet states of Hungary, Rumania and Bulgaria.”

“Nazis Take Czechoslovakia.” A&E Television Networks. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “On this day, Hitler’s forces invade and occupy Czechoslovakia–a nation sacrificed on the altar of the Munich Pact, which was a vain attempt to prevent Germany’s imperial aims. On September 30, 1938, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, French Premier Edouard Daladier, and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain signed the Munich Pact, which sealed the fate of Czechoslovakia, virtually handing it over to Germany in the name of peace. Although the agreement was to give into Hitler’s hands only the Sudentenland, that part of Czechoslovakia where 3 million ethnic Germans lived, it also handed over to the Nazi war machine 66 percent of Czechoslovakia’s coal, 70 percent of its iron and steel, and 70 percent of its electrical power. Without those resources, the Czech nation was left vulnerable to complete German domination.”

“The Occupation of Denmark.” Denmark – The Official Website of Denmark. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “Denmark was occupied by Germany on 9 April 1940. Hitler was not particularly interested in Denmark in itself, but he needed to control the country and its air bases to make it easier for the German army to attack Norway. In addition Denmark was to be part of the German defences that would prevent an Allied invasion. The actual occupation proved no challenge for Germany. After a few hours of fighting the Danish soldiers in southern Jutland surrendered, and the Danish government began negotiations with the German invasion forces.”

“The Occupation of Norway.” The History Learning Site. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “The occupation of Norway in the spring of 1940 by Nazi Germany was swift and decisive. The German army quickly swept through Norway and in one month established its rule there. Its one weak area in the whole campaign was that many German troops had to be landed by sea and the control of the sea around Norway’s coast was vital.”

Petropoulos, Jonathan. “Co-opting Nazi Germany: Neutrality in Europe during World War Ii.” Dimensions 14.1 (May 2000): 13. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Neutrality, when practiced by nations, is not always neutral. It does not preclude involvement in international affairs, or even partisanship. According to international law, there are varying kinds of neutrality. For example, Switzerland adopted ‘differentiated’ neutrality in 1920, a decision which indicated a willingness to employ economic sanctions to communicate disapprobation of another nation; in 1938 the Swiss embraced ‘integral,’ or supposedly unconditional, neutrality. Despite the apparent precision of these legal terms, neutrality for Switzerland during World War II, as well as for the other continental European countries that claimed neutral status during that period — Portugal, Sweden, Spain, and the Vatican — can best be summed up by the phrase, self-interested noncombatant.These nations shared the common objectives of preserving relative independence in foreign policy and resisting encroachment into domestic affairs. But the costs were high: Switzerland, Sweden, Portugal and Spain, at certain points, deserved the unpleasant label — to borrow the title from Donald Waters’ book on Switzerland — ‘Hitler’s Secret Ally.’ … Indeed, the Swiss are tainted not just by their collaboration with the Reich, but by their postwar failure to confront a problematic past. To comprehend the magnitude of this ‘taint,’ it is necessary both to understand Switzerland’s degree of involvement in Nazi crimes, and to place that involvement in the context of the wartime behavior of the other three ‘neutrals.’ The Swiss bolstered the Nazi regime in many ways, ways that can be summarized by the following categories: border policies, opportunities for trade, and financial transactions. Behavior in all of these categories was either immoral or amoral, but Switzerland’s closing of escape routes over its border is probably the most troubling.”

“POLAND IN WWII.” POLAND WWII. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. <>. “In German-occupied western Poland, an entire clandestine civil government (with courts, education, health, legislative and other usual government functions) and military organization (the ‘AK,’ Armia Krajowa [Home Army or Army of the Homeland]) formed underground, under the very noses of the brutal Nazi occupiers, taking their orders from the Polish government-in-exile in London via perilous courier networks and risky radio transmissions. ”

Potter, Pamela M. “The Arts in Nazi Germany: A Silent Debate.” Contemporary European History 15.4 (Nov 2006): 585-99. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. Joan Clinefelter, Artists for the Reich: Culture and Race from Weimar to Nazi Germany (Oxford: Berg, 2005). Richard Etlin ed., Art, Culture, and Media under the Third Reich (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). Eric Michaud, The Cult of Art in Nazi Germany, trans. Janet Lloyd (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004). Peter Paret, An Artist against the Third Reich: Ernst Barlach, 1933-1938 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). Frederick Spotts, Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics (London: Hutchinson, 2002)

Safranek, By Milos. “THE SPOIL OF EUROPE. The Nazi Technique in Political and Economic Conquest. By Thomas Reveille. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. “New York Times (1923-Current File) 1941 sep 07: 89. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.  MATERIAL about Hitler’s unbelievably brutal “New Order” in Europe, though freely and fully accessible in German publications, is systematically set forth for the first time in the United States in the current book by Thomas Reveille. This fact is in itself surprising, especially when we consider how vital it is to the interest of the Western Hemisphere to know the whole truth about Hitler’s ‘New Order’ in Europe, and concrete plans for his world new order.”

Salony, Mary F. “Hunger for the Printed Word: Books and Libraries in the Jewish Ghettos of Nazi-Occupied Europe.” Library Journal 122.8 (1997 May 01): 121. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “Hunger for the Printed Word: Books and Libraries in the Jewish Ghettos of Nazi-Occupied Europe” by David Shavit is reviewed.

Stiles, Kent B. “Issued in Nazi Europe.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 25 July 1943: 1. New York Times. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. “After postal representatives of Germany and Italy and of Nazi satellites and over-run countries in Europe had organized a European postal and communications union at Vienna last Oct. 12 through 19, reports filtered through that several of the participating governments had issued stamps to commemorate the assembly.”

Taylor, Sylvia Lynne. Le Cout De Vie: Daily Life in Northern France during the German Occupation of World War II. Thesis. University of Michigan. Dissertations & Theses @ CIC Institutions; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. “This dissertation is a study of the impact of the German occupation of northern France during World War II on the daily lives of the region’s inhabitants. The focus of attention is on the drastic shortages of food and fuel which arose both because of the destruction caused by the invasion and because of the centrally controlled economy imposed by the German occupiers, their impact on the lives and health of the local population and how that population coped with the shortages. Their methods of coping took two general forms; protest and evasion. The various coping techniques used were shaped by the peculiar nature of the relationship between occupier and occupied. … Chapter four examines the effects and consequences of these changes on the daily lives of the region’s inhabitants. Under the Nazi regime, daily life became a struggle for survival in a hostile and repressive political environment and an economy of chronic shortages and inflation. Chapters five and six explore the various means by which the population sought to cope with the difficulties of daily life, both through protest and through evasion of the myriad of regulations governing the economy. Some were more successful than others; all were frought with danger, for they were largely illegal activities. The opportunities available proved surprisingly diverse, ranging from strikes and food riots to pillaging and black markets. Each was a reflection of the nature of the relationship between the occupier and the occupied, and of the unpredictable and indeterminate nature of that relationship.”

Tyrnauer, Alfred. “Goering: Thief of Industrial Billions.” Click Magazine Sept. 1943: 26. Old Magazine Articles. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. <>. “His incredible empire covers all nations conquered by Nazis. … [he] ‘owns’ the world’s largest industrial empire by right of possession.”

United Press., By The. “Anti-nazi Revolt Widens in Europe.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 1941 sep 14: 1. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.  German armed forces today [Seot. 14,1941] were reported resorting to drastic measures to crush anti-Nazi and guerrilla outbreaks in Norway, Hungary, Yugoslavia, the Netherlands and Rumania.


National Socialism

“The National Socialist German Workers Party better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. The term Nazi is a short form of the German word Nationalsozialist (Nationalist Socialist, the ‘zi’ originating from Sozialist), reflecting the ideology of the NSDAP. The NSDAP set up the Third Reich after Hitler’s apppointment to Chancellor in January 1933.

The NSDAP was the main political force in Nazi Germany from the fall of the Weimar Republic in 1933 until the end of  World War II in 1945, when it was declared illegal and its leaders were arrested and convicted of crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials.” 


  • “Description: Forged copy of Adolf Hitler’s membership card in the German Worker Party (DAP), which would later become the NSDAP. His membership number was actually 555. In a letter from Anton Drexler that was drafted in 1940 but never sent, he said:

 No one knows better than you yourself, my Führer, that you were never the seventh member of the party, but at best the seventh member of the committee, which I asked you to join as recruitment director. And a few years ago I had to complain to a party office that your first proper membership card of the DAP, bearing the signatures of Schüssler and myself, was falsified, with the number 555 being erased and number 7 entered. (Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris 1889-1936, Penguin Books, p. 127).

[Note: membership was counted upwards from 500 (the first 500 members did not in fact exist), so Hitler's party number was 555.]“


Alsfeld, Richard W. “American Opinions of National Socialism.” International Social Science Review 60.3 (Summer 1985): 55. Periodicals Archive Online; Periodicals Index Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “This paper is concerned with the process of opinion formation and development displayed by a sample of American opinion leaders while commenting on Nationalism during the movement’s rise to power.”

Blackwell, Carolyn S., and Gordon R. Mork. “German Jewish Identity and German Jewish Response to National Socialism, 1933-1939.” Thesis. Purdue University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (1988): 317-17 P. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. The dissertation is a study of German Jewish identity and its influence on the response of German Jews to National Socialism during the years 1933-1939. German Jewish response was influenced by the relationship with the dominant culture, self-identity, political actions, previous experience and perception of the existing situation. The findings reveal that German Jews were not integrated into German society as fully as they perceived themselves to be. The majority of German Jews identified themselves as Germans of the Jewish faith and were caught between desiring full assimilation into German society and preserving their Judaic customs and traditions. Conflict among the Jewish leaders/organizations over what constituted German Jewish identity and the method to combat antisemitism created divisions within the Jewish community. The divisiveness prevented a unified response to National Socialism during the years 1933-1939. Individual German Jews responded according to their self-identity, degree of acculturation (as exemplified by the categories cultural, secular and practical), and perception of the existing situation.”

Blakey, Fred. “National Socialism.” Southern Quarterly 6.4 (1968 Jul 01): 438. Periodicals Archive Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “The culmination of the philosophy of fascism was reached in Germany with the development of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. Like Mussonini’s Fascism, the National Socialist movement combined an appeal to extreme and exclusive nationalism and chauvinist expansionism with a revolutionary call to the masses.”

Bowden, Robin L. Diagnosing Nazism: U.S. Perceptions of National Socialism, 1920–1933. Thesis. Kent State University. 2009. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “Historical coverage of American perceptions of National Socialism normally begins with Adolf Hitler’s appointment as chancellor in 1933. Yet American policymakers were aware of and reported on the party from its formation in the early 1920s, though their concern with Germany’s political and economic stability caused them to inaccurately assess the growing National Socialist threat during this formative period. U.S. diplomats’ often stark differences of opinion when it came to dealing with National Socialism before Hitler’s chancellorship have been relatively unexamined. Consequently, a complete understanding of the interwar relationship between the United States and Germany and the American understanding of National Socialism has heretofore been impossible. Using extensive primary documentation from the State Department and U.S. military intelligence, this dissertation dissects American diplomatic reporting on Germany from the formation of the NSDAP through Hitler’s appointment as chancellor. … As this study makes clear, U.S. observers had the opportunity to document and comprehend the developing National Socialist movement more than a decade before Hitler became chancellor. Lamentably, their coverage proved to be marked by misconceptions, some confusion, and, at times, complete disregard for the success of Hitler and his party.”

Bytwerk, Randall L. Landmark Speeches of National Socialism. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2008. Print. “As historians have long noted, public oratory has seldom been as pivotal in generating and sustaining the vitality of a movement as it was during the rise and rule of the National Socialist Party, from 1919 to 1945. Led by the charismatic and indefatigable Hitler, National Socialists conducted one of the most powerful rhetorical campaigns ever recorded. Indeed, the mass addresses, which were broadcast live on radio, taped for re-broadcast, and in many cases filmed for play on theater newsreels throughout the Third Reich, constituted one of the most thorough exploitations of media in history. … Gathered here are thirteen key speeches of this historically significant movement, including Hitler’s announcement of the party’s reestablishment in 1925 following the unsuccessful Beer Hall Putsch, four addresses by Joseph Goebbels, the 1938 Kristallnacht speech by Julius Streicher, and four speeches drafted as models for party leaders’ use on various public occasions. The volume concludes with Adolf Hitler’s final public address on January 30, 1945, three months before his suicide. Several of these works are presented for the first time in English translation. Bytwerk provides a brief introduction to each speech and allows the reader to trace the development and downfall of the Nazi party.”

“The Era of Nationalism.” Facts about Germany. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “Hitler did not come to power on the back of a major election victory but he would not have become Reich Chancellor in January 1933 had he not been the leader of the strongest party. At the last Weimar Republic Reichstag elections on November 6, 1932 the National Socialists had lost two million votes compared with the July 31, 1932 elections, while the Communists gained 600,000 thereby reaching the magic number of 100 Reichstag seats. The success of the Communist Party (KPD) whipped up fears of civil war, and it was this fear that was to become Hitler’s most powerful ally, particularly among the powerful Conservative elite.” Fischer, Conan. “Workers, the Middle Classes, and the Rise of National Socialism.” German History 9.3 (1991 Oct 01): 357. Periodicals Archive Online; Periodicals Index Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Book reviews.

Friedrich, Carl Joachim. “National Socialism In Germany.” The Political Quarterly 2.4 (1931): 520-30. Wiley Online Library. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “National Socialism is not only a party, it is also a movement. It is necessary to understand the causes from which the movement has sprung in order to appreciate the strength and the weaknesses of the party.”

“German Reich: National Socialism (1933-1945).” Bundesarchiv. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “Access may be gained in the Federal Archives to the national archives of central civilian and military bodies of the so-called Third Reich and to the records of the NSDAP, its structures and affiliated associations. It is supplemented by Pictures and posters, Films and documents on film history, Maps, Personal papers of historically important individuals, Current records of other parties, unions and associations, Collections Official printed matter.”

“Germany: National Socialism and World War II.” EuroDocs. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. Documents relating to National Socialism such as session proceedings of the Reichstag.

Godl, Doris. “Women’s Contributions to the Political Policies of National Socialism.” Feminist Issues 15.1-2 (1997): 31-41. ABI/INFORM Complete; GenderWatch; ProQuest Politics Collection. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Godl discusses the debate that originated in the early 1970s in the field of women’s studies in Germany. The debate surrounded the question of whether women during the era of National Socialism could properly be considered only as victims, or whether they had also been collaborators, supporters and advocates of this system.

Haeberlin, Andrew, and Konrad H. Jarausch. Politicizing Education: German Teachers Face National Socialism, 1930–1932. Thesis. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 2009. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “This thesis examines and compares German primary and secondary school teachers in the late Weimar Republic, their reactions to the economic crises of the early 1930s, and the effects that these reactions had on their political views. It argues that the shock of the Great Depression helped to politicize a teaching profession that had previously embraced a tradition of overt apolitically. Through an examination of the primary, national professional publication of each group it identifies key social and economic differences between their constituent members and explores the ways that these influenced their approaches to National Socialism.”

Henson, Andrew Brian. Before the Seizure of Power: American and British Press Coverage of National Socialism, 1922 to 1933. Thesis. Clemson University. 2007. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “This thesis focuses on the coverage of the National Socialist movement by the American and British press in the period from 1922 to 1933. Two major newspapers from both the United States and Great Britain were reviewed, as were several magazines and periodicals from those years. The nature of the coverage, as well as its accuracy, was the primary concern of this work. For the most part, the Anglo-American press emphasized the most visible political activities of the National Socialists and especially the prominent role of Adolf Hitler. American and British journalists addressed the violent, aggressive nature of the movement much more so than its inherent anti-Semitism and racist goals. Though a handful of journalists recognized that the party’s hatred of the Jews was seminal to Nazism, this view was never addressed frequently or prominently. The Anglo-American press consistently underestimated the ability of the party to implement their goals. … Overall, the American and British press was able to accurately assess the nature of the National Socialist movement before it took over Germany, but in an imbalanced way that did not take its aggressive aspirations seriously. Though there was alarm when Hitler was made Chancellor in 1933, American and British journalists honestly believed that his power would be limited.”

Herf, Jeffrey. “The Rise of National Socialism in Germany.” Contemporary European History 10.3 (Nov 2001): 513-22. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “Peter Fritzsche, Germans into Nazis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998);  Dan P. Silverman, Hitler’s Economy: Nazi Work Creation Programs,1933-1936 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998);  Roderick Stackelberg, Hitler’s Germany: Origins, Interpretations, Legacies (London and New York: Routledge, 1999);  Conan Fischer, ed., The Rise of National Socialism and the Working Classes in Weimar Germany, (Providence and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1996); Saul Friedlander, Nazi Germany and the Jews, Vol. I: The Era of Persecution, 1933-1939, (New York: HarperCollins, 1997). These works address, among other issues, the following: how widespread was support for Nazism before and after 1933 and how can this support be explained? What was the core of Nazi antisemitism, how important was it to the history of the regime, and how was it translated into policy? Several also demonstrate that, amidst the vast forest of specialist studies, it is also possible to write valuable synthetic works.”

“Joseph Goebbels: On National-Socialism, Bolshevism & Democracy.” Jewish Virtual Library. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 10 Sept. 1938. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “Men and women of the National-Socialist Party: Public life in Europe to-day is influenced by three striking political phenomena which I will group together under the popular heading ‘National-Socialism, Bolshevism, and Democracy.’ It is, however, clear to me that these names cannot define their full significance. The general public thinks of them as a triangle of irreconcilable contrasts. It would be understandable and logical if their reactions upon political personalities, actions, achievements, negotiations, and developments showed a corresponding degree of contrasts, but this is only the case to a limited extent. Often, and indeed mostly, we find, where decisive political problems are concerned, a united front of democracy and Bolshevism opposed to the nationalist, authoritarian States and their representatives. This is one of the most puzzling phenomena of modern politics. It can only be explained by the essential nature of the three political systems. I therefore think it necessary to analyse them in some detail from the theoretical point of view and in their effect on racial relations in Europe.”

Kaufeld, Stacy F. The Image of the Jew under National Socialism: Anti-Semitic Film Propaganda, 1939–41. Thesis. University of Calgary (Canada). 2006. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “This thesis is concerned with anti-Semitic film propaganda during the Third Reich. In particular, I examine the contradictory representation of the Jews in four films produced between 1939 and 1941. I analyze the Jews as a racial and economic threat to the stability of the Volksgemeinschaft (national racial community). I am particularly concerned with differentiating between the Nazi image of the assimilated Western Jew and the stereotypical Ostjude (Eastern Jews). I take an interdisciplinary approach that not only considers the films’ ideological and propagandistic content, but how the films were constructed in an effort to strengthen the anti-Semitism. Furthermore, employing interdisciplinary methodology allows me to examine how the National Socialists exploited the Jews as the scapegoat for all of Germany’s ills. In doing so, the Nazis were able to establish a growing mentality of hate towards the Jewish population that ultimately led to the Holocaust.”

Kirk, Tim. “The Rise of National Socialism and the Working Classes in Weimar Germany.” Labor History 40.3 (Aug 1999): 417-18. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Kirk reviews “The Rise of National Socialism and the Working Classes in Weimar Germany” edited by Conan Fischer.

Knoche, Michael. “Scientific Journals under National Socialism.” Libraries and Culture 26.2 (Spring 1991): 415. ProQuest. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “In their dealings with scientific journals the Nazis did not act so much from an ideological viewpoint as from economic considerations. Usually more than 50 percent of the circulation of German science journals was exported, bringing needed foreign exchange into the Reich. Thus the German publishers could use the relatively strong position they gained to ward off attacks on their entrepreneurial autonomy, to retain international authors’ contacts as long as possible, and to maintain the scientific standard of their journals to the extent possible.”

Krieg, Robert A. “Karl Adam, National Socialism, and Christian Tradition.” Theological Studies 60.3 (1999 Sep 01): 432. Periodicals Archive Online; Periodicals Index Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “The author sheds light on the progressive theology but conservative politics of Karl Adam (1876-1966), who in 1924 developed a theology of Church as community. However, beginning in 1933, Adam tried to bridge Catholicism and the National Socialism championed by Adolf Hitler.”

Lederer, Emil. “The Economic Doctrine of National Socialism.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 191.1 (1937): 219-25. JSTOR. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “German National Socialism is based on those earlier phases of thinking when economics had not yet developed into a special branch of science, but was considered a part of a general philosophy of the state.”

Mason, Tim. “National Socialism and the Working Class, 1925-May, 1933.” Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “The following essay is intended to illuminate the pre-history of the problems of national socialist rule discussed in my book Sozialpolitik im Dritten Reich. A proper perspective for the analysis of class relationships in Germany after 1933 can be gained only by first outlining the development and social composition of the national socialist movement before the seizure of power and by reconstructing the process which led to the destruction of working class organizations in 1933. Further, it is of greatest importance to point out those changes in economic and political constellations produced by the world economic crisis.”

Menendez, Al. “Hitler’s Priests: Catholic Clergy and National Socialism.” Voice of Reason 2008: 19-20. Alt-PressWatch; ProQuest Politics Collection. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “How could a Catholic clergyman, supposedly dedicated to moral, ethical and humane values, support the Nazi regime in Germany? This is the enigma that captivated historian and Catholic priest [Kevin P. Spicer] when he began research nine years ago on the ‘brown priests.’ His conclusion is that a fervid German nationalism, a desire to avenge the nation’s humiliating defeat in World War I, fear of a Communist takeover, and disillusion over postwar poverty and ‘immorality’ were major factors. But the glue that held this admittedly small number (138 of 34,000 priests in Germany) together was anti-Semitism. I found it difficult to comprehend how a person ordained to serve others and preach Christ’s commandment of love could so wholeheartedly embrace the hate-filled ideology of National Socialism.”

Micheler, Stefan. “Homophobic Propaganda and the Denunciation of Same-sex-desiring Men under National Socialism.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11.1/2 (2002): 95-130. GenderWatch. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “Micheler focuses on evidence from Hamburg, which, as a seaport and the second largest city in the German Reich, was reputed to be a ‘homosexual stronghold.’ He develops a refined chronology of the evolution of homophobic propaganda and its dissemination, to specify more precisely the stereotypes that were mobilized against those classed as ‘homosexual,’ and to investigate the relationships between regime propaganda and denunciations at the grass roots.”

“National Socialism in International Comparison.” Colby. Colby College. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “No doubt that many characteristics of the Nazi movement and regime are not uniquely German. The Nazis initially were often called fascists, and they looked favorably on Mussolini’s Italy. Hitler’s hope to seize power in Berlin by launching a putsch in Munich and marching on Berlin in 1923 was inspired by Mussolini’s successful march on Rome in October 1922. Italian fascism inspired a host of movements all over Europe (even in France, Belgium, and Britain). The aftermath of World War I saw a broad range of fascist or quasi-fascist organizations arise, which makes the line between radical and authoritarian nationalists on the one side and fascists proper on the other side difficult to draw.”

“National Socialism in Munich.” NS-Dokumentationszentrum München. City of Munich. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “The City of Munich is aware of its special obligation to keep alive the memory of the Nazi era and its crimes and to inform citizens and visitors about it. After all, it was here in Munich that the rise of the National Socialist movement began after the First World War. Munich was also the scene of the attempted putsch of 1923 and of Hitler’s subsequent trial. Here Hitler found influential patrons who gave him entry to bourgeois circles. And it was here in 1938 that Goebbels called for the nation-wide pogrom against the Jewish population. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, Munich was chosen by Hitler as the place to celebrate the cult of Nazism and given the titles ‘Capital of German Art’ and ‘Capital of the Movement.’”

“National Socialism.” Infoplease. Web. 07 Oct. 2013. <>. “National Socialism or Nazism, doctrines and policies of the National Socialist German Workers’ party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933 to 1945. In German the party name was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); members were first called Nazis as a derisive abbreviation.”

“National Socialism (political Movement, Germany).” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “National Socialism, German Nationalsozialismus, also called Nazism or Naziism, totalitarian movement led by Adolf Hitler as head of the Nazi Party in Germany. In its intense nationalism, mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, National Socialism shared many elements with Italian fascism.” Article includes the roots of National Socialism and totalitarianism.

“National Socialist Principles of Education.” National Socialist Principles of Education. 1936/37. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “This article is titled “The Educational Principles of the New Germany,” and was published in the Nazi magazine for women. It explains how the Nazis wanted women to view education. It is a rather explicit summary of Nazi educational policy. The illustration is the cover of the issue in which this article appeared. The caption next to the young lad is: “Germany’s youth belong to the Führer!” The source: “Die Erziehungsgrundsätze des neuen Deutschlands,” Frauen-Warte, #22 (1936/37), pp. 692-693.”

Neumann, Franz Leopold. Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, 1933-1944. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1966. Print. “Franz Neumann’s classic account of the workings of Nazi Germany, first published in 1942 and expanded in 1944, was immediately recognized as a groundbreaking investigation. To this day the book has remained a stimulus to inquiry and debate. ‘The provocative and controversial central argument,’ Peter Hayes writes in his introduction, ‘is that the Third Reich neither expressed a consistent ideology nor possessed a coherent structure.’”

Nicosia, Francis R J. “National Socialism and the Demise of the German-Christian Communities in Palestine during the Nineteen Thirties.” Canadian Journal of History/Annales Canadiennes D’Histoire 14.2 (1979 Aug 01): 235. Periodicals Archive Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “Before World War I, Germany acquired considerable cultural influence and prestige in Syria and Palestine. … During the war, Germany lost every advantage she had had in Palestine with the possible exception of the continued good will of the inhabitants.”

“Permanent Exhibition: Resistance Against National Socialism.” Visit Berlin. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “The permanent exhibition “Resistance Against National Socialism”, opened in 1989, documents with more than 5,000 photos and documents, in 26 areas, about the whole range and diversity of the fight against the national socialistic dictatorship. It informs on the political resistance against National Socialism as well as on the diverse forms of resistance basing on Christian conviction, attempted military coups between 1938 and 1944, the active conspiracy of decisive opponents of the regime at the centre of the power, on the opposition of youth, and the resistance during the daily life during war. ”

S, P. J. “Writers Tell Brutalities of National Socialism.” Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) 1942 apr 26: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1989). Web. 14 Oct. 2013. In these two volumes we have, first, a presentation of the elements, contradictory and confused, that make up what is called National Socialism; and, second, illustrations of what that brutal mixture means when applied to a non-German people.”

“Spartacus Educational.” Nazi Party (NSDAP). Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. History of the NSDAP.

Spectator. “National Socialism and the Church.” The Contemporary Review 1939 jul 01: 474. ProQuest. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “In the following pages this philosophy of life will be referred to as the philosophy of present-day Germany, though well-informed circles know that, in spite of clamorous propaganda, the official teachings are accepted by a comparatively small section of the people.”

Stokes, Lawrence D. “National Socialism and German History.” Canadian Journal of History/Annales Canadiennes D’Histoire 19.2 (1984 Aug 01): 255. Periodicals Index Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. The shift in historiographical emphasis among reviewed books in article is discussed.

Thompson, Dorothy. “National Socialism: Theory and Practice.” Foreign Affairs (pre-1986) 13.000004 (Jul 1935): 557-73. ABI/INFORM Complete; ProQuest Politics Collection. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “Konrad Heiden says that National Socialism is a union of causes rather than aims, and certainly the present form of government in Germany is unimaginable with the history of the last twenty years. … the class of the unemployed worker … looked for salvation, not to the power of ownership not yet to the power of economic pressure through organization, but directly to the state.”

Trotsky, Leon. “What Is National Socialism?” Marxists. 10 June 1933. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “Written in exile in Turkey, June 10, 1933. Translated from Russian and from German. Appeared in several versions in various journals, first being The Modern Thinker, October 1933. Last two paragraphs added as postscript November 2, 1933.”

“The Vienna Philharmonic under National Socialism (1938 – 1945).” Wiener Philharmoniker. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <>. “In 1938, politics encroached upon the Vienna Philharmonic in the most brutal manner. The National Socialists dismissed all Jewish artists from the Vienna State Opera and disbanded the Association of the Vienna Philharmonic. It was only the intervention of Wilhelm Furtwängler and other individuals which achieved the nullification of the disbandment order and, with two exceptions, saved the “half-Jews” and “closely-related” from dismissal from the Vienna State Opera Orchestra. However, five members of the orchestra perished in concentration camps, despite the intervention of the new Nazi chairman of the orchestra, who attempted to rescue them from deportation. Another two members died in Vienna as a direct result of attempted deportation and persecution.”

Walker, Mark. “National Socialism and German Physics.” Journal of Contemporary History 24.1 (1989 Jan 01): 63. Periodicals Archive Online; Periodicals Index Online. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “[The relationships between deutsch Physik, National Socialism, and the German physics community provide a fascinating example of the impact that an ideology can have on science as well as how science and scientists, in turn, can influence this ideology.”

Zimmermann, Michael. “National Socialism and Gypsies in Austria.” Romani Studies 10.1 (2000): 89-92. Ethnic NewsWatch. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. “The English translation has also been expanded by an updated bibliography and numerous photographs, which were not included in the German edition. Since the German publication of National Socialism and Gypsies in Austria research on the Nazi policy against the Gypsies has of course made progress; Erika Thurner’s book has nevertheless remained the authoritative study of Nazi policy toward Gypsies in Austria.”




A memorial, on the corner of Petschkův palác, commemorating the victims of the Gestapo and Reinhard Heydrich. “During the period of Nazi occupation, this building was home to the cruel Gestapo where the warriors for our nation’s freedom fought, suffered and died. We shall never forget their memory and be faith [sic] to their legacy. People Be Watchful!”


“200 Gestapo Men Killed by Jews During Battle in Polish Extermination Camp€.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 Feb. 1944. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. “More than 200 Gestapo agents and Ukrainian guards in the ‘Jewish extermination camp’ of Sobibor, in occupied Poland, were killed during a revolt of the Jewish internees organized with the aid of the underground movement, the Polish Government-in-Exile reported today.”

Coady, Mary F. “Hitler & the Jesuits: Three Resisters & the Price They Paid.” Commonweal (11-22-2004): 20-21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. The story of three Jesuits on the run from the Gestapo.

Crozier, Andrew. “Outwitting the Gestapo; Nacht Und Nebel Night and Fog; War In Italy 1943-1945; Inside Hitler’s Greece.” History Today. 1995. Web. 18 July 2013. <>. “Four new books on Nazism and the Second World War in Europe [are discussed]: Outwitting the Gestapo, Nacht Und Nebel Night and Fog: From the Diary of Floris B. Bakels, War In Italy 1943-1945: A Brutal Story, Inside Hitler’s Greece: The Experience Of Occupation 1941-44. The Second World War, as these four books show, has not yet ceased to be a subject of fascination and curiosity for the general reader and a fertile area for the historical researcher alike. The theme that unites these four books is perhaps one of the most compelling to emerge from the Second World War and one that has provoked a continuous stream of books ever since its end, namely, the conduct of the Germany occupying authorities throughout Europe during this period. Two of these books concern the impact of that occupation on the individual; the other two the impact on nations as a whole.”

Delarue, Jacques. The Gestapo: A History of Horror. New York: Skyhorse Pub., 2008. Print. “From 1933 to 1945, the Gestapo was Nazi Germany’s chief instrument of counter-espionage, political suppression, and terror. Jacques Delarue, a saboteur arrested by the Nazis in occupied France, chronicles how the land of Beethoven elevated sadism to a fine art. The Gestapo: A History of Horror draws upon Delarue’s interviews with ex-Gestapo agents to deliver a multi-layered history of the force whose work included killing student resisters, establishing Aryan eugenic unions, and implementing the Final Solution. This is a probing look at the Gestapo and the fanatics and megalomaniacs who made it such a successful and heinous organization—Barbie, Eichmann, Himmler, Heydrich, Müller. The Gestapo’s notorious reign led to the murder of millions. The Gestapo is an important documentation of what they did and how they did it.”

“THE EVOLUTION, STRUCTURE, AND MEMBERSHIP OF THE RSHA. HEART, 2007. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <>. Long article: “The creation of a Political Police force was an early objective of National Socialism. Prussia was the largest state in Germany, including as it did the capital, Berlin, as well as other major cities. On 26 April 1933, Hermann Göring, initially acting as Prussian Minister of the Interior and then as Prussian Minister President, established the Secret State Police Office (Geheimes Staatspolizeiamt – Gestapa), which evolved into the Secret State Police (Geheime Staatspolizei – Gestapo). The Prussian police force had consisted of the uniformed or Order Police (Ordnungpolizei – Orpo) and the plain clothed Criminal Police (Kriminalpolizei – Kripo) which included the Political Police (Staatspolizei – Stapo). It was the political sections of the Kripo, together with the Stapo that were taken over and became the Gestapo, headed by Rudolf Diels.”

Fromm, Bella. “Sisters of the Swastika.” Coronet Oct. 1942: 77+. OldMagazineArticles. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <>. “[T]he Nazis [Gestapo] are using women for political purposes to an extent unequalled by any government of political regime in history. But it is not the human value in women that they exploit; it is pure sex degraded to its lowest aspect.” The Gestapo send agents to kill or kidnap the author, a German native, who wrote this article from her own observations. The FBI apprehended them first.

Gellately, Robert. “Denunciations and Nazi Germany : New Insights and Methodological Problems.” Historical Social Research 22.3/4 (1997): 228-39. SSOAR. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. “Since 1990 or so, the role of denunciations in the Nazi terror system has been highlighted by a number of writers interested in the functioning of the Gestapo in the context of everyday life in Germany. Several historians have claimed that ordinary citizens who volunteered information on suspected infringements of the letter or spirit of the laws played a crucial role in everyday terror under Hitler’s dictatorship. This cooperation by German citizens and their apparent willingness to denounce calls for historical analysis. In this paper I discuss the full range of denunciations in Nazi Germany and outline briefly some of the main theoretical problems involved. Essentially, historians have adopted two methods. The first takes a systems approach and focuses on the structures of state, society, and to some extent also on political culture. The other adopts a ‘life-world’ perspective, and attempts to reconstruct the experiences of historical actors, including those of ‘ordinary people’. Each approach has its own advantages, but neither seems to do justice to the phenomenon of denunciations as discussed in the recent literature. The new findings impel us to rethink what we mean by willingness, consent, and support when these concepts are applied to modern dictatorships. The paper should be of interest to a wide variety of specialists. It will offer new substantive findings, suggest directions for future research and delineate some of the main methodological issues and problems that must be confronted.”

Gellately, Robert. The Gestapo and German Society: Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933-1945. Oxford: Clarendon, 1990. Print. “How was the Gestapo able to detect the smallest signs of non-compliance with Nazi doctrines–especially ‘crimes’ pertaining to the private spheres of social, family, and sexual life? How could the police enforce policies such as those designed to isolate Jews, or the foreign workers brought to Germany after 1939, with such apparent ease? Addressing these questions, Gellately argues that the key factor in the successful enforcement of Nazi racial policy was the willingness of German citizens to provide authorities with information about suspected ‘criminality.’”

Gestapo – Documentary – Part 1. YouTube. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. “The Nazis converted their country from a flawed democracy to a fascist dictatorship in which the rights of the individual were trampled in the interests of the state. Institutions and organizations were warped to serve this purpose, none more than the police. At first, it was the Storm Troopers of the SA, who beat, intimidated, and killed those who opposed the regime. But something more was needed than simple thuggery and the police were co-opted. The Gestapo, the Secret State Police, was the organization set up to perform this function. By reputation its network of black-clad officers spread everywhere; yet it was a small organization–at its height in 1941 there were only 8,000 officers. Program 1 shows the power struggle between the worst of Hitlers henchmen, Himmler and Heydrich on the one hand, and Göring on the other. And it introduces us to a mysterious figure, Heinrich Müller, a career policeman who became the ice-cold leader of the Gestapo.” Look for Part 2.

Gestapo, Bielefeld: Order on Transport of Jews. 1945. Wiener Library, London, England. <>. “Order from the Gestapo on the transport of those living in mixed race marriages, (Geltungsjuden), and stateless Jews, for forced labour in Theresienstadt concentration camp, 8 Feb 1945, includes list of the names and addresses of Jews and Geltungsjuden in Herford, suburb of Bielefeld, Germany.”

“Gestapo, Essen: Letter on Jews Wearing the Yellow Star.” Letter to Gestapo, Dusseldorf. 27 Sept. 1941. AIM25. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. “Copy of a letter from the Gestapo, Essen, to the Gestapo, Düsseldorf on the reaction of Jews to the wearing of the Star of David from evidence in confiscated letters, parts of which are quoted here, 27 Sep 1941.”

“The Gestapo.” History Learning Site. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. “The Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei) was Nazi Germany’s feared secret police force. During World War Two the Gestapo was under the direct control of Heinrich Himmler who controlled all the police units within Nazi Germany. The first head of the Gestapo was Rudolf Diels but for most of its existence, the Gestapo was led by Heinrich Müller. The Gestapo acted outside of the normal judicial process and it had its own courts and effectively acted as judge, jury and frequently executioner.”

“Gestapo.” Yadvashem. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. “(acronym of Geheime Staatspolizei, meaning Secret State Police). The Third Reich’s secret political police force, serving as Hitler’s main instrument of torture and terror. The Gestapo was established prior to the Nazi rise to power, as a secret intelligence agency within the Prussian police department. As Hitler rose to power in 1933, he appointed Hermann Goering Interior Minister of Prussia. Goering maintained authority over the Prussian political police, including the Gestapo. Within a month, the Gestapo had the power to impose ‘protective custody’ on whomever it liked. Ultimately, this meant that if a person was arrested by the Gestapo, they would lose all civil rights and were no longer protected by the law. Legally, the Gestapo had free reign to do whatever it.”

Goulding, Ossian. “I Fought for the Nazis.” Saturday Evening Post 29 Jan. 1944. EBSCO. Web. 2012. This excellent article “is of unusual interest because it comes from a man who fought with the army before Stalingrad and it gives our first full picture of what is happening in the minds of the Nazi legions.” The author interviews a “Finn who enlisted with the German army, participated in the Russian campaign and has been an object of search by the Gestapo since he deserted and escaped. …”

Graf, C. “The Genesis of the Gestapo.” Journal of Contemporary History 22.3 (1987): 419-35. JSTOR. Web. 16 July 2013. “The history of the Prussian political police, particularly during the transition period between the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich, has not yet been studied systematically, although it played an important – perhaps crucial – role in the national socialist seizure of power. One reason for this lack of critical analysis is the existence of a number of publications and personal accounts whose short- comings have hitherto gone unnoticed. Chief among these are the memoirs of the first Gestapo chief, Rudolf Diels. Although this book is based more on fiction than fact, it has none the less been widely quoted by both publicists and historians. Suggestively entitled Luciferanteportas, Diels’s memoirs were first published in 1949 as a pre-print in the widely-read German magazine, Der Spiegel, then by a dubious right-wing publisher in Zurich and finally, in 1950, by a renowned publishing house in Stuttgart. Since then, Diels’s account has passed for the standard work on the epoch of the nazi seizure of power, particularly with regard to the police. Its apologetic and belittling character, however, has not drawn any comment.”

Hall, C. M. “An Army of Spies? The Gestapo Spy Network 1933–45.” Journal of Contemporary History 44.2 (2009): 247-65. JSTOR. Web. 16 July 2013. “The contemporary belief of a Gestapo spy on every corner that, in turn, helped create a veil of fear over the German people has been too easily dismissed by scholars on the grounds that the Gestapo did not possess an ‘army of spies’. The image of the Gestapo as a ‘big brother’ figure with eyes and ears everywhere has been discredited by historians such as Robert Gellately as a nazi fabrication. Gellately’s important work on denunciations successfully pushed his thesis of a ‘self-policing’ society operating within a ‘consensusdictatorship’ to the forefront of historiography, but in a revisionist overstatement he exaggerated the significance of denunciations. This article hopes to address the current debate concerning the nature of policing in nazi Germany by demonstrating that there was aregular presence of paid informers alongside denouncers, reinforcing the proactive natureof the Gestapo in repressing dissent.”

Johnson, Eric A. “Gender, Race and the Gestapo.” Historical Social Research 22.3/4 (1997): 240-53. SSOAR. Social Science Open Access Repository, 1997. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. “As part of an ongoing project on Nazi terror, this paper systematically examines the evidence contained in hundreds of Gestapo and Special Court case files in the Cities of Krefeld and Cologne and the results of a recent survey of elderly Cologne citizens pertaining to their experiences in Nazi Germany to compare the persecution of Jewish men and women with the persecution of non-Jewish men and women during the Third Reich. It argues that while most elderly Germans claim today that they had violated Nazi laws at one time or another (e.g. by listening to foreign radio broadcasts, telling anti-Nazi jokes, giving aid to Nazi victims, or spreading information about the Holocaust) very few of their illegal acts concerned the police and justice authorities greatly and very few either came to the attention of the Gestapo or where punished with severity when they did, except in cases involving Jewish men and Jewish women, who suffered ruthless punishment for even the most minor of infractions.”

Johnson, Eric A. Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans. New York: Basic, 1999. Print. “Nazi Terror tackles the central aspect of the Nazi dictatorship head on by focusing on the roles of the individual and of society in making terror work. Based on years of research in Gestapo archives, on more than 1,100 Gestapo and ‘special court’ case files, and on surveys and interviews with German perpetrators, Jewish victims and ordinary Germans who experienced the Third Reich firsthand, Johnson’s book settles many nagging questions about who, exactly, was responsible for what, who knew what, and when they knew it.”

Joshi, V. “The `Private’ Became `Public’: Wives as Denouncers in the Third Reich.” Journal of Contemporary History 37.3 (2002): 419-35. JSTOR. Web. 16 July 2013. “This article explores how the practice of political denunciation affected family relations in nazi Germany. It focuses on housewives who denounced their husbands to the Gestapo. Under the pretext of reporting an opponent of the regime, they used denunciation to subvert patriarchal order at home and to challenge the stereotypical image of the subservient housewife. The article is based on the Gestapo case files of victims pertaining to the metropolitan city of Düsseldorf. I have drawn my stories from specific categories of ‘crime’, namely, KPD, Heimtückegesetz, Fremdvölkische Minderheiten and Fremdarbeiter. The names of private individuals have been changed.”

Joshi, Vandana. Gender and Power in the Third Reich: Female Denouncers and the Gestapo (1933-45). Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print. “This book examines the everyday operations of the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police. The Gestapo were able to detect the smallest signs of non-compliance with Nazi doctrines, especially ‘crimes’ pertaining to the private spheres of social, family, and sexual life. One of the key factors in the enforcement of Nazi policies was the willingness of German citizens to provide the authorities with information about suspected ‘criminality’. This book examines women denouncers in Nazi Germany through close examination of the Gestapo files.”

“Klaus Barbie: Women Testify of Torture at His Hands.” Literature of the Holocaust. Al Filreis, 23 Mar. 1987. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. <>. “France–In 1944, when she was 13, Simone Lagrange testified yesterday, Klaus Barbie gave her a smile as thin as a knife blade, then hit her in the face as he cuddled a cat at the Gestapo headquarters in Lyon. Lise Lesevre, 86, said Barbie tortured her for nine days in 1944, beating her, nearly drowning her in a bathtub and finally breaking one of her vertebrae with a spiked ball. … The three women were among seven people who took the witness stand yesterday to testify against Barbie, the former head of the Gestapo in [Paris] during the Nazi occupation of France in World War II.”

List of Gestapo and SS War Criminals. 20th century. Wiener Library, London, England. <>.  Typescript list of Gestapo and SS war criminals, with brief details of the nature of their crimes. Arranged in sections according to the place of crime eg Lithuania, Latvia or Belsen, Auschwitz.

Loughlin, Matt. “Is the Gestapo Everywhere? The Origins of the Modern Perception of the Secret Police of the Third Reich.” Legacy 11.1 (2012). Web. 24 June 2013. <>. “The attempted genocide of European Jews committed by the National Socialist-controlled Germany in the 1930s and 40s has left scholars with more questions than could ever be answered definitively. A persisting question in the mind of anyone studying the Holocaust has to be ‘How could this happen?’ How could the mechanized killing of millions of people happen in a modernized country in the twentieth century? Surely, whoever is to blame for these atrocities, this black spot on the human race is unlike you and me. Blame must be placed on something grand and evil. This type of thinking makes it possible to blame an overpowering government. The Secret Police of Germany during this time, also known as the Gestapo, was one of the groups that was put on trial and allocated blame for the Holocaust after World War II.”

Ludwig, Frank. Auschwitz Concentration Camp. A Report 1942-45. Rep. New York, NY: Center for Jewish History, 1946. Print. A handwritten report by Ludwig Frank: “Betrayed by collaborating French, Frank was arrested by the Gestapo in France and brought to the internment camp of Drancy in 1942. After a short stay he was deported to Auschwitz where he survived as a bookkeeper. Describes mainly his experiences in Auschwitz between 1942 and 1945 and his liberation in Austria in May 1945.”

Mallmann, Klaus-Michael, and Gerhard Paul. “OMNISCIENT, OMNIPOTENT, OMNIPRESENT? Gestapo, Society and Resistance.” 21 Sept. 2012. Web. 18 July 2013. <>. “Ever since 1933, the Gestapo has been the ultimate symbol of that typically twentieth-century nightmare, the totalitarian police state. In the following article, Mallmann and Paul show, however, that the popular image of the Gestapo is a ‘myth’ originally propagated by the Gestapo leaders themselves. After the war, historians perpetuated this myth of the “omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent” Gestapo by taking the Gestapo leaders’ statements of aims and ambitions as accur­ate reflections of everyday Gestapo practices. The ‘myth’ of the Gestapo also gave the mass of ordinary Germans a convenient alibi; their failure to engage in serious resistance to the Nazi dictatorship could simply be seen as the inevitable consequence of the Gestapo’s awesome power. Mallmann and Paul dissolve these widely circulated images of Ges­tapo omnipotence and popular impotence by showing just how ill-equipped most Gestapo district offices were to perform the role of totalitarian ‘Big Brother.’”

Manvell, Roger, and Heinrich Fraenkel. Heinrich Himmler: The SS, Gestapo, His Life and Career. New York, NY: Skyhorse Pub., 2007. Print. “Authors Roger Manvell and Heinrich Fraenkel, notable biographers … delve into the life of one of the most sinister, clever, and successful of all the Nazi leaders: Heinrich Himmler. As the head of the feared SS, Himler supervised the extermination of millions. Here is the story of how a seemingly ordinary boy grew into an obsessive and superstitious man who ventured into herbalism, astrology, and homeopathic medicine before finally turning to the ‘science’ of racial purity and the belief in the superiority of the Aryan people.”

Moorehead, Caroline. A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France. New York: HarperCollins, 2011. Print. “In occupied France the Gestapo hunted down 230 disparate women who had one thing in common–they were engaged in resistant activities. The women turned to one other and “found solace and strength in their deep affection camaraderie.’”

“The Nazi Perpetrators: The Gestapo.” Jewish Virtual Library. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. “The Geheime Staatspolizei (German for Secret State Police, abbreviated ‘Gestapo’) was the secret police of Nazi Germany, and its main tool of oppression and destruction, which persecuted Germans, opponents of the regime, and Jews. It later played a central role in helping carry out the Nazi’s ‘Final Solution.’”

Nichol, John, and Tony Rennell. “Escape or Die: The Untold WWII Story.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 16 Mar. 2007. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <>. “It’s one of the great untold stories of the war. How 5,000 Allied airmen, shot down behind Nazi lines, played cat and mouse with Hitler’s dreaded secret police, and made a home run back to Blighty. Terry Bolter stood on the landing of the tall Brussels townhouse, a revolver in each hand, and peered out of the window. Below in the street, leather-coated Gestapo officers were hammering at the door.”

Nutinen, Joni. “Third Reich in Trial.” WW2-articles. Cloudworth. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. “A Gestapo torturer protected by the CIA, a Soviet Red Army soldier who ended up as a Nazi guard – These are only some of the strange and controversial Nazi court cases which have emerged over the decades. The public knows surprisingly little about the Third Reich related trials which have taken place through the decades. The biggest reason, it seems, is the uninspiring presentation of these cases both in media and in history books. This article covers the noteworthy court cases linked to Hitler’s Nazi Germany, summing up their essence in a sentence or two, plus exploring various interesting – and often debated – controversies linked to these trials.”

The Power of Conscience: The Danish Resistance and the Rescue of the Jews. Dir. Alexander M. Isles. Perf. Danish Anti-Nazi Resistance. Direct Cinema Limited, 2007. DVD. Hitler occupied Denmark in 1940. “In October of 1943, when the Gestapo decided to round up the Danish Jews, ordinary citizens banded together with resisters and overnight they created a rescue operation that hid and transported over 7,000 of their countrymen across the water to Sweden.”

Sanchez, Gustavo. “In Pursuit of Bolivia’s Secret Nazi.” The Guardian. 10 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. <>. “After the second world war many high-ranking Nazis fled to South America. Among them was the head of the Gestapo in the French city of Lyon, a man responsible for the deportation of Jews to the death camp at Auschwitz and the torture of members of the French Resistance. Hiding in Bolivia, Klaus Barbie, the Butcher of Lyon, changed his name to Klaus Altmann and made himself helpful to drug lords and dictators alike. Bolivian journalist Gustavo Sanchez explains what happened when he tracked Barbie down in 1983.”

Savill, Richard. “Lulu, the Belgian Teen Who Took on the Gestapo.” – Telegraph Online, Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph. 24 Feb. 2007. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “A little-known Second World War heroine who joined the Belgian resistance at 15, and was later tortured by the Gestapo, was buried near her home in Dorset yesterday. Code named Lulu, Lucie Bruce, a Belgian national who moved to Britain in 1946, spied on Nazi troops and ammunition dumps, after joining the resistance in 1940 following Belgium’s capitulation to German occupation.”

Saxon, Wolfgang. “Klaus Barbie, 77, Lyons Gestapo Chief.” The New York Times. 26 Sept. 1991. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. <>. “Klaus Barbie died a prisoner yesterday in Lyons, the French city where he led a reign of terror as the local Gestapo chief during World War II. The last surviving German war criminal of rank to be tried by a tribunal of justice, he was 77 years old and had been in poor health for years. … Mr. Barbie commanded the Gestapo in Lyons, which was the base for the Resistance and a center of French Jewry. With an SS rank equivalent to an army captain’s, he ran a campaign of torture and death against Resistance leaders and caused uncounted other people, most of them Jews, to be sent to the gas chambers of Auschwitz.”

Schofield, Hugh . “Raymond Aubrac: How I Tricked the Gestapo.” BBC News Magazine. BBC, 27 Jan. 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <>. “The capture of French Resistance hero Jean Moulin is one of the country’s darkest chapters of the war. The last surviving Resistance leader, Raymond Aubrac, recalls that night and the audacious escape that followed.”

Smith, S.E., and O. Wallace. “What Is the Difference between the German Army, Gestapo, Nazi Party, SA, SS, and Wehrmacht?” WiseGeek. Conjecture. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <>. “Students of European history often encounter discussions of the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo), Wehrmacht, Sturmabteilung (SA), Schutzstaffel (SS), and Nationalsozialisische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nazi Party) in books and commentaries about Germany in the first half of the 20th century. These organizations all had slightly different roles in Germany in the 1930s through 1940s, contributing to Hitler’s rise to power and the conflict of the Second World War.”

Taug, Walter. “Report on the German People.” Collier’s 16 Oct. 1943: 17+. OldMagazineArticles. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <>. “The specter of 1918 is haunting the Nazi party, as Himmler and his Gestapo are turned loose on the German people in a desperate attempt to hole the home front together.”

“Triumph of Hitler: The Gestapo Is Born.” The History Place. 2001. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. “Although the Gestapo is generally associated with SS Leader Heinrich Himmler, it was actually founded by Hermann Göring in April 1933.Upon becoming Chancellor of Germany, Adolf Hitler had appointed Göring as Minister of the Interior for the State of Prussia, Germany’s biggest and most important state, which controlled two thirds of the country, including the capital, Berlin, and the big industrial centers. As Minister of the Interior, Göring thereby had control of the police.”

Trynauer, Alfred. “Goering: Thief of Industrial Billions.” Click Magazine Sept. 1943: 26+. OldMagazineArticles. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <>. “Master crook, blackmailer and general villain, Reichsmarshal Hermann Wilhelm Goer[ing], second most potent Nazi, ‘owns’ the world’s largest industrial empire by right of possession. Gross Goering has stopped at nothing, not even murder, to enrich himself and insure his future comfort whether the Nazi regime stands or falls.”

Von Halle, Elly. Our Report 1938-1948. Rep. New York, NY: Center for Jewish History, 1991. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. A report held by the Center for Jewish History: “The story of Arthur and Elly Von Halle portraits their escape from the Nazis. It was first written down in German by Elly, and in 1991 translated by their daughter Ursula Ettlinger. This is the English translation. The first event described is on November 19, 1938, when the family learned that Jews were being arrested by the Gestapo in Hamburg, Germany where they lived.”

Von Hartz, Ernest. “Hitler’s Headsman.” Collier’s 14 May 1938: 43+. OldMagazineArticles. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <>. “For six days a week Heinrich Himmler as head of the Third Reich’s Secret Police, the Gestapo, can liquidate Germans and on the seventh day retire to his chicken farm convinced that if heads must roll they roll for the good of the Reich and to the glory of God.”

Homosexuality in the Third Reich



Memorial to Gay Victims of the Holocaust in Berlin. Its inscription reads: Totgeschlagen – Totgeschwiegen (Struck Dead – Hushed-Up). 


Berenbaum, Michael, and Abrahan J. Peck. “The Pink Triangle.” The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1998. 345-57. Print. “The persecution of homosexuals was aimed at preventing sexual behavior between men and men, not so much at the homosexual as a human being. Same-sex relations, precluding as they do biological reproduction, were antithetical to the demographic goals the Nazis had established for the German nation.”

Boden, Eliot H. “The Enemy Within: Homosexuality in the Third Reich, 1933-1945.” Wesleyan University. 2011. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <>. “From 1933 to 1945, the Nazi regime in Germany targeted homosexuals, particularly men, as enemies of the state. Homoerotic lifestyles fundamentally contravened Nazi ideals of racial and social purity. Same-sex relationships were considered intolerable because they subverted Adolph Hitler‟s utopian vision of a unified Aryan society based on German tradition, Christian morality, and unwavering dedication to the Nazi party-state. Even though German psychologists disagreed on the root causes of same-sex attraction, the top echelons of the Nazi civil and military command widely viewed homosexuality as a social affliction and a political threat. Homosexuals were an extensively persecuted minority in the Third Reich, although Nazi ideology and policy regarding homoerotic intimacy were by no means consistent or clear.”

Briskin, Dennis. “Doctors Pained by Exhibit on Medical Testing in WWII.” Northern California Jewish Bulletin 1992 aug 28: 8. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “‘It’s just horrifying and astonishing to learn that physicians could have been in any way involved in these horrors,’ the 56-year-old cardiology professor said, as he viewed ‘The Value of the Human Being’ exhibit on medical practices in Germany in the Third Reich. The exhibit, brought here from Germany by the Holocaust Center of Northern California, the U.C. School of Medicine and the Goethe Institute in cooperation with the Central Pacific region of the Anti-Defamation League and the Holocaust Education Fund of San Francisco, has attracted hundreds of visitors each day to the five panels in the Medical Sciences Building lobby and the remainder of the 44-panel exhibit in the new UCSF Library. The medically sponsored murder began as a way to rid society of unwanted elements — the mentally ill, physically disabled, Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals and political opponents. Medical and genetic research formed the cornerstone of the Nazi goal to strengthen Germany by eliminating ‘weak’ genes and breeding out certain elements.”

Canning, Richard. “Homoerotic Art of the Third Reich.” The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 14.1 (Jan): 50. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “Conrades makes the point that the undoubtedly heterosexual Breker exposed himself to the aesthetic demimonde-populated by Jews, homosexuals, a wide racial mix, and so on-which contradicts the idea that he was fundamentally sympathetic to Nazism’s social politics, and in particular the Holocaust. The difficulty with this reading of his youth is that Breker not only survived the implicit damage to his career wrought by his closeness to Hitler-he died in 1991 -but he also lived long enough to see the resurgence in right-wing groups in the 1980′s, and associated himself and his artistic legacy with them.”

Coyle, Katy. “Invisibility in Nazi Germany.” The Lesbian Review of Books III.2 (1997 Jan 31): 6. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “Although in the last decade gay and lesbian history has grown by leaps and bounds, very little work exists on gay and lesbian experience during the rise and reign of the Nazis in Germany. The work that has been done focuses primarily on the experiences of men accused of or arrested for homosexual activities. Given these obstacles, [Claudia Schoppmann]‘s new book, Days of Masquerade: Life Stories of Lesbian Women During the Third Reich, breaks significant new ground. Gathering lesbian experiences from diverse sources, Schoppman gives voice to ten women’s stories, essentially breaking the silence of the last half-century. The book consists of a broad introduction to the history of the period followed by a collection of ten narratives reconstructed from interviews and archival fragments. Intending to ‘contribute to advancing the social history of lesbians in Germany…[and] to convey to readers an impression of what it could have meant to live as a lesbian during the Third Reich,’”

Ellenzweig, Allen. “The Occupied Closet.” The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review 3.1 (1996 Jan 31): 36. Web. 22 Sept. 2013.  Born in 1923, [Pierre Seel] was the youngest of five sons in a conservative Catholic family of the Alsace region, that corner of France always vulnerable to Prussian intrusion. His parents owned a “highly respected” pastry shop in the town of Mulhouse, a decidedly bourgeois locale that, as Seel describes it, would be the last to favor any sort of nonconformity. By the time he was a teenager, though, Pierre had come to terms with being homosexual. This occurred after “a cycle of confession and communion” with the local priest, who was more interested in hearing the exquisite details of Seel’s guilt-ridden confessions than in offering any spiritual succor. So, by 1940, Seel turned to the Zazou style, wearing a wardrobe that was “refined rather than rebellious” and long hair “slicked down on the skull …  “If I, Pierre Seel, Deported Homosexual” were but a litany of the atrocities committed upon a single gay youth caught up in the Nazi maw, it might shock us anew with the devious sadism of the Third Reich, but it would not add to our understanding of the psychological damage imposed on those who lived to bear witness. It is because Seel’s story continues after his release from camp until the present day that it gathers a terrible, depressing, spiraling momentum downward. For Seel’s narrative is nothing less than an indictment of the official silence that shrouded an uncomfortable truth and imposed upon Seel a terrible complicity. For example, although his family came to understand that Pierre was hauled off by the Gestapo for being homosexual, they would never acknowledge it aloud–not when he was unexpectedly released from Schirmeck-Vorbruch and welcomed home to the dinner table, not when he returned from three years in the German army, into which he had been conscripted. Nor did Seel insist upon disclosing the indignities he suffered, but instead tortured himself with an enforced silence that permitted no psychological or spiritual reprieve. And anyway, who cared?

Ettelson, Todd Richard, and Geoff Canning, Kathleen Eley. “The Nazi ‘new Man’: Embodying Masculinity and Regulating Sexuality in the SA and SS, 1930–1939.” Thesis. University of Michigan. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (2002): 471-71 P. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “This dissertation argues that constructions of masculinity and male sexuality played a central role in shaping the conduct of men in the SA and SS, as well as the identities of those institutions more broadly. I pursue two main lines of inquiry throughout. First, I explore the ways in which these constructions shifted at different points in Nazism’s development and within the diverse institutional cultures. My aim here is to map the importance of masculinity and male sexuality on to the history of the Nazi state’s consolidation and evolution of institutional identities. Second, I analyze the complex types of power relationship that constructions of masculinity and male sexuality nourished and sustained. I contend that these were predominantly regulative and disciplinary in nature, geared towards producing and shaping individual behaviors that were profoundly linked to the Nazi state’s formation and goals. … The project begins by considering how the mediation of SA men as aggressive but vulnerable helped mobilize them as violent during the late Weimar period. It then examines how the mediation of the SA leadership as homosexual figured into the consolidation of the Nazi state during the SA purge of June 1934. Next, I analyze shifting visions of masculinity in the SS and SA between 1934 and 1939, tracing out their connections to Nazi racism and the state repressive apparatus. The final chapters also focus on the years between 1934 and 1939, examining the regulation of marriage within the SS, persecution of male homosexuals in Nazi institutions, and the state’s attempts to punish ‘ordinary’ Germans who gossiped about Hitler’s sexuality.”

“Experiments Begin on Homosexuals at Buchenwald.” A&E Television Networks, 1 Oct. 1944. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. “On this day [Oct. 1] in 1944, the first of two sets of medical experiments involving castration are performed on homosexuals at the Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany.”

Giles, Geoffrey J. “The Denial of Homosexuality: Same-sex Incidents in Himmler’s SS and Police.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11.1/2 (Jan): 256-90. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “The number of Schutzstaffel (SS) members apprehended on charges of homosexuality is small, especially given the constantly burgeoning size of Heinrich Himmler’s private army. Yet the cases are significant, since the way they were treated can help people understand how the Nazi leadership perceived and dealt with sexuality.”

Goldmann, A. J. “War Memorial: Taking a Trip to the Center of Evil.” Wall Street Journal 2010 jun 08. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. [T]o many of this city’s other World War II monuments, Typography of Terror focuses on the perpetrators of Nazi atrocities, many of whom had their offices right on this street, including Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich and Adolf Eichmann. Klaus Wowereit, Berlin’s mayor, called Topography of Terror ‘an active place of thought and remembrance’ that will complement Berlin’s Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, the nearby Memorial to Homosexuals Persecuted Under Nazism and the coming memorial to the Sinti and Roma, or Gypsy, victims.”

Hagwood, Rod Stafford. “Rising Action’s Bent Haunting: Martin Sherman’s 30-year-old Play about the Third Reich’s Sadistic Persecution of Homosexuals Retains Its Gut-punching Impact.” McClatchy – Tribune Business News 2009 jun 08. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “The pre-war portrait collage of Holocaust victims grabs you by the collar and draws you up close to the horror. [...] although at times the scenes ring just slightly ‘acterly’ (they never seem truly exhausted from hauling rocks from one pile to the other; the love scene almost deters into a poetry reading) McGlothlin and Buzzeo effortlessly hold the stage.

Heineman, Elizabeth D. “Sexuality and Nazism: The Doubly Unspeakable?” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11.1/2 (Jan): 22-66. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “The history of sexuality in Nazi Germany unites two subjects vulnerable to sensationalist coverage: sex and Nazism. Historians are uncomfortably aware that their work on this subject might be utilized to sensationalize the grim subject of Nazi Germany; however, questions about the relationship of sexual experience to Germans’ encounter with Naziism and to the regime’s successes and failure are important. Topics include same-sex desire; persecution, homoeroticism, and the Mannerbund.”

“History of Gay Men in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust.” History of Gay Men in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <>. “In the 1920s, homosexual people in Germany, particularly in Berlin, enjoyed a higher level of freedom and acceptance than anywhere else in the world. However, upon the rise of Adolf Hitler, gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbians, were two of the numerous groups targeted by the Nazi Party and were ultimately among Holocaust victims. Beginning in 1933, gay organizations were banned, scholarly books about homosexuality, and sexuality in general, were burned, and homosexuals within the Nazi Party itself were murdered. The Gestapo compiled lists of homosexuals, who were compelled to sexually conform to the ‘German norm.’”

Holzgraebe, Kerstin. “An Anti-Social Prototype.” The Lesbian Review of Books II.1 (1995 Oct 31): 30. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. The Nazis were obsessed with family and population matters. They viewed women as naturally and, above all, sexually dependent on men, their main sexual characteristic being passivity. A “centuries-old patriarchal tradition” helped them to institutionalize this fixed opinion legally. Nevertheless, debates about the extension of 175 to lesbians came up when a new penal code was discussed in 1936 as well as when lesbians were being included into reeducation programs at the Berlin Institute for Psychological Research and Psychotherapy. Jurists like Rudolf Klare, a SS-Scharfuehrer who received a doctorate for his thesis on “Homosexuality and the Criminal Law,” were at the forefront because, according to them, lesbians, or “congenital tribadies” as he called them, intentionally seduced heterosexual women, thus preventing them from having children. It was even suggested to mate them compulsorily “in order to cure them”. Other experts specializing in population policy estimated this danger “not nearly as great,” for “a woman who is so seduced does not lastingly withdraw from normal sexual intercourse but remains as useful as before in terms of population policy.” In contrast to male homosexuals, lesbians remained “capable of reproduction,” “always prepared for sex.” … They declared that “the practice of this vice impairs a woman’s psyche far less than it does a man’s.” The purpose of the penal code was “simply to protect fertility.” They regarded the prosecution of lesbians as useless because there was no danger to “sound heredity” or a threat to the birth rate. … Women were successfully threatened and intimidated with possible “masculinization”  in order to maintain the heterosexist social structure and the regime’s stability. It was Himmler, the homophobic leader of the SS, who used to make declining gender polarities responsible for homosexuality; in his opinion, the lack of “feminine charms”  was the reason for male homosexuality. Therefore many lesbians conformed to the general notion of femininity in their appearance or even married formally. Although lesbians were not prosecuted to the same extent as gays, their clubs, organizations and magazines, which had flourished in 1920s, suffered a complete breakdown. Some lesbians met only privately, others moved or broke off their contacts altogether.

“Homosexuals and Nazi Germany.” History Learning Site. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <>. “Homosexuality was classed as a ‘degenerate form of behaviour’ in Nazi Germany that threatened the nation’s ‘disciplined masculinity.’ Under Nazi law, homosexuality was deemed non-Aryan and as such homosexuals were far more persecuted in Nazi Germany than under the Weimar regime. Ironically it had been the support of Ernst Rőehm, a known homosexual, and his SA followers that had greatly helped Hitler gain power on January 30th 1933.”

“Homosexuals in Nazi Germany.” Simon Wiesenthal Center Multimedia Learning Center. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <>. “The homosexual victims of the Holocaust have not received due attention. The Nazi genocide of Jews and Gypsies, their murder of ‘asocials’ and political prisoners, their persecution and murder of various other nationals not destined for total extermination -all have overshadowed their persecution and attempted liquidation of male homosexuals. Only now has a study of this neglected topic begun on the basis of the few surviving documents, interviews, and memoirs. The intolerance and criminalization that persisted after 1945, along with the shame and fear that the homosexual survivors and their families felt, prevented most homosexuals from testifying. In the immediate postwar period, many of those who wrote about the concentration camps, as well as the criminal courts and administrative tribunals that dealt with the crimes committed in the camps, treated homosexuals as common criminals, justly punished for violating the penal code of the Third Reich.”

Jensen, Erik N. “The Pink Triangle and Political Consciousness: Gays, Lesbians, and the Memory of Nazi Persecution.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11.1/2 (Jan): 319-49. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “The pink triangle insignia identified homosexual inmates in the Nazi concentration camps. Jensen traces the evolution over the past thirty years of collective memories in both the American and German gay communities in order to show what these communities have remembered and why.”

Lipman, Steve. “Hitler’s Other Victims: There Wasn’t, Some Say, Just One Final Solution. Fifty Years after the End of World War II, Attention Turns to the Long-overlooked Suffering Non-Jews Targeted by the Nazis.” The New York Jewish Week 1997 may 02: 30. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. The permanent exhibition of the Holocaust Memorial Museum describes the fate of Gypsies, Poles, homosexuals, people with disabilities, Jehovah’s Witnesses, political and religious dissidents, and Soviet POWs. Exhibits in New York’s Holocaust Museum, according to director David Altshuler, “will relate that groups other than Jews were persecuted and murdered by the Nazis.” The Museum of Tolerance at the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles also includes the experience of non-Jewish victims. Spielberg’s oral history project is preserving the stories of “all the victim groups we can get hold of,” Berenbaum says. His words echo those of many Gypsy spokesmen — Jews and Gypsies shared an unenviable status as the Nazis’ primary victims. In the Nazis’ racial hierarchy, Gypsies, who threatened the biological purity of the “superior” Aryan race, ranked between “subhuman” Slavs and “antihuman” Jews.

Lipman, Steve. “Rabbis To Museum: Remove Gay Exhibit; Holocaust Memorial Expects to Open without Delay despite Lawsuit.” The New York Jewish Week 1997 sep 12: 14. Web. 22 Sept. 2013.  “We certainly believe he is wrong concerning the constitutionality of the museum’s funding,” said [Howard Rubenstein], who called the museum’s display about the fate of homosexuals in the Third Reich a “very brief mention among other [non-Jewish] groups” targeted by the Nazis. David Zwiebel, general counsel for Agudath Israel of America, called the lawsuit’s claims “somewhere between baffling and highly offensive,” and said it does not “reflect the consensus of the Orthodox community.” If the museum does equate the wartime suffering of Jews and homosexuals, “that will be offensive to us as well.” If its exhibit simply lists homosexuals among other non-Jewish victims, he said, “I don’t see how we can take offense at that.”

Micheler, Stefan. “Homophobic Propaganda and the Denunciation of Same-sex-desiring Men under National Socialism.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11.1/2 (Jan): 95-130. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. Micheler focuses on evidence from Hamburg, which, as a seaport and the second largest city in the German Reich, was reputed to be a “homosexual stronghold.” He develops a refined chronology of the evolution of homophobic propaganda and its dissemination, to specify more precisely the stereotypes that were mobilized against those classed as “homosexual,” and to investigate the relationships between regime propaganda and denunciations at the grass roots.

“Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 1933-1945, Frequently Asked Questions.” Dallas Holocaust Museum-Center for Education and Tolerance. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <>. “Through reproductions of some 250 historic photographs and documents, Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 1933-1945 examines the rationale, means, and impact of the Nazi regime’s attempt to eradicate homosexuality that left thousands dead and shattered the lives of many more. Curated by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the exhibit offers visitors the opportunity to explore the Holocaust from a lesser known perspective, demonstrating the many forms of bullying and discrimination that occur in the absence of UPSTANDERS (the opposite of bystanders—those who stood by during the Holocaust as observers only and did nothing). Following are frequently-asked-questions and responses about the exhibit and the brutal Nazi campaign against people who did not fit the Nazi vision of a ‘master Aryan race.’”

“Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 1933-1945.” United States Holocaust Memorial Muswum. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <>. “The Nazi campaign against homosexuality targeted the more than one million German men who, the state asserted, carried a ‘degeneracy’ that threatened the ‘disciplined masculinity’ of Germany. Denounced as ‘antisocial parasites’ and as ‘enemies of the state,’ more than 100,000 men were arrested under a broadly interpreted law against homosexuality. Approximately 50,000 men served prison terms as convicted homosexuals, while an unknown number were institutionalized in mental hospitals. Others—perhaps hundreds—were castrated under court order or coercion. Analyses of fragmentary records suggest that between 5,000 and 15,000 homosexual men were imprisoned in concentration camps, where many died from starvation, disease, exhaustion, beatings, and murder.”

“Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals: Intro.” UCSB Department of History. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <>. “When the word ‘Holocaust’” is mentioned, the first statistic that comes to mind is that of the six million Jewish victims who died in either concentration camps or by other Nazi tactics. However, five million additional individuals were persecuted, including a significant proportion of homosexuals. Our report does not include female homosexuals because at this time sexual relations between women was not illegal and therefore they were not persecuted for their sexuality.”

Newton, Alistair. “Children of a Lesser Holocaust.” The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 19.1 (Jan): 18-20. Web. 22 Sept. 2013.  In December of 2008, the French gay magazine Têtu heralded Brazda, who survived three years at Buchenwald concentration camp, as “Le dernier ‘triangle rose.’”* After the passing of Pierre Seel, a survivor of the camp Schirmeck-Vorbriick, Brazda became the last documented survivor of the Nazi persecution of homosexuals. Rethinking Homosexuality under National Socialism (2009). In his groundbreaking research, Rüdiger Lautmann tracked the survival rate and social position of gay men in the camps.

Peukert, Detlev. Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition, and Racism in Everyday Life. New Haven: Yale UP, 1987. Print. “In this quirky survey of daily life in the Third Reich, Peukert, who teaches at the University of Essen, attempts to help readers ‘understand better a generation which it would be unjust (and unhelpful for learning lessons for the future) to condemn . …” The raw material he presents such as circulation statistics in libraries following the public book-burnings and a judge’s official view of ‘negative human material’ and what should be done about ‘it’ is more useful to historians than to general readers. Although he discusses the origins of the Nazis’ deadly enmity toward homosexuals and ‘the facists’ stereotyped fantasies of violence,’ quoted citations make the deeper impression: Himmler’s decree banishing ‘young swing fans’ to a concentration camp, for example, or diary records of dreams by German citizens intent on avoiding conscious confrontation with the sinister effects of National Socialist policies. Illustrations.”

Plant, Richard. “A Memorial to the Victims with the Pink Triangle: Post War Germany Slow to Come to Terms with the Gay Holocaust.” Lambda Book Report jan 1992: 14. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “Of course, no gay person expected that the hatred against homosexuals would be swept away with the rubble of the bombed cities, but at least gay men and lesbians could hope for a break with the Nazi ideology of the past. That such a break did not happen is the fault of the founding fathers — and mothers — of the new West Germany. They decided to keep the barbarous Nazi version of the laws against love between men. They did this despite the resolution of a parliamentary commission in 1929 to leave unpunished so-called ‘regular same-sex activities among males.’ Every educated German knew that in 1929 a large number of Germany’s most prominent scientists and artists — Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann, Martin Buber, etc. — had signed a petition to throw out those medieval injunctions. But the new West German leaders decided against the spirit of the Weimar Republic. By keeping the Nazi laws, they confirmed that the brownshirted hangmen who had carried out the ‘eugenic liquidation’ of homosexuals had done the right thing.”

Porter, Jack N. “Genocide of Homosexuals.” Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies : University of Minnesota. 10 Oct. 1998. Web. 23 Sept. 2013. <>. “There were many kinds of victims in the Nazi camps. Different groups wore different triangles, and different triangles denoted different ‘crimes.’ Jews wore yellow stars but also red political triangles. One of the biggest groups consisted of Germans who were made to wear black triangles, meaning saboteurs. Green triangles were worn by murderers. There were other triangles or strips for Jehovah’s Witnesses, vagrants, emigrants, Gypsies, ‘race defiler (male),’ ‘race defiler (female),’ escape suspects, special inmates, repeaters (those who were incarcerated more than once), and members of armed forces. A bewildering array of stigmatization.”

Pursell, Tim. “Queer Eyes and Wagnerian Guys: Homoeroticism in the Art of the Third Reich.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 17.1 (Jan 2008): 110-37,175. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. George Mosse has described how male national symbols have often included homoerotic elements such as intense male friendship and the embrace, particularly when the idea of fraternity was regarded as a key signifier of respectability.7 John Fout has suggested that while male bonding was praised in the Wilhelmine era, homophobia played a crucial role in a social policy intended to construct public morality without recourse to a specifically Christian morality. National Socialist interest in masculinity stems in part from these earlier concerns in Germany. Homophile arguments were made in the same cultural atmosphere as homophobic ones, though both homosexuals and Nazis could be concerned with racial improvement and idealized masculinity even when their agendas differed. … The queering of ideal male bodies represents the sort of adaptation to domination and the negotiation of a identity described by Pierre Bourdieu for working-class taste in his classic text Distinction. Many within the homosexual subculture of Nazi Germany committed themselves to the visual ideals of the dominant culture.”

Seifert, Dorthe. “Between Silence and License: The Representation of the National Socialist Persecution of Homosexuality in Anglo-American Fiction and Film.” History and Memory 15.2 (Fall 2003): 94-129. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. ‘Public knowledge and awareness of the persecution of homosexuality in National Socialist Germany remained until 1979, when the play Bent by Martin Sherman dramatized for the first time the lives of homosexuals during the Nazi era for Anglo-American theater audiences. Here, Seifert discusses how contemporary Anglo-American fiction has tried to understand the persecution of homosexuality in Nazi Germany in terms of the better-known history of the events that have been named the Holocaust or the Shoah. He investigates the nature of the specific epistemological framework that the writers have adopted for their understanding of the historical events and the purposes it has served in contemporary contexts.”

Sklar, Robert. “Listening to Those Who Wore the Pink Triangle: A Documentary Film Explores the Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals.” Forward 2000 sep 01: 11. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “‘Paragraph 175,’ also opening at the Castro Theater in San Francisco on September 15, relates the largely untold story of Nazi persecution of gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbians. But the oppression the film recounts was not limited to the Nazi era, as filmmakers Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman make clear. In the postwar years, gay men who were victims of the Nazis were subject to re-arrest and imprisonment. Their applications for reparations were denied, and their time spent in concentration camps was deducted from their pensions. ‘As gay men and as Jews,’ Mr. Epstein and Mr. Friedman have stated, ‘we felt a particular urgency to record what stories we could while there were still living witnesses to tell them.’ In fact, they estimate that fewer than 10 gay survivors of the camps remain alive. Of the five men and one woman interviewed, three were older than 90 when the film was being made. Two of the six are also Jews.”

Snyder, David Raub, and Alan E. Steinweis. “The Prosecution and Punishment of Sex Offenders in the Wehrmacht, 1939–1945.” Thesis. The University of Nebraska – Lincoln. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (2002): 393-93 P. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. Based on the German military’s perceived lessons of the First World War and its predictions about total war, the Wehrmacht designed the newly reconstituted military administration of justice to maintain a frictionless Wehrgemeinschaft and prevent a second “stab in the back.” Many Nazi fanatics undoubtedly entered the military judiciary, using the courts as a forum for their National Socialist views and attempting to implement the Führer’s will. Yet too many countervailing forces existed, primarily the institution of the Gerichtsherr , the military commander with supreme legal authority over the court attached to his unit, for fanatic jurists to dispense ideologically motivated “justice.” The Gerichtsherren dominated the military judicial system, harnessing the “law” to serve immediate military interests, which changed according to time, location, and the general war situation. The willingness of these commanders to sacrifice thousands of deserters, “subversives,” and other recalcitrant soldiers stands as one more indictment of the Wehrmacht. However, if the Wehrmacht executed unwilling soldiers at an ever-faster pace, it more and more quickly reintegrated rapists, child molesters, and, more often than not, homosexuals back into the regular troops. A brutal penal and parole system, which rechanneled the Wehrmacht’s usable human materiel back to the front and channeled those no longer willing to carry a weapon to concentration camps, assisted the military judiciary in maintaining the Wehrgemeinschaft .

Steakley, James. “Homosexuals and the Thrid Reich.” The Body Politic January/February 11 (1974). Fordham University. Web. 25 Mar. 2012. <>. “The first account in English of the situation of homosexuals in Nazi Germany appeared originally in The Body Politic as part of a series by James Steakley on the development of an early German homosexual emancipation movement.”

Steakley, James. “Internet History Sourcebooks Project.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Fordham University. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. “Appallingly little imformation [sic] is available on the situation of homosexuals in Nazi Germany. Many historians have hinted darkly at the ‘unspeakable practices’ of a Nazi elite supposedly overrrun with ‘sexual perverts,’ but this charge is both unsubstantiated and insidious. Upon closer examination, it turns out to be no more than the standard use of anti-gay prejudice to defame any given individual or group — a practice, incidentally, of which the Nazis were the supreme masters. The Nazis were guilty of very real offences, but their unspeakable practices were crimes against mankind.”

Stone, Charles. “What If Hitler Was Gay?” The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 9.3 (May): 29. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. Things started coming to a head for Röhm as early as 1931, when complaints about his behavior were arising in the movement. In that year the head of the eastern division of the SA, Paul Schulz, had gotten so fed up with the situation that he drafted a sharply worded letter to [Adolf Hitler], a copy of which was leaked to the press and published under the title “The Brown House of the Homosexuals.” Among other things, Schulz wanted to warn Hitler of the danger of filling important positions with “morally objectionable persons.” Along with Röhm he mentioned such high-ranking SA officers as Paul Röhrbein, his lover Karl Ernst (called “Frau Röhrbein”), and Carl-Leon Graf Du Moulin Eckart. These close friends of the SA leader formed a “homosexual line” that stretched “from Munich to Berlin.” Schulz claimed that every rent-boy in Berlin knew (via Röhm) about the “fantastic relations” that Röhrbein had with Hitler. And then came the clincher: things had gotten so far out of hand that the news was being spread by Marxists that “you, highly esteemed Führer, are also homosexual.” On July 8 Otto Strasser, the “left-wing” National Socialist who had broken with Hitler in 1930 and whose brother Gregor was one of the victims of the purge, published an article in his exile newspaper Die Deutsche Revolution entitled “Does § 175 Apply Only to the Dead? A Question for Adolf Hitler.” Strasser finds the indignation of the national-socialist press over the “abnormal disposition” of the murdered SA leaders a case of “disgusting hypocrisy”: “Was it not precisely Herr Hitler and his Party,” he asks, “who again and again stood up for Röhm and his same-sexual friends?” Not only that, the Führer was doing the same thing with high-ranking Party officials who were still alive. A week later Strasser offered a list of such major Nazi dignitaries “…[to] accuse them before the German people and general public — in full knowledge of the judicial consequences — of a homosexual mentality and unnatural (widernatürlich) sexual activity.” The list included the following names: Rudolf “Fraulein” Heß (one of many campy nicknames); Baldur von Schirach, Reich Youth Leader (!); Helmut Brückner, Gauleiter of Silesia (later charged with violation of § 175); Karl Kaufmann, Gauleiter of Hamburg; and Wilhelm Brückner, Hitler’s personal adjutant. Of all the names on the list perhaps the most surprising is that of Heß. [Ian Kershaw] says he was “besotted with Hitler,” and there is evidence to suggest that they had a “romantic” relationship.

Timm, Annette F. “Sex with a Purpose: Prostitution: Venereal Disease, and Militarized Masculinity in the Third Reich.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11.1/2 (Jan): 223-55. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “Timm explores how Nazi attitudes toward sexuality and masculinity were expressed in policies on prostitution and the control of venereal disease. The totalitarian impulse to make even the most private of human activities serve national goals meant that Nazi leaders sought not only to define acceptable sexual behavior but to redefine sexual acts as acts with public–not simply private–significance.”

Wilson, Nathan Andrew. “The Holocaust in Gay German and American Life.” Thesis. Dalhousie University (Canada). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (2006): 106-06 P. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. “Beginning in the 1970s, German and American homosexuals began scrutinizing the past to learn more about gay history. Many found that Adolf Hitler’s Germany provided the worst example of anti-homosexual policies run amok. American homosexuals in particular were prone to view this history through the eyes of Nazism’s Jewish victims. By the mid-1980s, German homosexuals and historians also began employing and discussing this particular approach as an appropriate means to understand the past. This Master’s thesis examines the employment of the Holocaust by some German and American homosexuals as a means to construct a shared historical memory and asks why, despite new historical evidence disputing many central arguments of ‘gay Holocaust’ history, does a comparative framework remain the popular method of viewing the past?”

Adolf Eichmann “Chief Executioner of the Third Reich”


“For the dispatch of each train by the Accused [Eichmann] to Auschwitz, or to any other extermination site, carry one thousand human beings, meant that the Accused was a direct accomplice in one thousand premeditated acts of murder . … we have found that the Accused acted out of an inner identification with the orders that he was given and out of a fierce will to achieve the criminal objective … This Court sentences Adolf Eichmann to death.” Judge Moshe Landau, December 15, 1961.


Aarons, Mark, and John Loftus. Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, the Nazis, and the Swiss Banks. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1998. Print. “Written in rivetings fashion by the coauthors of The Secret War Against the Jews, Unholy Trinity tells one of the darkest tales of World War II. After the war had ended, fearing a surge of Soviet growth, the Papacy entered into an espionage alliance with British and American intelligence agents. Subsuming justice to the nascent Cold War ideology, these three powers ferreted Nazi criminals out of Europe so that they could be used in the supposedly greater fight against Communism. The Vatica’s Nazi smuggling network was penetrated by Prince Anton Turkul, the great Soviet double agent who turned the operations into a sting for his masters in the Kremlin.

“Adolf Eichmann.” History Learning Site: Adolf Eichmann. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “Adolf Eichmann is labeled as the man who masterminded the actual organisation of the Holocaust. Adolf Eichmann was a SS officer who planned with meticulous detail the sending of Jews and other groups to death camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka and Sobibor. Such work was to earn Eichmann the title ‘Chief Executioner of the Third Reich’.”

“Adolf Eichmann Nazi Files Will Stay Secret – for Now.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 3 July 2013. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <>. “A German court rejected a German newspaper’s bid to view files related to Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, ruling they should remain classified. The Bild Zeitung newspaper, which sued in 2011 to see the files, could try to appeal the June 28 [2013] decision by the Federal Administrative Court to Germany’s Supreme Court, according to reports. The administrative court determined that the foreign intelligence agency was within its rights to black out passages from the documents.”

“Adolf Eichmann.” The Nizkor Project. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer Karl Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962) was head of the Department for Jewish Affairs in the Gestapo from 1941 to 1945 and was chief of operations in the deportation of three million Jews to extermination camps.”

Aharoni, Zvi, and Wilhelm Dietl. Operation Eichmann: The Truth about the Pursuit, Capture and Trial. New York: J. Wiley, 1997. Print. “Operation Eichmann, as the pursuit, capture, and trial of the notorious Nazi official was known, stunned the world. Its success was due largely to the unceasing efforts of one man, Zvi Aharoni, an experienced Mossad operative who was a skilled investigator and interrogator. He tracked Eichmann to Argentina, secured photographs that established his identity, and was a key player in the plot to kidnap the exiled war criminal and bring him to trial. Above all, as the sole person to interrogate ‘the architect of the Final Solution’ after his capture, and the man who convinced Eichmann to admit his identity and face trial in Israel, Zvi Aharoni is the only one who knows firsthand what Eichmann actually said—a controversial subject often misrepresented in previous accounts.”

Aloff, Mindy. “What We Know, and Don’t, About Eichmann.” The Jewish Daily Forward. 23 June 2006. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <>. “Most of what we know – or think we know – about Adolf Eichmann, a notorious Nazi functionary, may be wrong. Or so readers will surmise from ‘Becoming Eichmann,’ David Cesarani’s monumental biography of the man who made the trains run to Auschwitz and, through other enthusiastic bureaucratic decisions and initiatives, effected the deaths of millions. The book arrives wreathed in appreciative notices for its exhaustive, Javert-like research — much of it incorporating sources unavailable until the 1990s — and for its overturning of long-held presumptions concerning Eichmann’s antisemitism, intelligence and motivations for his deeds.”

Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem; a Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: Viking, 1963. Print. “Originally appearing as a series of articles in The New Yorker, Hannah Arendt’s authoritative and stunning report on the trial of Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann sparked a flurry of debate upon its publication. This revised edition includes material that came to light after the trial, as well as Arendt’s postscript directly addressing the controversy that arose over her account. A major journalistic triumph by an intellectual of singular influence, Eichmann in Jerusalem is as shocking as it is informative—an unflinching look at one of the most unsettling (and unsettled) issues of the Twentieth Century. This edition includes an introduction by Amos Elon.”

Ashman, Charles R., and Robert J. Wagman. The Nazi Hunters. New York: Pharos, 1988. Print. “Focuses on the Nazi hunters Simon Wiesenthal, the Klarsfelds, Edgar Bronfman, Elan Steinberg, Israel Singer of the World Jewish Congress, Rabbi Marvin Hier, Neal Sher, and the Justice Department’s Office of Special Investigations.”

The Attorney-General of the Government of Israel v. Eichmann. 56 The American Journal of International Law 805-845. 17 Sept. 2013. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “Judicial Decisions by Covey Oliver of the Board of Editors. Jurisdiction of Israel to try Eichmann–international law in relationship to the Israeli Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law.”

Baade, Hans W. “The Eichmann Trial: Some Legal Aspects.” Duke Law Journal 1961.3 (1961): 400-20. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “In Israel, Mr. Eichmann was charged with ‘crimes against the Jewish people’ and ‘crimes against humanity’ under the Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law of August I, 1950. He is presently being tried under these charges by the District Court of Jerusalem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the legality of the Eichmann trial under Israeli law and under international law. While this discussion necessarily has to proceed from the assumption that the factual allegations of the prosecution are substantially correct and susceptible to legal proof, no opinion is expressed as to the facts. It need hardly be added that this would be highly improper at the present time.”

Bascomb, Neal. Hunting Eichmann: How a Band of Survivors and a Young Spy Agency Chased down the World’s Most Notorious Nazi. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009. Print. “When the Allies stormed Berlin in the last days of the Third Reich, Adolf Eichmann shed his SS uniform and vanished. Following his escape from two American POW camps, his retreat into the mountains and out of Europe, and his path to an anonymous life in Buenos Aires, his pursuers are a bulldog West German prosecutor, a blind Argentinean Jew and his beautiful daughter, and a budding, ragtag spy agency called the Mossad, whose operatives have their own scores to settle (and whose rare surveillance photographs are published here for the first time). The capture of Eichmann and the efforts by Israeli agents to secret him out of Argentina to stand trial is the stunning conclusion to this thrilling historical account, told with the kind of pulse-pounding detail that rivals anything you’d find in great spy fiction.”

Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale?: Nazi-Jewish Negotiations, 1933-1945. New Haven: Yale UP, 1994. Print. “In this riveting book, a leading Holocaust scholar examines the dramatic attempts to negotiate with the Nazis for the release of Jews in exchange for money, goods, or political benefits, and explores the moral issues raised by the negotiations.”

Black, Ian, and Benny Morris. Israel’s Secret Wars: A History of Israel’s Intelligence Services. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991. Print. “This is the first documented, comprehensive history of all three of Israel’s intelligence services, from their origins in the 1930s, through Israel’s five wars, up to the present, with a new chapter updating the book through the Gulf War. Highly readable and exhaustively researched, it provides the most balanced view yet of this controversial subject.”

Braham, Randolph L., and Scott Miller. The Nazis’ Last Victims: The Holocaust in Hungary. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1998. Print. “The Nazis’ Last Victims articulates and historically scrutinizes both the uniqueness and the universality of the Holocaust in Hungary, a topic often minimized in general works on the Holocaust. The result of the 1994 conference at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on the fiftieth anniversary of the deportation of Hungarian Jewry, this anthology examines the effects on Hungary as the last country to be invaded by the Germans. The Nazis’ Last Victims questions what Hungarians knew of their impending fate and examines the heightened sense of tension and haunting drama in Hungary, where the largest single killing process of the Holocaust period occurred in the shortest amount of time. Through the combination of two vital components of history writing—the analytical and the recollective—The Nazis’ Last Victims probes the destruction of the last remnant of European Jewry in the Holocaust.”

Braham, Randolph L. Eichmann and the Destruction of Hungarian Jewry. New York: World Federation of Hungarian Jews; Distributed by Twayne, 1961. Print.

Brayard, Florent. “Grasping the Spokes of the Wheel of History.” History & Memory 20.1 (2008): 48-88. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “Since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the access to new archives previously kept secret by the Soviet Union, historians of Nazism have had a growing tendency to believe that the historical narrative should be based exclusively on archives and refrain from using eyewitness testimonies, which are such fragile sources. This article argues, on the basis of the case of Adolf Eichmann’s involvement in Zyklon B deliveries to the extermination camps, that such an approach is unsatisfactory. Without eyewitness testimonies, neither Eichmann’s implication in this activity (which he of course always denied) nor the role played by Kurt Gerstein could be narrated. Taking into account only what is documented in archives would, therefore, mean relinquishing the aim of creating as complete a picture of the past as possible. In the case discussed in the article, this would mean forfeiting information that can alter the usual perception of Eichmann, Gerstein, or the workings of the RSHA.”

Breitman, Richard. “Plans for the Final Solution in Early 1941.” German Studies Review 17.3 (1994): 483-93. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “In the last fifteen years historians have felled many trees debating whether the Nazi regime had long planned or hastily improvised the Holocaust. This controversy has often focused on a seemingly small matter of timing: determination of the date when the SS moved to a continentwide program of mass murder, which they euphemistically called the Final Solution of the Jewish Question. The date of a decision to embark on the Final Solution is not only of interest in itself, but also because it helps us establish with greater precision the range of influences on, and participants in, the process-in laymen’s terms, the causes and the villains.” Adolf Eichmann had a big part in the Final Solution.

Breton, Albert, and Ronald Wintrobe. “The Bureaucracy of Murder Revisited.” Journal of Political Economy 94.5 (1986): 905. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “The paper reexamines the question of the guilt of subordinates in large organizations, a question posed with special force by Hannah Arendt in her book on Adolf Eichmann. He consistently claimed innocence on the ground that he was only following orders. Arendt accepted this picture of the regime but nevertheless indicted him for ‘crimes against humanity.’ The paper suggests that this model of the Nazi bureaucracy is false: in the Nazi bureaucracy of murder, as in other large bureaucracies, subordinates competed with each other to advance the goals of superiors they trusted. In this context, their guilt is easily established.”

Cesarani, David. “Adolf Eichmann: The Mind of a War Criminal.” BBC News. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “Adolf Eichmann systematically applied the logistics of commerce to the annihilation of Jews during the Holocaust. David Cesarani examines the mind of a Nazi war criminal.”

Cohen, Roger. “Why? New Eichmann Notes Try to Explain: [Biography].” New York Times 13 Aug. 1999. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “So, early on in memoirs published today by the German daily Die Welt, does Adolf Eichmann seek to explain his central role in the killing of six million European Jews by the Nazis. The statement, part of an attempt by Eichmann to portray himself as a man driven by a visceral sense of duty rather than hatred to organize the mass murder of Jews, appears on page 6 of 127 pages of handwritten reflections that Die Welt said it found at the Center for Research on Nazi Crimes in the southern German town of Ludwigsburg. The photocopied pages in Ludwigsburg — whose authenticity was confirmed by several German historians and has not been contested by Eichmann’s family — appear to be a synopsis of, or an introduction to, the larger body of Eichmann’s writings that Israel has said it intends to release.”

Donovan, John. Eichmann, Man of Slaughter. New York: Avon Book Division, Hearst, 1960. Print.

Draper, G.I.A.D. “THE EICHMANN TRIAL A JUDICIAL PRECEDENT.” International Affairs 38.4 (1962): 485-93. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “‘IF there is any regret in their hearts it is because the loathsome work was not completed. If there is sorrow, it is because the means chosen were not effective enough to complete the task.’ In these words the Israeli Attorney-General described to the judges of the District Court of Jerusalem the present state of mind of those Germans, many of whom are still alive and thriving, who made possible and carried out mass murders on a scale and in a manner more frightful than the world has ever had the misfortune to know. The occasion was the trial of Adolf Eichmann, a former S.S. police official who, from his desk in Berlin, put in motion, operated and controlled the extermination of some six millions of European Jews. This trial has made reflecting men and women aware, everywhere and for ever, that the limits of man’s inhumanity to man are solely those of time, opportunity, and scientific knowledge. The rate of expansion of the latter needs no description.”

Eichmann, Adolf, Jochen Von. Lang, and Claus Sibyll. Eichmann Interrogated: Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1983. Print. “As head of the Gestapo’s ‘Jewish Evacuation Department,’ Lieutenant Colonel Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962) was the driving force in the impoverishment, deportation, and extermination of millions of Jews. In 1945 he escaped with a Vatican passport and fled to South America. In May 1960 the Israelis located and kidnapped Eichmann from Argentina, and brought him to trial in Israel, where he was convicted and hanged, his remains cremated and scattered. For nearly a year prior to his trial Eichmann was interrogated by Captain Avner W. Less, a German Jew whose father and numerous relatives perished in Nazi concentration camps. Eichmann Interrogated is a superbly edited condensation of their 275-hour exchange, representing ten percent of the 3,564-page total. Amid his lies, distortions, evasions, half-truths, and startling admissions, Eichmann fully acknowledges the reality of the Holocaust while attempting to minimize his central role in its execution. As his life from traveling salesman to mass murderer unfolds, Eichmann’s defense becomes a chilling self-indictment and a warning of Evil’s often unassuming visage.”

Goñi, Uki. The Real Odessa: How Perón Brought the Nazi War Criminals to Argentina. London: Granta, 2002. Print. “Drawing on American and European intelligence documents, Uki Goni shows how from 1946 onward a Nazi escape operation was based at the presidential palace in Buenos Aires, harboring such war criminals as Adolf Eichmann and Josef Mengele. Goni uncovers an elaborate network that relied on the complicity of the Vatican, the Argentine Catholic Church, and the Swiss authorities. The discoveries made in this meticulously researched book reveal the entangled web of the Nazi regime and its sympathizers and has prompted Argentine officials to demand closed files on the Nazi era from their current government.”

Harel, Isser, and Shlomo J. Shpiro. The House on Garibaldi Street. London: Frank Cass, 1997. Print. “This is the true story of the kidnapping of Adolf Eichmann in Argentina by the Mossad, Israel’s secret intelligence serviceunder the leadership of Isser Harel. This is his account, revised and updated, with the real names and details of all Mossad personnel.”

Harris, Whitney R. Tyranny on Trial: The Trial of the Major German War Criminals at the End of World War II at Nuremberg, Germany, 1945-1946. Dallas: Southern Methodist UP, 1999. Print. “Tyranny on Trial relates the full story of the historic Nuremberg Trial. In this classic work, now in revised and expanded edition, Whitney R. Harris presents indisputable evidence of the horrific crimes of Adolph Hitler and Nazism, and irrefutable proof of the realities of the Holocaust.”

Kerr, Peter. “Man Who Seized Eichmann Recalls Secret Role.” New York Times 28 Apr. 1986, Late Edition East Coast ed.: B2. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “‘Here I see a man like you and me,’ said Mr. [Peter Malkin], staring into the distance as he envisioned the bedroom of the villa where [Adolf Eichmann] was manacled by the leg to a bed. ‘I had held his hand and I wondered, ‘How could this be?’ I tried to imagine six million, a row of six million waiting for their trains. It didn’t work. I couldn’t see it. It wasn’t real.’ Mr. Malkin describes his occupation today as a consultant with expertise in ‘security and antiterrorism.’ He is 58 years old and barrel-chested. He speaks English with a Hebrew accent, and when interviewed, he chain-smoked cigarettes and sipped Perrier water through a straw. ‘I told him, ‘You have a beautiful boy – I saw him through the window,’ Mr. Malkin recalled. ‘He reminds me of another boy that could be have been his brother. It was my sister’s son. The only difference is that this boy is dead.’ ‘He said, ‘It’s not my fault; he was Jewish!’ Mr. Malkin recalled. ‘He said, ‘I have nothing against the Jews. On the contrary, I love Jews.’ ”

Kraft, Jessica. “The Eichmann Trial – My Jewish Learning.” Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “Eichmann was found guilty on all counts and sentenced to death. On June 1, 1962 he was hanged. This was the only time that the death penalty was used in the history of the state of Israel. Eichmann was prosecuted under the provisions of the Nazi and Nazi Collaborators Punishment Law, established in 1950 by Ben Gurion’s government. The trial was only possible because a sovereign Jewish state with its own political structure, legal system, and intelligence and security agencies existed. For the first time in history, the Jewish people had the means to bring about justice to those who persecuted them. Ben Gurion and other founders of the state saw this as an intrinsic value of Israel’s national identity.”

Lasok, D. “The Eichmann Trial.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 11.2 (1962): 355-74. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “THE trial of Adolf Eichmann will go down in history as a trial without precedent not only because of the enormity of the charges but mainly because it is likely to perpetuate and deepen the controversy provoked by the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal.’ Reference had already been made to Eichmann at Nuremberg and the account of his activities recorded in a two-volume report of the Polish War Crimes Commission. But the drama unfolded with his seizure by Israeli agents and abduction from Argentina in May 1960. From the reaction of the Argentinian government to this obvious act of violation of Argentina’s sovereignty one might have expected a repetition of the Jacob-Salomon Case in reverse, but history did not repeat itself and Eichmann had no alternative but to go into the glass cage provided for him at the Jerusalem court.”

Levin, Meyer. “Eichmann’s Last Victim.” Coronet July 1961: 98+. Old Magazine Articles. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. The tragic fate of Dr. Rudolf Kastner, Eichmann’s last victim is explored. He was a Hungarian Jewish underground leader who negotiated with the Nazis and saved many of his people from extermination.

“The Long Road to Eichmann’s Arrest: A Nazi War Criminal’s Life in Argentina.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 1 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “Before his arrest by Israel’s Mossad intelligence service, Adolf Eichmann boasted openly to other foreigners in Argentina of the war crimes he had committed. He confided in one journalist that his only mistake was not having murdered all the Jews. ‘We didn’t do our work correctly,’ he said.”

Mulisch, Harry. Criminal Case 40/61, the Trial of Adolf Eichmann: An Eyewitness Account. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2005. Print. “The trial of Adolf Eichmann began in 1961 under a deceptively simple label, ‘criminal case 40/61.’ Hannah Arendt covered the trial for the New Yorker magazine and recorded her observations in Eichmann in Jerusalem: The Banality of Evil. Harry Mulisch was also assigned to cover the trial for a Dutch news weekly. Arendt would later say in her book’s preface that Mulisch was one of the few people who shared her views on the character of Eichmann. … Mulisch modestly called his book on case 40/61 a report, and it is certainly that, as he gives firsthand accounts of the trial and its key players and scenes (the defendant’s face strangely asymmetric and riddled by tics, his speech absurdly baroque). Eichmann’s character comes out in his incessant bureaucratizing and calculating, as well as in his grandiose visions of himself as a Pontius Pilate-like innocent. As Mulisch intersperses his dispatches from Jerusalem with meditative accounts of a divided and ruined Berlin, an eerily rebuilt Warsaw, and a visit to the gas chambers of Auschwitz, Criminal Case 40/61, the Trial of Adolf Eichmann becomes as a disturbing and highly personal essay on the Nazi extermination of European Jews and on the human capacity to commit evil ever more efficiently in an age of technological advancement.”

Rein, Raanan. “The Eichmann Kidnapping: Its Effects on Argentine-Israeli Relations and the Local Jewish Community.” Jewish Social Studies 7.3 (2001): 101-30. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “This article will examine the consequences of the Eichmann kidnapping for the Jewish community of Argentina and for Buenos Aires’ relations with Jerusalem. The contrast between the very speedy resolution of the crisis in Israeli-Argentine relations and the affair’s long-lasting effects on Argentina’s Jews indicates once again that the interests of the local Jewish community and those of the state of Israel-which defined itself on the day of its birth as ‘the Jewish state’-are not completely congruent and involve, at times, different dynamics. It also indicates that Argentine authorities were too often unwilling or unable to put a stop to antisemitic attacks by nationalist groups. Instead, they opted for closer relations with the Jewish state, hoping in this way to prevent such attacks from blackening Argentina’s image in Western public opinion in general and in the American media in particular. Securing U.S. support and economic cooperation was, after all, a prime goal for all Argentine governments in the post-World War II era.”

Rohter, Larry. “Half-century Later, a New Look at Argentine-Nazi Ties.” New York Times 4 Apr. 2005: A8. Pro. Web. “That scores of fugitive Nazis found their way to Argentina after World War II, aided and abetted by Gen. Juan D. Peron, is no secret. But according to a book just published here [Buenos Aires] that draws extensively on archival material only now being made available to researchers, his government also offered a haven for the profits of German companies that had been part of the Nazi war machine and whose assets the victorious Allies would otherwise have seized.” “The German Connection: The Laundering of Nazi Money in Argentina’ by Gaby Weber.

Scott, Shane. “C.I.A. Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show.” New York Times 7 June 2006: A3. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. “The Central Intelligence Agency took no action after learning the pseudonym and whereabout of the fugitive Holocaust administrator Adolf Eichmann in 1958, according to C.I.A. document released Tuesday that shed new light on the spy agency’s of of former Nazis as informants after World War II.”

“‘Vatican Aided Eichmann’s Escape’” 14 Mar. 2010. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <>. “Campaigners in Germany are challenging the 50-year secrecy order that binds files on Adolf Eichmann’s flight from Germany after World War II, the Daily Mail reported on Sunday. According to the dissenters, led by German journalist Gabriele Weber, the dossier may contain information that shows Eichmann’s post-war escape from the country was aided by the Vatican and by German officials.”

Weitz, Yechiam. “In the Name of Six Million Accusers: Gideon Hausner as Attorney-General and His Place in the Eichmann Trial.” Israel Studies 14.2 (2009): 26-49. JSTOR. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. “The article examines Gideon Hausner’s (1915-1990) appointment as attorney-general and later chief prosecutor in the Eichmann trial, his attitude towards the main issues that arose during the trial, his position on the issue of Jewish heroism during the Holocaust, how he became the definitive personification of the trial, and Shmuel Tamir’s opposition to the trial.”

Wiegrefe, Klaus. “West Germany’s Efforts to Influence the Eichmann Trial.” SpigelOnline. 15 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <>. “The 1961 trial in Israel of Holocaust organizer Adolf Eichmann was a global sensation. But it made West Germany nervous. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was afraid the trial could expose the Nazi pasts of government officials in Bonn. And his government did everything it could to influence the proceedings.”



Additional Women in the Third Reich and America

Mrs. Viola Sievers, one of the wipers at the roundhouse giving a giant Chicago and North Western Railway ‘H’ class locomotive a bath of live steam, Clinton, Iowa. 1943


Aderet, Ofer. “Diary of a Love That Perished in Auschwitz.” Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <>. “It took Alice Lehmann decades to dare to open the journals of her first love, Bernie Sapir, who was murdered in Auschwitz. Now the 88-year-old Jerusalemite has shared their tragic tale in a heartrending book.”

Albright, Madeleine Korbel. and William Woodward. Prague Winter: A Personal Story of Remembrance and War, 1937-1948. New York, NY: Harper, an Imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers, 2012. Print. “Madeleine Albright has written a remarkable story of adventure and passion, tragedy and courage, set against the backdrop occupied Czechoslovakia and World War II. … [She] challenges us to think deeply about the moral dilemmas that arise in our own lives.”

Atwood, Kathryn J. Women Heroes of World War II: 26 Stories of Espionage, Sabotage, Resistance, and Rescue. Chicago: Chicago Review, 2011. Print. “These twenty-six suspense-filled stories unfold from across Germany, Poland, Great Britain, the United States, and more, providing an inspiring reminder of women and girls’ refusal to sit on the sidelines around the world and throughout history.”

Binney, Marcus. The Women Who Lived for Danger: The Agents of the Special Operations Executive. New York: William Morrow, 2002. Print. In this book the author “recounts the story of ten remarkable women who were dropped in occupied territories [in WW II to] work as secret agents.”

Blessed Is the Match: The Life and Death of Hannah Senesh. Dir. Roberta Grossman. 2008.  Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <>.  [R]iveting portrait of Hungarian poet Hannah Senesh who endured capture, torture, and death to rescue Jews.

Brysac, Shareen Blair. “When the Red Orchestra Fell Silent.” The New York Times. 16 Feb. 2013. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <>. “On Feb. 15, 1943, a green police wagon left Charlottenburg Women’s Prison in Berlin, making its way through streets pockmarked by Allied bombs to the infamous execution center at Plötzensee. The handcuffed prisoner, a 40-year-old American woman, scholar, journalist, lecturer, teacher and translator named Mildred Fish Harnack, was led to a first-floor death cell. She was beheaded the next day.”

Cantrell, Rebecca. A City of Broken Glass. New York: Forge, 2012. Print. Fiction. “Hannah Vogel, journalist and former spy for the British, travels to Poland with her twelve-year-old son, Anton, to write a feature article on 1938′s Saint Martin festival. When she hears that twelve thousand Polish Jews have been deported from Nazi Germany, Hannah drops her fluff piece and rushes to get the story on the refugees, regardless of the consequences.”

Carve Her Name with Pride. Dir. Lewis Gilbert. 1958. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <>. “When her husband is killed in battle, brave patriot Violette Szabo (Virginia McKenna) joins the British secret service and agrees to spy on the enemy — even though it means being separated from her child. Eventually captured and tortured by the Nazis, the intrepid agent refuses to betray the Allies.”

Cosner, Shaaron, and Victoria Cosner. Women under the Third Reich: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998. Print. “This dictionary, with entries on more than 100 women, shows the diversity of their roles in this turbulent and disturbing period.”

Crane, Cynthia A. Divided Lives: “Mischling” Women in the Third Reich. Diss. University of Cincinnati, 1997. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1997. Print. This “dissertation centers on eight Mischling (‘half-breed’) women who survived the Third Reich.”

Ditty, Lauren. Knowledge and Complicity: High Society Women and the Third Reich. Thesis. Georgetown University, 2009. Web. 24 June 2013. “Hedwig Höss enjoyed luxury. Fortunately, her marriage to Auschwitz Kommandant Rudolph Höss provided her with the status and privilege to indulge her extravagant tastes. From late 1941 to the summer of 1944, Frau Höss lived in a villa complete with an extensive flower garden just outside the gates of Auschwitz. During this time, an Auschwitz prisoner by the name of Stanislaw Dubiel tended to Frau Höss’ flowers and periodically visited a depot located a walking distance from the villa to acquire everything from household items to jewelry for the woman of the house. Dubiel frequented this depot, affectionately referred to by Frau Höss as ‘Kanada,’ each time she decided her wardrobe or her reception rooms lacked sufficient opulence. Kanada was a convenient euphemism employed by Hedwig Höss; Kanada referred to a warehouse containing the belongings of Jewish prisoners sent to the gas chambers.”

“Execution of Women by the Nazis.” Capital Punishment UK. 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <>. “This is a tribute to the amazing courage of so many young women during World War II who were put to death for plotting and fighting against the Nazis, as resistance fighters, partisans and activists in towns and concentration camps. It is estimated that more than 4,000 women of various ages were hanged by Nazi forces between 1939 and 1945. Many more were shot or guillotined and many were tortured before minimal or non-existent trials.”

Fest, Joachim C. “German Wife And Mother: The Role Of Women In The Third Reich from Functionaries Of Totalitarian Rule.” The Face of the Third Reich. New York: Pantheon Book, 1970. Print. “The National Socialist movement, from the beginning a militant community of like-minded men, had almost no place in its ranks for women. The very first general meeting of members early in 1921 passed a unanimous resolution that ‘a woman can never be accepted into the leadership of the party and into the governing committee’. … The misogyny of the initial phase, despite all mitigating assurances by the top leadership, remained a basic factor and emphatically differentiated the NSDAP from all other political groups and parties. The type of homeless man, profoundly incapable of bourgeois stability, who gave the movement its shape during the early phase, generally despised attachment to a wife and family along with all other ties. The decisive influences in his life, experience at the front, … had always had the character of a men’s society, and the feelings of Comradeship from those years further reinforced this masculine exclusiveness. In the idea of a carefully fostered elite and hierarchy, particularly in the SA and later in the SS, in the ecstatic admiration for the ‘Indomitable leader’, the ‘heroic friend’ and the ‘self-sacrificing comrade’ we see a repeated tendency to homosexuality also revealed in the soft, vaguely sentimental tone used to embellish acts of brutality.”

“Funeral Held in Lanark for French Schoolgirl Spy.” BBC News. BBC, 13 May 2010. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. “The funeral has taken place of a Scottish grandmother who played a vital role as a schoolgirl resistance fighter in occupied France during World War II.”

Gentry, Kira Andrianne. Interpreting Memory: Young Women Coming of Age in the Shadow of the Third Reich. Thesis. California State University, Fullerton, 2008. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2008. ProQuest. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. “This study examines how German women recall their childhoods during the Third Reich and immediate aftermath. It explores this era through their eyes interpreting how memory compares with scholarly works on this topic. Much has been written about the Third Reich as it pertains to those old enough to vote; however, academic scholarship has not fully considered the impact on younger generations. Utilizing oral histories conducted with women residing in the United States, social and gender methodologies, recent memoirs, and Nazi propaganda, this study explores the lack of ideological influence the Bund Deutscher Mddel possessed over its members, how racial intolerance penetrated society through cultural conditioning, and the manner in which German women recall and have dealt with the reality of rape in the postwar Soviet occupation.”

Gillham, David R. City of Women. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2012. Print. “David Gillham brings war-torn Berlin to life and reveals the extraordinary mettle of women tested to their limits and beyond. Powerful and piercingly real.”

Grady, Denise. “Florence Waren, Dancer Who Resisted Nazis, Dies at 95. “The New York Times. 05 Aug. 2012. Web. 07 Aug. 2012. <>. “Even in the depths of war in occupied France, Florence Waren and Frederic Apcar [sic] or ‘Florence et Frederic,’ as they were billed — dazzled Paris, he in tails, she in jeweled gowns with flowers in her hair, the two of them gliding and swirling across the stage as one of the most famous ballroom-dance teams in Europe.”

Griebeler, Monika. “Lost and Forgotten: German ‘wolf Children’ in Lithuania” DW.DE. 9 May 2013. Web. 15 June 2013. <>. “The Second World War ended in May 1945 – but not for the German ‘Wolfskinder,’ or ‘wolf children.’ On their own, they made their way from East Prussia to Lithuania, a decision they’ll never forget. When Alfreda Pipiraite turned 18, she believed she’d made it. ‘But no, they said to me, ‘You German pig! You Hitlerist! Fascist!’ And so on,” she told DW.”

Hall, Allan. “How to Become the Perfect Nazi Bride: The Sinister Regulations for Women to Learn to Breed, Cook, Sew, Iron – and Worship Hitler.” Mail Online. 12 Aug. 2013. Web. 13 Aug. 2013. <–worship-Hitler.html>. “A sinister set of rules for would-be wives of Nazis in the Third Reich has been discovered three quarters of a century later. Several ‘bride schools’ were set up with the aim of providing the perfect partners for Adolf Hitler’s henchmen. Regulations dictated that young women would be taught ‘washing, cooking, childcare and home design’ before they could walk up the aisle with the men who would staff death camps and rule conquered lands with an iron fist. They were also instructed in social niceties – such as how to hold conversations at cocktail parties – and how to bring up their children worshipping not God or Jesus Christ, but Hitler. ‘This is participation in the resurrection path of our people,’ said Gertrud Scholtz-Klink, chief of the Nazi bride schools which began 75 years ago when the first was established on the island of Schwanenwerder in the Wannsee lake outside of Berlin.”

Hall, Allan. “Revealed: Women’s Role in Nazi Crimes.” Telegraph. 3 Feb. 2009. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. “In Nazi art, films and magazines, women were always portrayed as the fairer sex, fighting on the home-front as their menfolk fought on the battlefields. … But a new book by the historian Kathrin Kompisch has revealed a very different reality.”

Humbert, Agnès, and Barbara Mellor. Résistance: A Woman’s Journal of Struggle and Defiance in Occupied France. New York: Bloomsbury, 2008. Print. The author “offers a uniquely personal and recklessly candid perspective on this dark and dramatic period.”

Johnson, Eric A. “German Women and Nazi Justice: Their Role in the Process from Denunciation to Death.” Historical Social Research 20.1 (1995): 33-69. JSTOR. Web. 1 July 2013. <>. “This essay examines both the »legal« repression of women in Nazi Germany and the role that women played in helping to make the Nazi system of social and political control function. It focusses on women and the organs of social control in the city of Cologne and its surrounding area. It combines a computer analysis of all existing cases (circa 30,000) of illegal political activity reported to the state prosecuting attorney (Staatsanwaltschaft) in the district served by the Cologne »Special Court« (Sondergericht) with an indepth analysis of a sample of over two hundred of these cases in the city of Cologne and in the neighboring small town of Bergheim. It also analyzes the prison records of the main Cologne jail (Klingelpütz) during the war years. It argues that though women were important actors in the Nazi control apparatus at the local level, both as denouncers and as witnesses, they were far less active than men in making the Nazi terror work. Likewise, they were less often and usually less severely punished for anti-governmental activities than men. Finally, social class, racial background, and marital status sharply differentiated women who were repressed by the Nazi regime from women who helped the Nazi regime repress others.”

Lovin, Clifford R. “Farm Women in the Third Reich.” Agricultural History 60.3 (1986): 105. ProQuest. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. “A study of farm women is clearly needed for a better understanding of women and of agriculture in the Third Reich. Not only would such a work illuminate a corner of the National Socialist state, but it will provide some insights into the relationship between ideology and economic policy, between romanticism and practicality.”

Lynn, Jenifer M. Contested Femininities: Representations of Modern Women in the German Illustrated Press, 1920 — 1945. Diss. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2012. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2012. ProQuest. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. “Following World War I, the Neue Frau (New Woman) emerged as a mass-consumer image within the illustrated press and other forms of mass media including novels, movies and advertisements. However, this widely debated and enduring icon of Weimar Modernity was only one variant of a wide range of competing images of the Modern Woman in the Weimar Republic. Various groups modified and adapted the image of the Modern Woman according to their political and social goals. Thus far, most scholars have concentrated on the mass-consumer orientated image of the New Woman without acknowledging the tensions and contestation between the multiple versions of the Modern Woman in the broad and changing political spectrum of Weimar Germany. … In this study, the concept of the Neue Frau defines the iconographical, commercialized representation of female modernity during the Weimar Republic, which has thus far been deemed the quintessential expression of ‘modernity.’ However, the concept of the ‘Modern Woman,’ in a broader context reveals that competing visual and textual interpretations of modernity were not only widespread in Weimar, but extended into the Third Reich. … This project explores the development of the visual and textual representations of the Modern Woman and their nuanced differences in a wide range of illustrated magazines produced between the 1920 and 1945. … By concentrating on visual and textual representations, I reveal the ways in which visual, in combination with textual representations, played a significant role in imagining and negotiating the limits and possibilities for women in all aspects of society.”

Meding, Dorothee Von. Courageous Hearts: Women and the Anti-Hitler Plot of 1944. Providence, RI: Berghahn, 1997. Print. “This collection of interviews, conducted by the author, reveals that it was the women’s courage that sustained their husbands both before the plot and later, in the face of certain violent death”

Moorehead, Caroline. “The French Women Who Defied the Nazis and Survived Auschwitz.” BBC News Magazine. BBC, 11 Jan. 2012. Web. 12 Jan. 2012. <>. “Caroline Moorehead’s book, A Train in Winter, takes a different approach to the Nazi occupation of France during the Second World War. In it she tells the story of a group of 230 French women deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau together in January 1943. … [T]he book celebrates the spirit of resistance and friendship that persisted, despite the hardship, among these heroines of World War II.”

Moorehead, Caroline. A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France. New York: HarperCollins, 2011. Print. This book “chronicles what happened to 230 women from all over the country [France] who did not accept the [Nazi] occupation quietly.”

Newborn, Jud. “Lessons Today from Sophie Scholl’s Anti-Nazi Resistance.” JTA Jewish News. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 18 Feb. 2013. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <>. ”Though Sophie Scholl and the students of the White Rose resistance were executed by the Nazis 70 years ago this month, the example they set of courage in the face of authoritarian repression is as relevant today as it was seven decades ago.”

Owings, Alison. Frauen: German Women Recall the Third Reich. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1993. Print. “A vivid picture of Germany under the Nazis emerges from this collection of unsettling interviews conducted by freelance TV writer Owings with 29 women of diverse backgrounds, both Aryan and Jewish. Among the women whose lives in Germany’s war-torn homefront are chronicled are the widow of a resistance leader and the wife of an SS guard, who refers to her husband’s work in the Ravensbrook and Buchenwald ‘manufacturing plants.’”

Pauwels, Jacques R. Women, Nazis, and Universities: Female University Students in the Third Reich, 1933-1945. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1984. Print. “Based on official government documents and extensive secondary literature, this book revises several old assumptions on the periods of peace and war. For the 1930s, Pauwels demonstrates that declining female university enrollments were caused neither by Nazi rhetoric nor antifeminist campaigns but by the drastic drop in university-age population and the Depression. Despite their alleged egalitarianism, Nazi social and economic policies favored the access of middle- and upper-class women to higher education. The Third Reich was unsuccessful in creating an auxiliary female vanguard to serve in its leadership or welfare programs and failed to stop women from flocking into law, medicine, and engineering. It was WWII, not Nazism, that gave German women a dramatic improvement in higher education; increased numbers of women for a short time achieved unprecedented freedom and prefessional advancement though at war’s end, these dramatic gains were lost. Extensive charts, notes, and bibliography enhance a well-written concise monograph.”

Regis, Margaret. When Our Mothers Went to War: An Illustrated History of Women in World War II. Seattle, WA: NavPublishing, 2008. Print. “An illustrated history of the challenges faced by women in the U.S. on the home front and in the war zone during WWII as pilots, shipbuilders, flight nurses, military recruits, OSS agents and in other roles as they kept the nation running, salvaged resources, and more.”

Schubert, Helga. Judas Women: Ten Case Studies of Female Denunciation in the Third Reich. Thesis. Trans. Linnea Damer. Wesleyan University, 2010. Web. 24 June 2013. <>. “I first encountered Helga Schubert’s Judas Women in the course reader for a class that explored Berlin during and after the Second World War through the medium of literature. Coincidentally, this was shortly before I began to search for a book to translate for my honors project. I kept it in mind as I searched through bookstores in Berlin and asked friends, family, and professors if they could think of any interesting books of an appropriate length that were so new or obscure that they had not been translated into English. While I received many interesting suggestions, none of them captured my attention the way Judas Women had.”

“Sophie Scholl Revolt & Resistance” HolocaustEducationArchiveResearchTeam. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. Sophie Scholl, co-founder of the White Rose, a political resistance group, is discussed. “The group co-authored six anti-Nazi Third Reich political resistance leaflets. Calling themselves the White Rose, they instructed Germans to passively resist the Nazis. They had been horrified by the behaviour of the Germans on the Eastern Front where they had witnessed a group of naked Jews being shot in a pit.”

Stibbe, Matthew. “Women and the Nazi State.” History Today 1 Nov. 1993. Print. “Hitler may have thought women were there for cooking, children and church, but recent research has shown that female attitudes to, and involvement in, the apparatus of the Third Reich was much more significant, argues Matthew Stibbe.”

Stoltzfus, Nathan. “The German Women Who Stood Up to the Nazis.” The Jewish Press. 13 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <>. “In cases where the Nazi regime judged that protest could spark attention from the broader German public, the decision was made for tactical reasons to appease rather than quell with brute force.”

Suncan, George. “Women of the Third Reich.” Women of the Third Reich. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <>. ” A collection of short biographical portraits of some forty women who either gave their full support to Hitler and were sympathetic to the Nazi party, or on the other hand, were strongly anti-Nazi and played an active part in the anti-Hitler resistance movements. Many paid the supreme penalty for their beliefs and actions. The vast majority of German women however were neither particularly pro nor anti-Nazi but simply went along with the system thus providing passive support for it.”

Thomas, Theodore N. Women against Hitler: Christian Resistance in the Third Reich. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995. Print. In Nazi Germany “pastors’ wives replaced their absent husbands in the pulpits, … women preached and assumed administration of the orphaned parishes. Women fought to save their civil rights, and freedoms of speech, assembly, press, and religion. Some went to jail. Some died.”

Thynne, Jane. “Fashion and the Third Reich.” History Today. 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <>. “Jane Thynne looks at the foundation of the Deutsches Modeamt, an attempt by the Nazis to put the fascist into fashion.”

Watts, Margaret Ann. From Model to Mutter – National Socialist School Readers and the Ideal Woman. Thesis. University of Alberta, 2004. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2004. ProQuest. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. “The notion that motherhood is political is by no means foreign to the present-day ear. Governments in nations such as China and India are particularly active in administering state policies that affect the lives of countless women. Yet it is little more than seventy years ago when what is arguably the greatest state-organized pro-motherhood campaign the world had or has ever seen began in Nazi Germany. Far from simply remaining the underdeveloped brainchild of those in charge, German women for the most part relinquished the ich for the urn, effectively deleting any semblance of individuality for the sake of the Volk. For women, being part of the Volk was equated with fulfilling what was deemed their ‘natural,’ ‘traditional,’ even ‘sacred’ role – having children.”

Weitz, Margaret Collins. Sisters in the Resistance: How Women Fought to Free France, 1940-1945. New York: J. Wiley, 1995. Print. Contains first-person interviews with French women who fought in the resistance.

“Women at War.” Spartacus Educational. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <>. Sixty profiles of women WWII journalists, Anti-Nazi Resistance members, secret agents, and civilians. The profiles include many links.

“Women during the Holocaust.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 5 May 2011. <>.

“Women in the Third Reich.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 04 May 2013. <>. “Women played a vital role in Adolf Hitler’s plan to create an ideal German Community (Volksgemeinschaft). Hitler believed a larger, racially purer population would enhance Germany’s military strength and provide settlers to colonize conquered territory in eastern Europe. The Third Reich’s aggressive population policy encouraged ‘racially pure’ women to bear as many ‘Aryan’ children as possible.”

“Women in World War Two.” History Learning Site. Web. 6 Aug. 2013.  <>, “ As in World War One, women played a vital part in this country’s success in World War Two. But, as with World War One,  women at the end of World War Two, found that the advances they had made were greatly reduced when the soldiers returned from fighting abroad.”

Teachigo  provides a completely free service for both students and tutors, where students are able to locate the nearest tutor to them who matches their requirements. 


Religion and the Third Reich #2



Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945) “Evangelical theologian executed because of his opposition to Hitler. .. In theological circles and elsewhere Bonhoeffer is regarded as a contemporary martyr.” Encyclopedia of the Third Reich


Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Prostestant [i.e. Protestant] Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford UP, 1992. Print. “The Confessing Church was one of the rare German organizations that opposed Nazism from the very beginning, and in For the Soul of the People, Victoria Barnett delves into the story of the Church’s resistance to Hitler. For this remarkable story, Barnett interviewed more than sixty Germans who were active in the Confessing Church, asking them to reflect on their personal experiences under Hitler and how they see themselves, morally and politically, today. She provides a haunting glimpse of the German experience under Hitler, but also gives a provocative look into what it has meant to be a German in the twentieth century.”

Barnett, Victoria J. “The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation.” Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies 14.1. ADL. Anti-Defamation League’s Braun Holocaust Institute, 1998. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <>. “Churches throughout Europe were mostly silent while Jews were persecuted, deported and murdered by the Nazis. Churches, especially those in Nazi Germany, sought to act, as institutions tend to do, in their own best interests — narrowly defined, short-sighted interests. The list of ‘bystanders’ — those who declined to challenge the Third Reich in any way — that emerges from any study of the Holocaust is long and depressing. Few organizations, in or outside Nazi Germany, did much to resist Nazism or aid its victims. Assisting European Jews was not a high priority of the Allied governments as they sought to defeat Hitler militarily. The courageous acts of individual rescuers and resistance members proved to be the exception, not the norm.”

Batlogg, Andreas R. “A Martyr to the Nazis.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 21 Jan. 2008. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “Alfred Delp, S.J., was hanged for high treason in Berlin-Plötzensee at the age of 37. He had been condemned to death only a few months before the end of World War II, after a mock trial presided over by the fanatical priest-hater Roland Freisler. The execution took place just after three oclock in the afternoon of Feb. 2, 1945. It was the feast of the Presentation, one of the days when Jesuits have traditionally professed their final vows. At Hitlers command, Delps ashes were scattered to the winds. There was to be nothing by which to remember him.”

Bergen, Doris L. Twisted Cross: The German Christian Movement in the Third Reich. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1996. Print. “How did Germany’s Christians respond to Nazism? In Twisted Cross, Doris Bergen addresses one important element of this response by focusing on the 600,000 self-described ‘German Christians,’ who sought to expunge all Jewish elements from the Christian church. In a process that became more daring as Nazi plans for genocide unfolded, this group of Protestant lay people and clergy rejected the Old Testament, ousted people defined as non-Aryans from their congregations, denied the Jewish ancestry of Jesus, and removed Hebrew words like ‘Hallelujah’ from hymns.”

Bodendorfer, Gerhard. “Excuse Instead of Confession of Guilt?” Jewish-Christian Relations. International Council of Christians and Jews, 1998. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. <>. “A Statement About the Vatican Document: ‘We remember: A Reflection On the Shoah’ In the first issue of BiLi 1998 I have concerned myself extensively with documents about Christian guilt in the Holocaust. This was caused by the awaited Vatican document which was published on March 16, after ten years of preparation. Many expectations and hopes had been linked to this document. In pre-stating my evaluation of it I have to say that, unfortunately, it lags far behind the expectations and has not brought about the clarifications and process of cleansing hoped for.”

Carsa, Alberto. “Pius XII: Hated or Revered by the Third Reich?” The Catholic World Report. 20 June 2013. Web. 24 June 2013. <>. “Pius XII is currently in the spotlight mostly because of the bumpy road to his beatification, which is opposed by those who accuse him of having been too lenient towards Hitler’s Third Reich or even of having been in cahoots with the Nazi regime. Recent years have seen the publication of a vast amount of scholarly works refuting these accusations, including books by Sister Margherita Marchione, who is an American nun and member of the Religious Teachers Order Maestre Pie Filippini, and Rabbi David Dalin.”

“The Catholic Church and the Holocaust.” First Things. May 1998. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <>. “On March 16, 1998, the Holy See released a long-awaited statement on the Church and the Holocaust, ‘We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah.’ (‘Shoah,’ which in its original Hebrew usage referred to destruction or ruin, is preferred by some over ‘Holocaust,’ which means burnt offering.) The statement was prepared by the Vatican’s Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews, whose president is Edward Idris Cardinal Cassidy. Herewith the text of the statement, together with a cover letter from Pope John Paul II.”

“CATHOLIC PRIESTS SILENT ON NAZI-CHURCH DISPUTE, EXCEPT IN SOUTH GERMANY.” The New York Times 22 July 1935: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. “Priests in Freiberg, Baden, defied today a stern warning against criticism from the pulpit of the Nazi drive to end ‘political Catholicism’ as elsewhere in the tense Reich the Catholic clergy obeyed the government’s edict.”

Coleman, John A. “Edith Stein.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 8 Aug. 2012. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “On August 9 every year, the church celebrates the ‘ martyrdom’ of the Carmelite Sister Teresia Benedicta of the Cross ( Edith Stein) who was gassed at Auschwitz that day, seventy years ago. I put the term ‘marrtyrdom’ in quotations, since Edith Stein was murdered by the Nazis for being Jewish and only, secondarily, (and out of spite!) for being Catholic. The Roman Catholic Bishops of the Netherlands … had publicly issued a pastoral letter denouncing the Nazi’s Jewish policy of deportation and pogroms. Led by the intrepid Cardinal Johannes de Jong, the Dutch bishops had been warned that, if they proceeded to publish their denunciatory letter, the Nazi authorities would go after Jewish converts to Catholicism as well.”

Cordier, Bruno De. “The Fedayeen of the Reich: Muslims, Islam and Collaborationism during World War II.” China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly 8.1 (2010): 23-46. Ghent University Academic Bibliography. Universiteit Gent. Web. 01 July 2013. < >. “From 1941 to 1945, between 372,000 and 445,000 men of Muslim background and primarily from Soviet Eurasia and the Balkans, served in Hitler’s armies as combatants or as labour auxiliaries. This little-known page of war history is often used to discredit Islam and Muslims. But what were the actual sizes and causes of the phenomenon? This paper examines the circumstances and the proportions of wartime collaborationist movements among Muslims, and compared these to collaboration among non-Muslim groups in the territories and countries concerned.”

Crosby, John F. “The Witness of Dietrich Von Hildebrand.” First Things. Dec. 2006. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <>. “The witness of Dietrich von Hildebrand is rooted in his Christian personalism, which is developed in his many original philosophical and religious works. … Hildebrand has the distinction of being one of the earliest opponents of National Socialism; already in 1923, when Hitler tried to seize power in Bavaria, Hildebrand’s name was on a short list of enemies. He seems to have had from the beginning an unusual insight into a kind of gestalt of evil in Nazism.”

Darring, Gerald. “German Church and the Holocaust.” Spring Hill Church. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. <>. “The Catholic Church in Germany is unique in the history of the Holocaust because it confronted National Socialism throughout its existence, and because the confrontation pitted Germans against Germans. The Nazis were concerned about the German church in ways that did not concern them in connection with other national churches, so that the German church had a unique opportunity to influence events. What advantage did the German church take of that opportunity? Most importantly for our purposes: What was the reaction of the German church to the Nazi campaign against Jews?”

Darring, Gerald. “Western European Churches and the Holocaust.” Spring Hill College. Web. 09 Feb. 2013. <>.”Italy: Before Germany took over military control of Italy in September 1943, Italian Jews were relatively safe. But from that date to the end of the war, they were subjected to hostile legal actions, forced labor, arrest, and deportation. France: In the face of so great and utter a tragedy, too many of the Church’s pastors committed an offense, by their silence, against the Church itself and its mission. The Netherlands: There was no protest from the Catholic hierarchy. Indeed, Ger van Roon asserts that protests against anti-Jewish measures came earlier from Protestants than from Catholics, and they came more from pastors, priests and laity than from bishops and church leaders. Denmark: There is no other Holocaust story similar to that of the rescue of Danish Jews. Most of the country’s 8,000 Jews were saved by being ferried in boats to neutral Sweden, their rescue resulting from a combination of factors including the unique circumstances of Denmark’s occupation, Danish contempt for the Nazis and the desire to foil Nazis plans, the effectiveness of Danish resistance movements, and the cooperation of Lutheran lay people and church leaders. England: The information arriving in Great Britain regarding Nazi atrocities was extensive and rather accurate. Many Britons refused to believe this information, in part because of an ingrained antisemitism. The Catholic community was especially prone to be disbelieving, and in the fall of 1942 the Catholic Herald warned its readers to avoid swallowing wholesale the current reports of the anti-Jewish persecution.”

Delaney, John J. “Racial Values vs. Religious Values: Clerical Opposition to Nazi Racial Policy.” Church History 70.2 (2001): 271. JSTOR. Web. 7 May 2013. “Village and small town priests exercised their moral force and leadership in yet a second important way. Exemplary deeds encouraging common worship and understanding by Poles and Germans were matched by instructive acts of charity by Germans for Poles.”

Dietrich, Donald J. Catholic Citizens in the Third Reich: Psycho-social Principles and Moral Reasoning. New Brunswick, U.S.A.: Transaction, 1988. Print. “Dietrich finds that the German Catholic Church courageously resisted the Nazi practice of exterminating physically and mentally deficient people but that it compromised most of the time with Nazi racial practices, largely out of concern for survival.”

Dietrich, Donald J. God and Humanity in Auschwitz: Jewish-Christian Relations and Sanctioned Murder. New Brunswick, U.S.A.: Transaction, 1995. Print. “God and Humanity in Auschwitz synthesizes the findings of research developed over the last thirty years on the rise of anti-Semitism in our civilization. Donald J. Dietrich sees the Holocaust as a case study of how prejudice has been theologically enculturated. He suggests how it may be controlled by reducing aggressive energy before it becomes overwhelming.”

Doino, Jr., William. “The Judgment of History.” America Magazine. America Press Inc. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “Pope and Devil” by Hubert Wolf is reviewed. “The Catholic Church’s record during the Nazi era has long been the subject of intense discussion, not all of it edifying. Part of the problem is that emotion and speculation, rather than documented facts, have too often driven the debate. Most of the controversy has focused on the church’s reaction to the Holocaust, when Pacelli himself ruled as Pope Pius XII (1939-58). Still, the preceding papacy of Pius XI (1922-39) is of equal importance, especially as it casts light on subsequent events and decisions. Those years encompass the early part of Hitler’s dictatorship, when Cardinal Pacelli was second in command at the Vatican, serving as Pius XI’s secretary of state.”

Downey, William. “Priest Ordained at Dachau Beatified for Defying Nazies (Karl Leisner).” National Catholic Reporter 32.33 (1996): 12. General OneFile. Web. 16 Apr. 2011.

Duchesne, Jean. “Letter from Paris.” Search First Things. First Things, Feb. 1998. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <>. “As could have been anticipated, the Declaration of Repentance issued by French bishops last fall concerning the silence and passivity of the Church in the face of the Holocaust evoked strong reactions. It is unfortunate that the document that triggered the commotion does not seem to have been carefully read and studied.”

Fleming, Brian. The Vatican Pimpernel: The Wartime Exploits of Monsignor Hugh O’Flaherty. Cork: Collins, 2009. Print. “Monsignor Hugh O’Flaherty is an unsung hero in his native Ireland. During the German occupation of Rome from 1942 to 1944, he ran an escape organization for Allied POWs and civilians, including Jews. He placed thousands in safety and was known as `the Pimpernel of the Vatican.’ When the Allies entered Rome he had saved over 6,000 lives.”

Fogarty, Gerald P. “A Pope in Wartime.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 15 Dec. 2008. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “Over the last few months, the question of Pope Pius XII’s conduct during World War II has again made the news. At the recent Synod on the Word of God in Rome, Chief Rabbi Cohen of Haifa said that many Jews still believe certain Catholic leaders did not do enough to prevent the Holocaust. On Oct. 9, the 50th anniversary of Pius XII’s death, Benedict XVI endorsed the beatification of the late pontiff. Meanwhile, Abraham Foxman, the U.S. director of the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith, has called for opening the Vatican archives for the war years to ascertain whether, as Benedict stated in October, Pius actually did work secretly to save many Jews.”

Franke, Greg. “A Cowardly Lion? : The German Catholic Episcopate and the Third Reich.” Thesis. Washington and Lee University, 2011. Washington and Lee University, 2011. Web. 28 June 2013. <>. “The history of the Catholic Church during the Third Reich remains highly contentious today, especially considering how differently many members of the same level of the Church hierarchy responded to the regime. Within the episcopate, some bishops, such as the chairman of the Fulda Bishops‟ Conference, Adolf Bertram, supported a limited response to the Reich‟s policies, preferring a program of sending diplomatically worded petitions to Berlin. Others, like Clemens August von Galen of Münster and Konrad von Preysing of Berlin, led strong and vocal protests against violations of human rights.”

Galvin, John P. “Five Views of Nazism.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 13 Dec. 2004. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “Catholic Theologians in Nazi Germany” by Robert A. Krieg is reviewed. “Robert Krieg, professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame, is the author of several studies of 20th-century German Catholic theologians. In the work under review, he examines the widely varying stances taken toward Nazism by selected Catholic theologians in Hitler’s Germany. His secondary goal is to analyze the policies of the German episcopate toward Nazism in light of the bishops’ conceptions of the church’s mission. Krieg’s project is particularly welcome, since Klaus Scholder’s studies of the churches and the Third Reich devote little space to individual theologians, and Robert Ericksen’s Theologians Under Hitler examines only Protestant authors.”

Gerlach, Wolfgang, and Victoria Barnett. And the Witnesses Were Silent: The Confessing Church and the Persecution of the Jews. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 2000. Print. “This collection of essays by noted Holocaust historians explores controversial points in the study of the Nazi genocide of the Jews. These scholars believe that Hitler did order the Final Solution, and that the decision was not made until after the invasion of Russia. Some essays also discuss the factors that led to different survival rates in different countries, and the supposed Jewish passiveness. The participation of the bureaucracy, the logistics of setting up death camps, and the actual number of Jews killed are also covered in these fascinating scholarly pieces.”

“The German Churches and the Nazi State.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <>. “The population of Germany in 1933 was around 60 million. Almost all Germans were Christian, belonging either to the Roman Catholic (ca. 20 million members) or the Protestant (ca. 40 million members) churches. The Jewish community in Germany in 1933 was less than 1% of the total population of the country. How did Christians and their churches in Germany respond to the Nazi regime and its laws, particularly to the persecution of the Jews? The racialized anti-Jewish Nazi ideology converged with antisemitism that was historically widespread throughout Europe at the time and had deep roots in Christian history. For all too many Christians, traditional interpretations of religious scriptures seemed to support these prejudices.”

Gorin, Julian. “Mass Grave of History: Vatican’s WWII Identity Crisis.” 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <>. “The controversy over the canonization of Pope Pius XII concerns whether he spoke out enough against the slaughter of Jews during World War II. But that question is a red herring when trying to grasp the big picture of the Vatican’s role during the war. The real question is whether the Vatican supported the world order, or at least aspects of it, that the Third Reich promised to bring, a world order in which dead Jews were collateral damage – which Pius indeed regretted. The answer can be found in a region of Europe that is generally ignored despite being the nexus of world wars: the Balkans. The Catholic Church was looking for a bulwark against expanding, ruthless, church-destroying communism, but in doing so it supported a Croatian movement called Ustasha, which rose to become the genocidal regime of Nazi satellite Croatia.”

Green, Bernard. European Baptists and the Third Reich. Didcot: Baptist Historical Society, 2008. Print. “In this volume, Bernard Green deals with one of the most problematic periods in history through the prism of Baptists influenced and affected by Nazism and World War II.”

Heilbronner, Oded. “Catholic Resistance during the Third Reich?” Contemporary European History 7.03 (1998): 409-14. Print. “Thus, they [Catholic Church] avoided raising unpopular issues apart from ones concerned with religion or jurisdiction. It was during the war that Catholic society expressed its loyalty to the Nazi regime, and it is a pity that the three studies under discussion here have not tried to confront this issue.”

Heinegg, Peter. “Truth-Teller.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 21 June 2010. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “Who doesn’t know about Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-45)? The story of his arrest and execution by the Nazis (days before the war’s end) and his posthumous career as perhaps the most credible and exciting Christian theologian of the 20th century (seen especially in The Cost of Discipleship, Letters and Papers From Prison and the unfinished Ethics) has been told and retold. The definitive biography is still that by Bonhoeffer’s close friend Eberhard Bethge (1,084 pages in the 2000 paperback edition); but shorter, readable tours of the man and his work are still welcome, and Eric Metaxas certainly makes an engaging guide.”

“Hitler Rebuffs His Reich Bishop.” New York Times 26 Oct. 1934: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 5 Mar. 2013. “For a third time he avoids Mueller who wishes to take oath of allegiance. Dissuaded at last moment from seizing church foes — Nazi leaders to meet.”

Ivereigh, Austen. “Sorry Is Not Enough.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 27 Feb. 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “It was an apology of sorts — but not of the sort to make amends. The Holocaust-denying schismatic British bishop whose rehabilitation by the Vatican sparked an international row apologised last night for remarks in which he denied the scale of the Nazis’ genocidal campaign against the Jews. The apology, made in England (where he has returned after being expelled from Argentina), is carried by Zenit here. Referring to his interview with a Swedish TV station in which he denied the existence of the gas chambers, Bishop Williamson – a member of the breakaway traditionalist Society of Pius X — said: ‘I regret having made such remarks, and that if I had known beforehand the full harm and hurt to which they would give rise, especially to the Church, but also to survivors and relatives of victims of injustice under the Third Reich, I would not have made them.’”

Jones, Larry E. “Franz Von Papen, Catholic Conservatives, and the Establishment of the Third Reich, 1933-1934.” Journal of Modern History 83.2 (2011): 272-318. Academic Search Premier. Web. “This article discusses Catholic conservatives in Germany and examines the role they played in the overthrow of the Weimar Republic and the installation of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler in 1933-1934.”

Kertzer, David I. The Popes against the Jews: The Vatican’s Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-semitism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001. Print. “In this meticulously researched, unflinching, and reasoned study, … David I. Kertzer presents shocking revelations about the role played by the Vatican in the development of modern anti-Semitism. Working in long-sealed Vatican archives, Kertzer unearths startling evidence to undermine the Church’s argument that it played no direct role in the spread of modern anti-Semitism. In doing so, he challenges the Vatican’s recent official statement on the subject, We Remember. Kertzer tells an unsettling story that has stirred up controversy around the world and sheds a much-needed light on the past.”

Kidder, Annemarie S. Ultimate Price: Testimonies of Christians Who Resisted the Third Reich. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2012. Print. “Kidder … presents the writings of seven European Christians who, while acting in accordance with religious ideals, were kill [sic] because of their work to oppose Hitle’s regime.”

Krieg, Roberta A. “The Vatican Concordat With Hitler’s Reich.” America Magazine. America Press Inc., 1 Sept. 2003. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. “Seventy years ago a fateful meeting occurred in Rome. The Vatican’s secretary of state, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (the future Pope Pius XII), and Germany’s vice chancellor, Franz von Papen, formally signed a concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich on July 20, 1933. This event ended negotiations that began after Adolf Hitler became Germany’s chancellor on Jan. 30, 1933. Among the witnesses to this event were Msgr. Giovanni Battista Montini (the future Pope Paul VI) and Msgr. Ludwig Kaas, the leader of Germany’s Catholic Center Party. Neither Pope Pius XI nor Hitler attended the meeting; both had already approved of the concordat. The pope ratified the agreement two months later on Sept. 10. The Concordat of 1933 specified the church’s rights in the Third Reich.”

Madigan, Kevin J. “HOW THE CATHOLIC CHURCH SHELTERED NAZI WAR CRIMINALS.” Commentary 132.5 (2011): 20-24. ProQuest. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. “At a time when Jews in DP camps were being denied visas, Juan Perón’s agents were combing Europe for Nazi collaborators to rescue.* The Catholic priests and prelates who helped spring the Nazi bolt-hole were part of an organization called the Vatican Relief Commission (Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza, or PCA). According to the private diaries of Muench, who was his personal representative in occupied Germany, Pius sought pardons for Einsatzkommando Otto Ohlendor, a close associate of Himmler.”

McKnight, Scott. “Academic Theology in the Third Reich.” Jesus Creed. Patheos, 2 May 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. <>. “Those Americans who know Bonhoeffer tend to think about the church and theology under Hitler through Bonhoeffer’s experience. That is, harassed, spied upon, arrested, secretly tried, and eventually murdered. Bonhoeffer’s experience was not the norm for German theologians and pastors though neither was it atypical. Other kinds of experiences are known: Some capitulated to National Socialism, to racism, to German culture as a relentless machine of superiority, to technology as the future, to human life as utilitarian, economic success regardless of its implications, shutting down alternative voices, and the destruction of nature. Some turned their theology into a tool for the National Socialists, led by the ‘German Christians’.”

“Our Mothers, Our Fathers.” Unsere Mutter. Unsere Vater. Berlin Germany. Television. “A new television drama about wartime Germany stirs up controversy. German television viewers are used to frequent programmes exploring the Nazi era and the second world war. But rarely has such a programme triggered as much debate and interest as the screening in mid-March of a three-part drama, “Unsere Mütter, unsere Väter” (Our Mothers, Our Fathers), which tracks the lives of five young German friends from 1941 to 1945. The fictional drama, based on scrupulous research, had on average 7.6m viewers per night.”

The Persecution of the Catholic Church in the Third Reich; Facts and Documents,. Pelican, 1940/2003. Print. “Here are the writings and speeches of the Pope and the German hierarchy, the official decrees and instructions of the government, and the speeches and teachings of the Nazi Party. The cumulative weight of this testimony is sufficient to establish the German persecution as the worst, because it is the most efficient, of modern times.”

“Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust.” Jewish Virtual Library. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. <>. “Pope Pius XII’s (1876-1958) actions during the Holocaust remain controversial. For much of the war, he maintained a public front of indifference and remained silent while German atrocities were committed. He refused pleas for help on the grounds of neutrality, while making statements condemning injustices in general. Privately, he sheltered a small number of Jews and spoke to a few select officials, encouraging them to help the Jews.”

“Reich Churches Resist Nazi Rule, Cooperate With Outside Forces.” New York Times 11 June 1943: 1. Print. ” The Nazis have met a major defeat in their efforts to destroy the Christian faith in the Third Reich, and the German churches, Protestant and Roman Catholic, are now planning methods of cooperation with religious forces in other countries to build a lasting peace when Hitlerism has been overthrown, according to a report reaching Religious News Service from an exceptionally reliable Scandinavian source.”

Sehl, Nicholas. For Church and State: “An Examination of the German Catholic Church in the Third Reich” Thesis. University of New Brunswick, Dept. of History, 2011. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2011. ProQuest. Web. 17 Aug. 2013. “From 1933 to 1945, the German Catholic Church actively participated in German society under the control of National Socialism. Catholic bishops and priests sought to remain relevant to the German people, as the Holy See engaged in diplomacy with the Third Reich to secure the protection of its members. This resulted in the appearance that the Catholic Church ignored the suffering of others to protect its own interests. The German Church, however, has maintained that it acted in accordance with its responsibility to mankind, by providing the German people examples opposite to the actions of Nazism, all the while being subjected to Nazi persecution. This thesis will analyze the traditional history of the German Catholic Church and the actions of its members during the reign of Nazism, in effort to answer the question, why did the Catholic clergy succumb to Nazism, seemingly without official resistance, and continue to support the German State even after the Party’s pernicious intentions had been made clear by the waves of persecution the Church suffered?”

Sifton, Elisabeth, and Fritz Stern. “The Tragedy of Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Hans Von Dohnanyi.” The New York Review of Books. New York Times, 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <>. “We are concerned here with two exceptional men who from the start of the Third Reich opposed the Nazi outrages: the scarcely known lawyer Hans von Dohnanyi and his brother-in-law, the well-known pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Dohnanyi recorded Nazi crimes, helped victims, did his best to sabotage Nazi policies, and eventually helped plot Hitler’s removal; Bonhoeffer fought the Nazis’ efforts to control the German Protestant churches. For both men the regime’s treatment of Jews was of singular importance. Holocaust literature is vast and the literature on German resistance scant, yet the lives and deaths of the two men show us important links between them.”

Thomas, Theodore N. Women against Hitler: Christian Resistance in the Third Reich. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995. Print. “Adolf Hitler declared war on Christianity when he silenced the Catholic Church with a diplomatic treaty and arranged for a Nazi Army chaplain to become supreme bishop over the Protestants of Germany. The Confessing Church resisted. Pastors were muzzled, put under house arrest, jailed, and held for years in concentration camps. Thousands were drafted and sent to the war to die, while others were murdered outright. The result was a lack of man-power. Women stepped in. Pastors’ wives replaced their absent husbands in the pulpits, and Theologinnen—theologically trained women—preached and assumed administration of the orphaned parishes. Women fought to save their civil rights, and freedoms of speech, assembly, press, and religion. Some went to jail. Some died.”

Tillich, Paul, Ronald H. Stone, and Matthew Lon. Weaver. Against the Third Reich: Paul Tillich’s Wartime Addresses to Nazi Germany. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1998. Print. “Paul Tillich prepared 112 five-page addresses in German broadcast into occupied Europe from March 1942 through May 1944. … The essays are among the most concrete and passionate of his political writings. … [Tillich] was ‘a German Protestant theologian who saw the demonic, named it and did what he could to denounce it.’”

Walker, Lawrence D. Hitler Youth and Catholic Youth: 1933-1936: A Study in Totalitarian Conquest. [S.l.]: Catholic U Pr., 1970. Print.

Walker, Stephen. Hide & Seek: The Irish Priest in the Vatican Who Defied the Nazi Command. Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2011. Print. “The fascinating and untold story of intrigue, resistance, and escape during World War II that opens the window on the war in Italy from the perspective of an Irish priest in the Vatican. Contains the mystery, the violence, the suspense, and ultimate victory.”

Wilensky, Gabriel. “The Truth About Pope Pius XII:Are We Getting It?” 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <>. ”As a consequence of the Pope’s inaction (or at least ineffective action), the Germans deported over 1000 Roman Jews to their deaths with what was perceived to be carte blanche for the Pope.”

Additional Germany, Nazis, War


Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the First Allied Airborne Army.


Adler, Libby, and Peer Zumbansen. “The Forgetfulness of Noblesse: A Critique of the German Foundation Law Compensating Slave and Forced Laborers of the Third Reich.” Harvard Journal on Legislation 39.1 (2002): 1-61. Social Science Research Network. Web. 15 July 2013. <>. “In August 2000, Germany’s twin houses of parliament enacted a law establishing a foundation to compensate survivors of the Nazi forced labor program. The Foundation Law was acclaimed as a victory for Holocaust survivors, despite that it sharply limits compensation amounts, denies recovery to some potential claimants, and purports to preclude further litigation of Holocaust-era claims. Proponents of the Foundation Law defended the choice to use legislation to resolve Holocaust-related claims initially brought in a judicial forum on the grounds that litigation is inherently ill-suited to that task, and justified the terms of the Law by reference to the claimants’ poor chances in the courtroom. In this article, the co-authors identify some troubling assumptions underlying these rationales and highlight the historical and political context in which they were offered.”

“After WWII, Europe Was A ‘Savage Continent’ Of Devastation.” NPR. 29 July 2013. Web. 1 Aug. 2013. <>. “In the introduction to his book, Savage Continent, Keith Lowe writes: Imagine a world without institutions. No governments. No school or universities. No access to any information. No banks. Money no longer has any worth. There are no shops, because no one has anything to sell. Law and order are virtually non-existent because there is no police force and no judiciary. Men with weapons roam the streets taking what they want. Women of all classes and ages prostitute themselves for food and protection. This is not the beginning to a futuristic thriller, but a history of Europe in the years directly following World War II, when many European cities were in ruins, millions of people were displaced, and vengeance killings were common, as was rape.”

Baecker, Dirk. “The Hitler Swarm.” Papers.ssrn. Social Science Research Network, 30 Sept. 2011. Web. 17 June 2013. <>. “Explaining the seizure of power by the National Socialist Party and the totalitarian workings of the Nazi regime in the Third Reich is still difficult not only with respect to the atrocities committed but also to understanding whether the German population and society had to be terrorized into complying with the regime or were part and parcel of it. The paper introduces a notion of swarm to advance the idea that the German population was terrorized into a deliberate compliance with the regime. The notion of swarm is sociologically controlled by a complementary notion of form, which serves to reconstruct and model the social calculus realized by the swarm to differentiate and reproduce itself inside a complex society. The data we use are the results of historical research done in the last sixty years.”

“Before the Holocaust: Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany, 1933-1939.” Birkbeck, University of London. Arts & Humanities Research Council. Web. 17 July 2013. <>. “The Nazi concentration camps during the Second World War and the Holocaust have been heavily researched and continue to deserve much scholarly attention. But what about the early years of Nazi rule? This AHRC-funded research project looks at the Nazi concentration camp system between 1933 and 1939, trying to uncover the foundations for wartime terror.”

“Best World War II Documentary Series.” Cloudworth. Web. 18 June 2013. <>. “This list contains WWII series which have made a lasting impression over the years for one reason or the other. These documentaries are warmly recommended to anyone interested in history, and especially to those keen to learn more about the Second World War. In addition to concise evaluation of each series, various pros and cons are contemplated. Note: This list only includes series with multiple parts. Individual WWII related documentary films are excluded. ”

Black, Edwin. The Transfer Agreement: The Dramatic Story of the Pact between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine. Cambridge, MA: Brookline, 1999. Print. “The Transfer Agreement is Edwin Black’s compelling, award-winning story of a negotiated arrangement in 1933 between Zionist organizations and the Nazis to transfer some 50,000 Jews, and $100 million of their assets, to Jewish Palestine in exchange for stopping the worldwide Jewish-led boycott threatening to topple the Hitler regime in its first year. 25th Anniversary Edition.”

Cohen, Patricia. “Diary of a Hitler Aide Resurfaces After a Hunt That Lasted Years.” The New York Times. 14 June 2013. Web. 18 June 2013. <>. This article describes the arduous search for the infamous diary. The search again and again led to Herbert Richardson. “The idiosyncratic Mr. Richardson, 81, has long been a figure of controversy within some scholarly precincts for the quality of the books he published and for suing critics of his press for libel.”

“Collaboration During WWII.” Web log post. Thoughts on History and Current Affairs. Sam Spiegelman, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 17 July 2013. <>. “We must learn to accept a world and a history wherein millions, perhaps the majority of people in any given situation, are complicit in the evil which occurs in their midst. We will undoubtedly never be able to fully understand the actions or inaction of every individual who experienced the scourge of Nazi occupation and brutality. While there exists thousands of cases wherein moral transgression is undoubtable, perhaps more haunting is the revelation that millions of men and women, although they may not be guilty, must carry the ‘burden of blame’ for their acquiescent collaboration.”

“Down, Not Out, in London: LIFE in the Underground, 1940.” LIFE. Ed. Ben Cosgrove. 30 Dec. 1940. Web. 18 June 2013. <>. “The Hans Wild photograph here — which ran in the Dec. 30, 1940 issue of LIFE above the caption, ‘In cold and discomfort far below the hell above, London tries to sleep in its deep subways’ — this Wild photo is a testament to what Churchill, in his inimitable way, called ‘the courage, the unconquerable grit and stamina’ of the English. But there is nothing terribly romantic, high-minded or even noble about shivering a night away while an enemy tries to kill you, or lays waste to your city, or both.”

Epstein, Helen. “”I Was a Nazi, and Here’s Why”" The New Yorker. 29 May 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <>. Book – “Account Rendered,” Melita Maschmann. “In recent years, many victims of violence have written memoirs in which they seek out and confront the perpetrators who harmed them. The opposite is rare. Few perpetrators seek out their victims, let alone write books about them. But fifty years ago this month, Melita Maschmann, a former Nazi, published just such a book. ‘Fazit,’ which was translated as ‘Account Rendered’ in 1964, is the memoir of a woman who, as a fifteen-year-old and against her family’s wishes, joined the Hitler Youth. Before and during the Second World War, Maschmann worked in the high echelons of press and propaganda of the Bund Deutscher Mädel, the girls’ section of the Nazi youth organization, and, later, she supervised the eviction of Polish farmers and the resettlement of ethnic Germans on their farms. Arrested in 1945 at the age of twenty-seven, she completed a mandatory de-Nazification course and became a freelance journalist.”

Ernst, E. “Commentary: The Third Reich-German Physicians between Resistance and Participation.” International Journal of Epidemiology 30.1 (2001): 37-42. Oxford Journals. Web. 17 June 2013. <>. “To evaluate the role of the medical profession in the Third Reich is a delicate and difficult task. Its participation in major atrocities was, to a large extent, hushed up and recent reports of medical opposition may, in many cases, be exaggerated. Much of the evidence has been destroyed or is not easily accessible. Furthermore, an objective view is potentially clouded by a number of issues related to the past or outlook of the evaluator. Finally, when looking at history with hindsight, there is the danger of arrogance in those who have not actually lived through it.”

Gallagher, Hugh Gregory. By Trust Betrayed: Patients, Physicians, and the License to Kill in the Third Reich. New York: H. Holt, 1995 Rev. Ed. Print. “Gallagher’s strong study of the murder of disabled people in the Third Reich receives new attention in a revised edition which includes some modern sentiments and moral issues relating to both the events of the past and the concerns of modern times.”

Garber, Megan. “‘Pilot’s Salt’: The Third Reich Kept Its Soldiers Alert With Meth.” The Atlantic. May 2003. Web. 18 June 2013. <>. “And it [Meth] was, as such, put to wide use. The Wehrmacht, Germany’s World War II army, ended up distributing millions of the Pervitin tablets to soldiers on the front (they called it ‘Panzerschokolade,’ or ‘tank chocolate’). The air force gave the tablets to its flyers (in this case, it was ‘pilot’s chocolate’ or ‘pilot’s salt’). Hitler himself was given intravenous injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician, Theodor Morell.”

Gellately, Robert. “Denunciations and Nazi Germany : New Insights and Methodological Problems.” Historical Social Research 22.3/4 (1997): 228-39. SSOAR. Web. 15 July 2013. <>. “Since 1990 or so, the role of denunciations in the Nazi terror system has been highlighted by a number of writers interested in the functioning of the Gestapo in the context of everyday life in Germany. Several historians have claimed that ordinary citizens who volunteered information on suspected infringements of the letter or spirit of the laws played a crucial role in everyday terror under Hitler’s dictatorship. This cooperation by German citizens and their apparent willingness to denounce calls for historical analysis.”

Gordon, Robert J. “Did Economics Cause World War II?” Papers.ssrn. Social Science Research Network, 15 Jan. 2009. Web. 18 June 2013. <>. “Historians have long recognized the role of economic resources and organization in determining the outcome of World War II: the Nazi economy lacked the economic resources and organization to oppose the combined might of the U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R. A minority view is that the Germans were defeated not by economics, but by Hitler’s many strategic and tactical mistakes, of which the most important was the invasion of the Soviet Union. Compared to this debate about the outcome of the war, there has been less attention to economics as the cause of World War II. This is a review article of a new economic history of the Nazi economy by Adam Tooze which cuts through the debate between economics and Hitler’s mistakes as fundamental causes of the outcome. Instead, Tooze argues that the invasion of the Soviet Union was the inevitable result of Hitler’s paranoia about the land-starved backwardness of German agriculture as contrasted with the raw material and land resources of America’s continent and Britain’s empire. …  Far better than other histories of the Third Reich, Tooze reveals the shocking details of General Plan Ost, the uber-holocaust which would have removed, largely through murder, as many as 45 million people from eastern agricultural land.”

Goss, Jennifer L. “1936 Olympic Games.” 20th Century History. Web. 18 June 2013. <>. In August 1936, the world came together for the quadrennial Summer Olympics in Berlin, the capital of Nazi Germany. Although several countries had threatened to boycott the Summer Olympics that year due to Adolf Hitler’s controversial regime, in the end they put their differences aside and sent their athletes to Germany. This Olympics would see the first Olympic torch relay and the historic performance of Jesse Owens.”

Goss, Jennifer L. “Evian Conference.” 20th Century History. Web. 17 June 2013. <>. “From July 6 to 15, 1938, representatives from 32 countries met at the resort town of Evian-les-Bains, France, at the request of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, to discuss the issue of Jewish immigration from Nazi Germany. It was the hope of many that these countries could find a way to open their doors to allow more than their usual quotas of immigrants into their countries. Instead, although they commiserated with the plight of the Jews under the Nazis, every country but one refused to allow in more immigrants; the Dominican Republic was the only exception. In the end, the Evian Conference showed Germany that no one wanted the Jews, leading the Nazis to a different solution to the ‘Jewish question’ – extermination.” 

Herf, Jeffrey. Reactionary Modernism: Technology, Culture, and Politics in Weimar and the Third Reich. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 1993. Print. “In a unique application of critical theory to the study of the role of ideology in politics, Jeffrey Herf explores the paradox inherent in the German fascists’ rejection of the rationalism of the Enlightenment while fully embracing modern technology. He documents evidence of a cultural tradition he calls ‘reactionary modernism’ found in the writings of German engineers and of the major intellectuals of the. Weimar right: Ernst Juenger, Oswald Spengler, Werner Sombart, Hans Freyer, Carl Schmitt, and Martin Heidegger. The book shows how German nationalism and later National Socialism created what Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s propaganda minister, called the ‘steel-like romanticism of the twentieth century’. By associating technology with the Germans, rather than the Jews, with beautiful form rather than the formlessness of the market, and with a strong state rather than a predominance of economic values and institutions, these right-wing intellectuals reconciled Germany’s strength with its romantic soul and national identity.”

Hiden, John W., and John E. Farquharson. Explaining Hitler’s Germany: Historians and the Third Reich. 2nd ed. London: BT Batsford, 1989. Print. “A revised, updated survey of the vast amount of literature produced on the Third Reich, this now covers material written between 1983 and 1988. The book is no mere bibliography but a product of the debate between the authors and the variety of views and arguments put forward by other historians. Thus a solid foundation of empirical information about Nazi Germany is included, without which some of the issues being debated would be unintelligible to non-specialist readers. Professor Hiden is the author of many books and articles on 20th century German history, including ‘Germany and Europe’. John Farquharson has written ‘The Plough and the Swastika’ and ‘The Western Allies and the Politics of Food’.”

Jones, Nigel. “The Making of a Nazi Hero.” History Today. 23 May 2013. Web. 17 July 2013. <>. The Making of a Nazi Hero: The Murder and Myth of Horst Wessel, Danial Siemens, I.B. Tauris. “Horst Wessel, or so ran the propaganda legend created by Goebbels, was the ideal Nazi hero. Young, idealistic and dedicated to the movement for which he had sacrificed his middle-class status and a promising career. Moreover he was a talented speaker and Stormtroop organiser and a few lines of doggerel penned by him became the ubiquitous Nazi anthem Die Fahne Hoch … aka the ‘Horst Wessel Lied’. Finally, to set the myth in stone, he had been murdered by ‘subhuman Communist bandits’. The truth, as Daniel Siemens convincingly demonstrates in this definitive study, is rather different.”

Kayser, Zach. “Staples Man Recalls Last Days of the Third Reich.” Wadena PJ. 14 June 2013. Web. 20 June 2013. <>. This article is first in a two-part series on Heinrich (Henry) Kopka and his family, who lived in Germany during the World War II and later emigrated to the United States. Heinrich, now a retired mathematics and German teacher, lives with his wife north of Staples. During the last winter of the Second World War, Heinrich Kopka and his family fled their farm in eastern Prussia while desperately trying to stay ahead of Stalin’s Red Army as it swarmed into Germany. The Kopkas traveled by horse-drawn cart at night to avoid being strafed by Russian planes. They would pass the ‘graves’ of those fellow refugees who had perished along the way; buried in the snow since the soil was frozen solid. At one point, the Russian advance got too close to the the main road the Kopkas were using, thereby forcing the family to abandon what few possessions they had packed in the horse cart and proceed on foot. Heinrich was nine years old at the time.”

King, Gilbert. “The Candor and Lies of Nazi Officer Albert Speer.” Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian, 08 Jan. 2013. Web. 18 June 2013. <>. “On April 30, 1945, as Soviet troops fought toward the Reich Chancellery in Berlin in street-to-street combat, Adolf Hitler put a gun to his head and fired. Berlin quickly surrendered and World War II in Europe was effectively over. Yet Hitler’s chosen successor, Grand Admiral Karl Donitz, decamped with others of the Nazi Party faithful to northern Germany and formed the Flensburg Government. As Allied troops and the U.N. War Crimes Commission closed in on Flensburg, one Nazi emerged as a man of particular interest: Albert Speer, the brilliant architect, minister of armaments and war production for the Third Reich and a close friend to Hitler.

Lebor, Adam. “Never Mind the Czech Gold the Nazis Stole…” The Telegraph. 31 July 2013. Web. 4 Aug. 2013. <….html>. “The documents reveal a shocking story: just six months before Britain went to war with Nazi Germany, the Bank of England willingly handed over £5.6 million worth of gold to Hitler – and it belonged to another country. The official history of the bank, written in 1950 but posted online for the first time on Tuesday, reveals how we betrayed Czechoslovakia – not just with the infamous Munich agreement of September 1938, which allowed the Nazis to annex the Sudetenland, but also in London, where Montagu Norman, the eccentric but ruthless governor of the Bank of England agreed to surrender gold owned by the National Bank of Czechoslovakia.”

Linker, Damon. “On the Natural History of Destruction.” First Things. The Institute on Religion and Public, May 2003. Web. 17 June 2013. <>. “In the summer of 1943, the British Royal Air Force (with support from the Eighth Army Air Force of the United States) flew a series of raids on Hamburg, Germany. Dubbed ‘Operation Gomorrah,’ the bombing missions did not target factories or fuel installations, railway junctions or transportation arteries. Their aim, in the words of acclaimed German novelist and essayist W. G. Sebald, ‘was to destroy the city and reduce it as completely as possible to ashes.’ On one such raid, early in the morning of July 27, ten thousand tons of high-explosive and incendiary bombs were intentionally dropped on the city’s densely populated residential districts. Twenty minutes after the bombing commenced, the city was engulfed by flames rising a mile into the air. As Sebald writes in On the Natural History of Destruction, the inferno consumed so much oxygen so quickly that it stirred up hurricane-force winds that ‘lifted gables and roofs from buildings, flung rafters and entire advertising billboards through the air, tore trees from the ground, and drove human beings before it like living torches.’”

Luks, Leonid. “A ‘Third Way’ – or Back to the Third Reich?” Russian Politics and Law 47 (2009): 7-23. Edoc.ku. Web. 24 June 2013. <>.

McGuigan, Brendan, and Bronwyn Harris. “Were There Non-Nazi German Soldiers in WWII?” WiseGeek. Conjecture. Web. 17 July 2013. <>. “There were certainly non-Nazi German soldiers in World War II (WWII), although many members of the German armed forces were ideologically supportive of or even affiliated with Nazism and Hitler. From one perspective, however, because members of the German armed forces weren’t allowed to affiliate with a political party, one could say all German soldiers in WWII were non-Nazis. The Nazi political party, however, had its own armed soldiers in the Waffen-SS and these soldiers therefore were Nazi soldiers.”

Meyer, Joachim E. “The Fate of the Mentally Il in Germany during the Third Reich.” Psychological Medicine 18.3 (1988): 575-81. Cambridge Journals. Web. 15 July 2013. <;jsessionid=3C2AE96EAB833832D32AB28BA2AC8BB4.journals?fromPage=online&aid=4993076>. “This paper surveys the measures taken against mental patients in Germany during the National Socialist regime. It covers the eugenic sterilization programme, the killing of handicapped children, the so called Action T4 (the killing of adult psychiatric patients) and the second phase of Action T4 after its official termination, i.e. between 1941 and 1945. The possible social and political causes of these measures, and the attitude of German psychiatrists to them are discussed. In particular, attention is drawn to a prevalent fear of national degeneration, to social Darwinism, and the ideas of Binding & Hoche on ‘permission for the extermination of worthless life’.”

“Nazi Germany.” World War 2 on History. History. Web. 06 July 2013. <>. “At the beginning of the 1930s, Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party exploited widespread and deep-seated discontent in Germany to attract popular and political support. There was resentment at the crippling territorial, military and economic terms of the Versailles Treaty, which Hitler blamed on treacherous politicians and promised to overturn. The democratic post-World War I Weimar Republic was marked by a weak coalition government and political crisis, in answer to which the Nazi party offered strong leadership and national rebirth. From 1929 onwards, the worldwide economic depression provoked hyperinflation, social unrest and mass unemployment, to which Hitler offered scapegoats such as the Jews.

Nazi Megaweapons (series). PBS, 2013. PBS, 17 July 2013. Web. 17 July 2013. <>. Six part PBS series: Atlantic Wall, U-Boat Base, V2 Rocket, Super Tanks, Me262, Fortress Berlin. “In a quest for world domination, the Nazis built some of the biggest and deadliest pieces of military hardware and malevolent technology in history. This new six-part series recounts World War II from a unique new perspective, uncovering the engineering secrets of iconic megastructures, telling the stories of the engineers who designed them.”

“Nazism.” Fordham University. Web. 6 July 2013. <>. Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook’s section on Nazism contains links to resources on the Weimar Republic and National Socialism.

Nelson, Soraya Sarhaddi. “Dresden Marks WWII Bombing 68 Years Ago.” NPR. 14 Feb. 2013. Web. 01 Aug. 2013. <>. “Toward the end of World War II, allied forces bombed the lightly defended city of Dresden, creating a firestorm that destroyed it and killed tens of thousands of people. The attack was designed to destroy German morale and hasten the end of the war. These days, neo-Nazis are using the anniversary to march and stir up nationalistic sentiment in a bid to boost their political and popular clout.”

Newman, L. “The Continuing Legacy of Medicine of the Third Reich.” The British Journal of General Practice 50.459 (2000): 829-30. Web. 24 June 2013. <>. “I would like to draw the attention of your readers to some important issues that I was made aware of when attending the Sixth European Conference of the World Organisation of General Practice (WONCA) in Vienna in July this year. The opening session, which was attended by international television and radio, dealt with ‘The Continuing Legacy of Medicine of the Third Reich’ and ‘Lessons of the Holocaust’.”

“On “Nazism and German Society: 1933-1945″ Edited by David F. Crew.” Web log post. Thoughts on History and Current Affairs. Sam Spiegelman, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 17 July 2013. <>. “The various perspectives and opinions in Nazism and German Society all possess a common, overarching theme. Historical phenomena, those which warrant as much academic research and study as do Nazism and Nazi Germany, necessarily have to be examined and analyzed from manifold perspectives. Thus seeking to break away from previous approaches to the study of Nazi Germany, these authors emphasize social history, and individually focus upon a particular piece of the larger historical narrative. This microcosmic, particularized approach allows contemporary students of history to understand an historical event as the convergence of diverse developments, rather than solely a grand chapter in the annals of history.

Panayi, Panikos. “Victims, Perpetrators and Bystanders in a German Town: The Jews of Osnabrück Before, During and after the Third Reich.” European History Quarterly 33.4 (2003): 451-92. Web. 24 June 2013. <>. This article may be obtained through ILL.

“Pre-1945 Ethnic German Areas (in Black).” 11 Mar. 2012. Web. 18 July 2013. <>. “From 1918 to 1938, after the break up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, several million ethnic Bohemian Germans wound up in the Czech Lands of newly created state of Czechoslovakia. Germans lived in Bohemia, a part of the Holy Roman Empire, since the 14th Century (and in some areas from at least the 12th century), mostly in the border regions of Sudetenland (so-called Sudeten Germans). Another German ethnic group, the Carpathian Germans, lived in Slovakia.”

Reimann, Bruno W. “The Defeat of the German Universities 1933.” Historical Social Research (1986): 101-05. SSOAR. Web. 15 July 2013. <>. ” ‘The German universities still have difficulties when they approach their history from 1933 to 1945. Prevailing over attempts at a critical reexamination are interpretations which downplay the significance of, or even ignore or repress this history. In lofty commemorative volumes one can learn much about brilliant periods of science and scholarship, but only little or nothing about the darkest phase in the history of the German university. What lies at the root of this difficulty in dealing with its own past?”

Richter, Wolfgang G.A. Forced Labor and ‘Foreign Workers’ in the Third Reich. Rep. U.S. Army War College, 2009. Web. 28 June 2013. <>. “The introduction of a foreign labor force was a central strategic economic and military factor for Hitler’s Nazi regime. By late autumn of 1941, if not before, the entire German war economy had become heavily and irreversibly dependent on foreign labor. There is no evidence of a masterplan for a comprehensive foreign labor program in Germany before World War II. The employment of foreign workers was rather an emergency solution to the manpower shortage during the war; this solution then developed from voluntary foreign labor to forced labor.”

Rosenbaum, Ron. “Revisiting the Rise and Fall of the Third Reich.” Smithsonian Magazine, Feb. 2012. Web. 06 July 2013. <>. “Recently reissued, William L. Shirer’s seminal 1960 history of Nazi Germany is still important reading. . . . William L. Shirer captured something else, both massive and elusive, within the four corners of a book: The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. He captured it in a way that made amnesia no longer an option. The issue of a new edition on the 50th anniversary of the book’s winning the National Book Award recalls an important point of inflection in American historical consciousness.”

Rubin, Charles T. “When Wombs Became Weapons: Women, Policy, and Propaganda in the Third Reich.” Thesis. McAnulty College and Graduate School of Liberal Arts. OAister.Worldcat. Web. 28 June 2013. <>. “The purpose of this thesis is to examine how the Nazi State used visual forms of propaganda in order to convey certain gender-specific policy aims to women living in the Third Reich. This will be accomplished by using the novel scholarly approach (referred to as the New Intentionalist approach) that these policy aims were not only fulfilling a State-centered need, but they also were reflecting a desire and a voice of agreement within the German population of women. In other words, while these policies were certainly driven by the immediate political needs of the National Socialists, such policies could not and would not have succeeded had they not made use of pre-existing cultural sensibilities and a uniquely German sense of gender-specific possibilities, thereby allowing an “old but new” version of engendered socio-cultural goals, responsibilities, and even moral imperatives to emerge.”

“Scientists under Hitler. Politics and the Physics Community in the Third Reich.” Medical History 22.4 (1978): 465. Web. 24 June 2013. <>. Review of Scientists under Hitler: Politics and the Physics Community in the Third Reich by Alan D. Beyerchen. Yale University, 1977. “The effects of the treatment of German physicists under the Nazi regime has never before been studied at this depth, and to do so the author has had to combine a knowledge of political history with that of the history of science.”

Shiffman, John. “Exclusive: U.S. Finds Long-lost Diary of Top Nazi Leader, Hitler Aide.” Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 09 June 2013. Web. 18 June 2013. <>. “The government has recovered 400 pages from the long-lost diary of Alfred Rosenberg, a confidant of Adolf Hitler who played a central role in the extermination of millions of Jews and others during World War Two. A preliminary U.S. government assessment reviewed by Reuters asserts the diary could offer new insight into meetings Rosenberg had with Hitler and other top Nazi leaders, including Heinrich Himmler and Herman Goering. It also includes details about the German occupation of the Soviet Union, including plans for mass killings of Jews and other Eastern Europeans.”

“Some Thoughts on the Political Structure of Nazi Germany.” Web log post. Thoughts on History and Current Affairs. Sam Spiegelman. Web. 17 July 2013. <>. “The chaotic nature of the Third Reich was a direct consequence of Nazi ideology. The notion of ‘will to power,’ which the Nazis misappropriated from philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, made competition the fundamental element of social, economic, and political relationships. Central to Nazi ideology was the spencerian notion of ‘survival of the fittest’ which necessitated persistent struggle. It is important to realize, however, the distinction the Nazis’ made between the chaotic nature of everyday life and bureaucracy, and the stabilizing energy and force of the Fuhrer.”

Spivak, John L. Secret Armies: Exposing Hitler’s Undeclared War on the Americas. New York: Starling, 1939. Print. Secret Armies is the author’s “inside story of Hitler’s far-flung, under-cover poison campaign in the Americas [that would] seem scarcely credible, were it not so thoroughly document with original letters and records, citing chapter and verse, naming names, dates and places. His unanswerable, uncontradicted facts should go far toward jolting many of us out of our false sense of security [in 1939].”

Streb, Jochen, and Mark Spoerer. “Guns and Butter – But No Margarine: The Impact of Nazi Economic Policies on German Food Consumption, 1933-1938.” Papers.ssrn. Social Science Research Network, 11 Jan. 2011. Web. 17 June 2013. <>. “The German population’s material standard of living during the ‘peace years’ of the Nazi regime (1933-38) is much debated. We use hitherto disregarded consumption data and the axiom of revealed preferences to test whether the material standard of living improved. We find that the food consumption bundle realized in 1935-36 must have been inferior to that of 1927-28 although GDP per capita was much higher. Even in 1937-38 consumers were probably worse off compared to 1927-28. We conclude that increasing consumption constraints forced German consumers to a diet and thus to a material standard of living that were much more frugal than national income figures suggest.”

Tietze, Felix. “Eugenic Measures in the Third Reich.” The Eugenics Review 31.2 (1939): 105-07. Web. 24 June 2013. <>. The essential items of The Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Disease of July 14, 1933 are examined.

Turner, Philip. “Still More to Learn about Corporations’ Complicity with the Third Reich.” The Great Gray Bridge. Philip Turner Book Productions, 26 June 2013. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. “In 2000, while an editor at Crown Publishing, I acquired a book that later became an international sensation and a bestseller in the US. It was IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation by Edwin Black. I believed it was imperative that the book be published because it documented hitherto unknown revelations such as the fact that IBM’s punch card tabulation system was licensed to the Third Reich which then used the technology to catalog and keep track of Jews and others under its rule they deemed undesirables. Turned out that corporate complicity with Hitler was as American as cherry pie.” Ben Unward’s excellent video is included. He is the author of The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact with Hitler.

Vagts, Detlev F. “International Law in the Third Reich.” American Society of International Law 84.3 (1990): 661-704. JTOR. Web. 15 July 2013. <>. “[T]he peculiarities of the period enable one to develop some hypotheses about the interactions in the law among people, institutions, ideas and policies in a way that is starker and clearer than the path one must try to trace in calmer times when movements are more gradual and subtle.”

“Welcome to World War II News!” World War II News. Web. 15 June 2013. <>. “This website provides a daily edited review of World War II news. Each article is hand-picked, with the intention that the selected source is either reliable, unique, has many WWII photos, or gives us the best insight or coverage on a particular topic.” “Hitler’s Third Reich and World War II in the News is a daily edited review of WWII articles – including German WW2 militaria – providing thought-provoking collection of hand-picked WW2 information.”

Wellershoff, Marianne. “Memories of WWII: A German Family’s Tangled Wartime History.” SPIEGEL ONLINE. 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <>. “Her aunt was executed by the Nazis, her uncle was a far-right political leader and her father told her stories of nighttime battles on the Eastern Front. SPIEGEL’s Marianne Wellershoff traces her family’s complicated place in World War II history.”

Wiesen, S. J. “German Industry and the Third Reich: Fifty Years of Forgetting and Remembering.” Archive.adl. Anti-Defamation League’s Braun Holocaust Institute. Web. 06 July 2013. <>. “The great majority of German businessmen behaved in a decidedly unheroic manner during the Nazi era. Most of them, especially leaders of larger companies, not only refrained from risking their lives to save Jews, but actually profited from the use of forced and slave labor, the ‘Aryanization’ of Jewish property, and the plundering of companies in Nazi-occupied Europe.”

“World War II Remembered: The Generals and the Admirals.” Mcc.commnet.libguides. Manchester Community College. Web. 24 June 2013. <>. Profiles of American generals and admirals, German Cabinet Officials, German generals and admirals plus European offices are included.

Zarifi, Maria. German Science as a Medium of Cultural Policy and Propaganda? : The Scientific Relations between Greece and the Third Reich : A Case Study. Diss. European University Institute, 2005. Web. 15 July 2013. <>. “This dissertation studies the scientific relations the German National Socialists developed with Greece and how they tried through these relations to exercise cultural, political and economic influence. The investigation, however, goes back to the Weimar years and unfolds the beginnings of Germany’s Foreign Cultural Policy and the mobilization of science in the country’s efforts to regain its lost place in the sun and escape the isolation after its defeat in WWI. The author tries to cast some light to problems like continuities and discontinuities or analogies in concepts and practices between the Weimar and the Nazi period in the interacted fields of science, culture and foreign affairs. The study focuses on the small peripheral country of Europe, Greece, well known for its ancient culture but not its scientific achievements, and tries to understand Germany’s interest to promote its scientific relations with a country with poor performance in modern science but with high geo-strategic importance.”



Jewish Resistance



Jewish partisans of the Vilnius Ghetto in Lithuania. Despite uprisings, about 95% of the 265,000-strong Jewish population of Lithuania was murdered by the German units and Lithuanian Nazi collaborators.


“200 Gestapo Men Killed by Jews During Battle in Polish Extermination Camp€.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 8 Feb 1944. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. “More than 200 Gestapo agents and Ukrainian guards in the ‘Jewish extermination camp’ of Sobibor, in occupied Poland, were killed during a revolt of the Jewish internees organized with the aid of the underground movement, the Polish Government-in-Exile reported today.”

Ainsztein, Reuben. Jewish Resistance in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe: With a Historical Survey of the Jew as Fighter and Soldier in the Diaspora. 2nd ed. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1975. Print. The author “presents a radically new account of the Jews in history, showing them to have been neither born victims nor born martyrs … to have included their share of fighters possessed of a spirit of active resistance.”

“Armed Jewish Resistance: Partisans.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 15 May 2011. <>. “In eastern Europe, Jewish units fought the Germans in city ghettos and behind the front lines in the forests.”

Arnovitz, Benton, and Etal. “Jewish Resistance — a Working Bibliography.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2003. Web. 12 Jan. 2012. <>. A 49 page bibliography including general works, articles, and articles about each country’s activities,

Barnavi, Elizabeth. “Resistance in the Holocaust.” My Jewish Learning. Web. 28 June 2013. <>. “The definition of Jewish resistance to the Nazis during the Holocaust still evokes bitter polemics. Generally, resistance is understood to mean a form of armed struggle, organized by a clandestine movement created for that purpose. However, in the case of a dispersed nation threatened by an industry seeking its total extermination, such a military conception is inadequate.”

“Baum, Herbert (1912-1942).” Encyclopedia of World Biography. 1998.  Print. Gale U.S. History in Context. Baum was a German Jewish resistance leader in Berlin.

Bloch, Nadine. “Wooden Legs, Paper Clips and Ice Fronts – Resistance to the Third Reich.” Waging Nonviolence. 19 Apr. 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <>. “Seventy years ago on April 19, 1943, two remarkable events occurred — the armed Jewish revolt in the Warsaw ghetto began, and the U.S.-U.K. Bermuda Conference on Jewish refugees from the Nazi regime opened. The former is a testament to people determined to do whatever they could to fight oppression. The latter goes down in history as a cruel and cowardly waste of time. Both, however, stand as a reminder of the diverse forms that resistance against the Nazis took, many of which have been lost to history for the sake of glorifying military might.”

Brzezinski, Matthew. “Isaac Zuckerman Unbound.” Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc., 19 Sept. 2012. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <>. “This is an excerpt from Isaac’s Army: A Story of Courage and Survival in Nazi-Occupied Poland by Matthew Brzezinski. In this section, Zivia Lubetkin, one of the leaders of the Jewish underground in Nazi-occupied Warsaw, and Isaac Zuckerman, the 24-year-old co-founder, along with Mark Edelman, of the Jewish Fighting Organization, first learn of the 1941 Vilna massacre, and consider the chances—and significance—of the violence coming to Warsaw.”

Chandler, Adam. “Boruch Spiegel (1919-2013).” Tablet Magazine. 21 May 2013. Web. 30 June 2013. <>. “It’s a pretty simple human aspiration to die on one’s own terms, cruelly elusive given its simplicity. 70 years later, it’s being reported that the ranks of the remaining fighters has narrowed further with the death of Boruch Spiegel, who passed away at age 93 earlier this month. Here’s part of his story.”

Cohen, Raya. “‘Against the Current’: Hashomer Hatzair in the Warsaw Ghetto.” Jewish Social Studies 7.1 (2000): 63-80. JSTOR. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. Hashomer Hatzair was a Zionist youth group in Warsaw in April 1942 “when word spread of the destructive tidal wave engulfing Jews.”

Cox, John M. Circles of Resistance: Jewish, Leftist, and Youth Dissidence in Nazi Germany. New York: Peter Lang, 2009. Print. This book “analyzes resistance networks of young German Jews and other young dissidents during the Nazi dictatorship. Young German-Jewish radicals created an intellectually and politically vibrant subculture in Berlin.”

DeSilva, Cara. In Memory’s Kitchen: A Legacy from the Women of Terezin. Northvale, NJ: J. Aronson, 1996. Print. “The sheets of paper are as brittle as fallen leaves; the faltering handwriting changes from page to page; the words, a faded brown, are almost indecipherable. The pages are filled with recipes. Each is a memory, a fantasy, a hope for the future. Written by undernourished and starving women in the Czechoslovakian ghetto/concentration camp of Terezín (also known as Theresienstadt), the recipes give instructions for making beloved dishes in the rich, robust Czech tradition.”

Gutman, Israel. Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. Print. This is the full story of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising told by a survivor of the battle.

Gutman, Yisrael, and Ina Friedman. The Jews of Warsaw: 1939-1943 : Ghetto, Underground, Revolt. Bloomington: Indiana Univ., 1989. Print. The author “looks beyond the ghetto uprising to consider the broader character of Jewish public life of what had been Europe’s greatest Jewish urban center.”

“Jewish Guerilla Unit Led by Jewish General Under Jewish Flag in Occupied Poland.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 Dec. 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “The London press reports today that a Jewish General named Gutt, who was formerly an officer in the Polish army, is now leading a well-equipped Jewish guerilla unit of 3,000 men which is fighting in the rear of the German army in occupied Poland.”

“Jewish Guerrillas Appear in Poland, Attack Nazi Train and Release Enslaved Poles.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 Feb. 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “Jewish guerrilla fighters in Nazi-occupied Poland held up a train carrying Poles to slave labor in Germany, killed three Nazi guards and liberated 60 Poles, it was reported by Polish Government circles here today on the basis of information received through neutral countries.”

“Jewish Resistance – A Working Bibliography.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Justice Resistance – A Working Bibliography. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2003. Web. 29 May 2011. <>. A very large working bibliography, Jewish Resistance, is included in a pdf here.

“Jewish Resistance in Poland; Women Trample Nazi Soldiers; Men Kill Gendarmes.” JTA – Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 8 Jan. 1943. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <>. “Reliable reports of Jewish resistance to Nazis in the smaller townships in occupied Poland where the Nazi garrisons are usually limited to a small number of reserves reached Soviet authorities here today. One report tells how Jewish women in the small town of Lublinetz attacked German soldiers who plundered their property, forcing them to flee the town panic stricken.”

“Jewish Resistance.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 04 May 2011. <>. “Although Jews were the Nazis’ primary victims, they too resisted Nazi oppression in a variety of ways, both collectively and as individuals.”

Krakowski, Shmuel. The War of the Doomed: Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1984. Print. “This book … presents a deep and informative study of one of the turbulent problems in the history of the Jewish people: the reaction of the Jews to the murder of their people on foreign soil.”

Kuttler, Hillel. “55 Jewish Partisans Honored for ‘extraordinary Measures’ in Resisting Nazis.” JTA – Jewish & Israel News. Jewish Telegraph Association, 9 Nov. 2011. Web. 17 Jan. 2012. <>. “During the two years preceding their liberation by the Red Army in 1944, the then teenagers fought the Nazis in separate brigades in the vast Nalibotskaya Pushcha forest. For their daring, Small, now living in Palm Beach Gardens, Fla., and Bakst, of Dallas, along with 53 other Jewish partisans from across the United States, were honored.”

Lazare, Lucien. Rescue as Resistance: How Jewish Organizations Fought the Holocaust in France. New York: Columbia UP, 1996. Print. The author “makes a powerful case that Jews themselves had a vital role to play in rescue operations, particularly of Jewish children.”

Lazare, Lucien. “Resistance, Jewish Organizations in France: 1940-1944.” Jewish Women’s Archive. Jewish Women A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia,  Web. 14 May 2013. <>. “In terms of numbers, the proportion of Jewish women active in Jewish underground organizations in occupied France is impressive. A lexicon of French-Jewish underground organizations published in Paris in 2003 contains a brief biography of every single member of the organizations, with emphasis on her or his actions in the underground. Of some six hundred members, two hundred and forty—approximately forty percent—were women.”

Levine, Allan Gerald. Fugitives of the Forest: The Heroic Story of Jewish Resistance and Survival during the Second World War. Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2009. Print. As WWII ended “some 25,000 Jews … walked out of the forests of Eastern Europe….They had escaped from the Nazi ghettos and slave labor camps and formed secret partisan camps in the surrounding forests…”

Morrus, M. R. “Jewish Resistance to the Holocaust.” Journal of Contemporary History 30.1 (1995): 83-110. JSTOR. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. “Writing on Jewish resistance during the second world war hardly differs … from writing on anti-nazi resistance in general.”

Overy, R. J. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Third Reich. London: Penguin, 1996. Print. “This atlas charts the rise and fall of Hitler’s Nazi state, from the first mass meeting of the NSDAP in Munich in 1920, through the relentless territorial aggression and anti-Jewish atrocities of World War II, to the execution of war criminals in Nuremburg in 1946.”

Paolino, Charles. “Nazis Spun Simple Murder into ‘Jewish Conspiracy’ Attacking Third Reich in Kirch’s New Book.” Daily Record. Gannett, 25 May 2013. Web. 26 May 2013. <>. “The idea of an undersized, penurious Jewish teenager bringing the Nazi propaganda machine to a halt sounds like movie plot for a young Peter Sellers. But it’s real, and it’s as compelling as a good novel as Jonathan Kirsch recounts it in ‘The Short, Strange Life of Herschel Grynszpan.’ . . . There’s much more to this absorbing tale. Among other things, Kirsch explores the question of whether Grynszpan, whose lone act was rejected by Jews of every stripe, deserves the honor that is afforded to the outnumbered and outgunned fighters who struck back at the Nazis.”

Poznanski, Renee. “Reflections on Jewish Resistance and Jewish Resistants in France.” Jewish Social Studies 2.1 (1995): 124-58. JSTOR. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. <>. It’s hard to define “Jewish Resistance in France” during World War II. The issues involved are examined.

“Resistance during the Holocaust.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 12 Jan. 2012. <>. “This [55 page] pamphlet explores examples of armed and unarmed resistance by Jews and other Holocaust victims. Many courageous acts of resistance were carried out in Nazi ghettos and camps and by partisan members of national and political resistance movements across German-occupied Europe. … Although resistance activities in Nazi Germany were largely ineffective and lacked broad support, some political and religious opposition did emerge.”

Ruelle, Karen G., and Deborah D. DeSaix. The Grand Mosque of Paris: A Story of How Muslims Rescued Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Holiday House, 2009. Print. This children’s book tells how Parisian Jews found refuge in an unlikely place, the Grand Mosque of Paris, during the occupation of France in World War II.

“Spiritual Resistance in the Ghettos.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 05 May 2011. <>. “The deprivations of ghetto life and the constant fear of Nazi terror made resistance difficult and dangerous but not impossible. In addition to armed resistance, Jews engaged in various forms of unarmed defiance.”

Tec, Nechama. Defiance. New York: Oxford UP, 2009. Print. Based on the true account of resistance against all odds. “What started as a desperate fight for survival” became a mission to save Jews from extermination.

“Treblinka Death Camp Revolt Summary & Testimonies.” Holocaust Research Project, 2008. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. <>. “Jewish inmates organized a resistance group in Treblinka in early 1943. When camp operations neared completion, the prisoners feared they would be killed and the camp dismantled. During the late spring and summer of 1943, the resistance leaders decided to revolt.”

Weinrib, Laura M., and Estee Shafir. Weinrib. Nitzotz: The Spark of Resistance in Kovno Ghetto & Dachau-Kaufering Concentration Camp. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 2009. Print. “Nitzotz was the Hebrew-language publication of Irgun Brith Zion, a middle-of-the-road Zionist youth organization founded in 1940 under Soviet rule.”

“World War 2: Warsaw Uprising 1944.” World War 2: Warsaw Uprising 1944. Project InPosterum, 2011. Web. 27 June 2013. <>. “The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 — a heroic and tragic 63-day struggle to liberate World War 2 Warsaw from Nazi/German occupation. Undertaken by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK), the Polish resistance movement, at the time Allied troops were breaking through the Normandy defenses and the Red Army was standing at the line of the Vistula River. Warsaw could have been one of the first European capitals liberated; however, various military and political miscalculations, as well as global politics — played among Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) — turned the dice against it.”

Wright, Simon. “Jewish Resistance during the Holocaust.” Helium. Helium Inc., 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <>. “When Hitler’s final solution was being implemented, there was resistance [from the Jews].”


America and the Third Reich


Living legends

 A group of B-17 planes in formation over Germany in April, 1945.


Abzug, Robert H. America Views the Holocaust, 1933-1945: A Brief Documentary History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1999. Print. “Were Americans the heroic liberators of Nazi concentration camp victims in 1945, or were they knowing and apathetic bystanders to unspeakable brutality and annihilation for a dozen years? Historians have long debated what the United States knew about Hitler’s gruesome Final Solution, when they knew it, and whether they should have intervened sooner. Wrapping historical narrative around 60 primary sources — including news clippings, speeches, letters, magazine articles, and government reports — Abzug chronicles the unfolding events in Nazi Germany while tracing the resurgence of anti-Semitism and tightening immigration policies in the United States.”

“American POWs in Europe.” Guests of the Third Reich. The National WWII Museum, 11 Nov. 2012. Web. 03 June 2013. <>. “Sixteen million Americans served in World War II. Of these, over 120,000 lived out part of the war behind barbed wire. In the European theater, 93,941 Americans were held as prisoners of war (POWs). These ‘Kriegies,’ short for Kriegsgefangener (German for POW) counted the days until liberation and created dream worlds for themselves inside the camps.”

“America’s Nazis.” American History Illustrated 21.2 (1986): 40. EbscoHost. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. “Patterning itself after the Third Reich, the fanatically pro-Nazi German-American Bund advocated National Socialism as a solution to the Great Depression. Led by its self-styled fuhrer, Fritz Kuhn, the Bund had roots dating from the early 1930s when pro-Nazis took over German-American societies in New York and Michigan.”

Bard, Mitchell G. Forgotten Victims: The Abandonment of Americans in Hitlerʼs Camps. Boulder: Westview, 1994. Print. “Michell Bard’s compelling account of American G.I.’s and citizens who were herded into Nazi concentration camps and abandoned by their government exposes yet another outrage in the dark history of the Holocaust. Bard shatters the belief that American citizenship guarantees safe passage abroad.”

Berman, Aaron. “American Response to the Holocaust.” A&E Television Networks. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. <>. “The systematic persecution of German Jewry began with Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in 1933. Facing economic, social, and political oppression, thousands of German Jews wanted to flee the Third Reich but found few countries willing to accept them. Eventually, under Hitler’s leadership, some 6 million Jews were murdered during World War II.”

Berrin, Danielle. “Did Hollywood Heil Hitler?” Jewish Journal, 26 June 2013. Web. 05 July 2013. <>. “In a twisted tale that could be called Confessions of a Nazi Scholar comes a shocking revelation that Hollywood’s association with Hitler’s Third Reich may have been much closer and more collaborative than previously known. According to a new book by historian Ben Urwand … Hollywood actively collaborated with Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler in order to assure their stronghold in the German film market.”

Bredemus, Jim. “American Bund.” TRACES: We Bring HISTORY to LIFE. Traces. Web. 03 June 2013. <>. “The Failure of American Nazism: The German-American Bund’s Attempt to Create an American ‘Fifth Column.’ Many Americans feared the presence of a German ‘Fifth Column’ before World War II. In the case of the disorganized and poorly led American Bund, for the most part these fears ultimately proved unjustified.”

Breuer, William B. Nazi Spies in America: Hitler’s Undercover War. New York: St. Martin’s Paperbacks, 1990. Print. Nazi spies in America “waged one of the most ferocious covert struggles in the history of espionage.”

Brown, Daniel. The Boys in the Boat: Nine Americans and Their Epic Quest for Gold at the 1936 Berlin Olympics. New York: Vking, 2013. Print. “In 1936 nine working-class American boys burst from their small towns into the international limelight, unexpectedly wiping the smile off Adolph Hitler’s face by beating his vaunted German team to capture the Olympic gold medal.”

Cummins, Sharon. “Nazi U-boats Plagued Maine Coast during WWII.” 29 Apr. 2010. Web. 30 July 2012. <>. “German submarines swarmed to American waters when the United States formally declared war on Germany and Italy on Dec. 11, 1941. By the following June, 171 American vessels had been torpedoed off the east coast of the Unites [sic] States. Coastal Mainers, many of whom made their living from the sea, felt like sitting ducks.”

Cunningham, Finian. “US Driven by Nazi War Machine.” PressTV. 15 May 2013. Web. 17 May 2013. <>. “The annual VE Day – victory in Europe – celebrations held this month see, as usual, Western governments indulging in self-glory and moral superiority for their supposed defeat of German fascism. However, the official history books do not tell of the secret pact that Western governments and Washington in particular formed with the remnants of the Nazi war machine.”

Day, Dorothy. “Our Brothers, the Jews.” America Magazine. 9 Nov. 2009. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <>. “Unlike any other Catholic writer at the time, Dorothy Day saw Adolf Hitler’s emerging policy toward the Jews as a moral problem for Catholics. She saw this while Hitler was still only the chancellor in a multiparty cabinet—two years before he combined the office of chancellor and president to become Führer and almost four years before Germany adopted the Nuremburg Laws that stripped German Jews of their citizenship and human rights. Day’s views are expressed in this previously unknown essay, which lay undetected in a correspondence file in the Dorothy Day-Catholic Worker Collection at Marquette University.”

Delattre, Lucas. A Spy at the Heart of the Third Reich: The Extraordinary Story of Fritz Kolbe, America’s Most Important Spy in World War II. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2005. Print. “This must be one of the most remarkable stories to come out of World War II, and Fritz Kolbe must be one of that war’s most unique personalities.”

Edwards, John Carver. Berlin Calling: American Broadcasters in Service to the Third Reich. New York: Praeger, 1991. Print. “Expatriates posing as detached yet patriotic American commentators, and using the news-of-the-day voice of the stereotypical radio announcer, sought to turn U.S. opinion against the British and achieve the political objectives of their media-savvy employer–master propagandist Paul Josef Goebbels.”

Epstein, Helen, and Louis G. Cowan. A Study in American Pluralism through Oral Histories of Holocaust Survivors. [New York]: Library, 1977. Print. “Explores, ‘through personal interviews, a particular group of Americans who survived one of the most devastating experiences in history.’ The 250 interviewees included men and women Holocaust survivors, 5 adults who were married to survivors, and 40 children of survivors.”

“Exhibit Opens on US Jews Who Helped Refugees from Nazis.” The Times of Israel. 22 May 2013. Web. 23 May 2013. <>. “An exhibition opens Tuesday at a museum in Lower Manhattan about efforts by American Jews to bring refugees to the US from Europe during the Nazi era. The exhibition, ‘Against All Odds: American Jews and the Rescue of Europe’s Refugees, 1933-41′ will be on view for a year at the Museum of Jewish Heritage — A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, located on Battery Place.”

Fischer, Klaus P. Hitler & America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2011. Print. “In February 1942, barely two months after he had declared war on the United States, Adolf Hitler praised America’s great industrial achievements and admitted that Germany would need some time to catch up. The Americans, he said, had shown the way in developing the most efficient methods of production-especially in iron and coal, which formed the basis of modern industrial civilization. He also touted America’s superiority in the field of transportation, particularly the automobile. He loved automobiles and saw in Henry Ford a great hero of the industrial age. Hitler’s personal train was even code-named “Amerika.” In Hitler and America, historian Klaus P. Fischer seeks to understand more deeply how Hitler viewed America, the nation that was central to Germany’s defeat.”

Fisher, Marc. Book Review | FDR and the Jews. Belknap of Harvard UP, 2012. Moment. Web. 7 May 2013. “The State Department at first didn’t want to unduly rattle the Germans, and later didn’t want to risk a rift with our British friends. The Republicans allowed their isolationist supporters to run roughshod over their moral sensiblities. Christian leaders, joined by at least some major Jewish organizations, said the extermination of Europe’s Jews was indeed a terrible thing, but the more important goal was to defeat the Nazis, for only the destruction of Hitler’s war machine could really make the world safe for all, including, by the way, whatever Jews might survive the Germans’ genocide.”

“Ford Discussed Alleged Jewish Banking Ring€ with Him, ‘€œIndependent’€ Editor Admits.” Jewish News Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 27 Mar. 1927. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <>. “Important admissions to the effect that Ford discussed the alleged ‘Jewish banking ring’ with him and that the automobile manufacturer saw Sapiro’s demand for retraction of the former’s charges against him, were drawn from William J. Cameron, editor of the ‘Dearborn Independent’ during today’s questioning of him by Gallagher, Sapiro’s counsel. The admissions were made by Cameron under a barrage of objections from the Ford counsel.”

Glass, Charles. Americans in Paris: Life and Death under Nazi Occupation. New York: Penguin, 2010. Print. This book contains “tales of adventure, intrigue, passion, deceit and survival under the brutal Nazi occupation” from 1940 to 1944.

Greenhouse, Emily. “The First American Anti-Nazi Film, Rediscovered.” The New Yorker. 21 May 2013. Web. 23 May 2013. <>. “On March 5, 1933, the day elections gave the Nazis a parliamentary plurality, a triumphant Adolf Hitler addressed a hysterical crowd at the Sports Palace in Berlin. From the wings of the stage, [Cornelius] Vanderbilt managed a brief audience with the new Reich Chancellor. According to Vanderbilt’s account, he introduced himself, in German, and then Hitler, with a motion to the throngs that awaited, began speaking: ‘Tell the Americans that life moves forward, always forward, irrevocably forward. Tell them that Adolf Hitler is the man of the hour, … Tell them that he was sent by the Almighty to a nation that had been threatened with disintegration and loss of honor for fifteen long years.’ … The film by Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jr. (as his name read in the credits), ‘Hitler’s Reign of Terror,’ … was a quirky admixture of stock newsreel footage, and genuine documentary material shot by Vanderbilt: sixty-five minutes of frenzied crowds burning books and parading by torchlight in Germany, speeches at a 1933 anti-Nazi rally in Madison Square Garden, street scenes of Vienna and Berlin amid Nazi brownshirts, interviews reënacted in English, and an actual interview with Helen Keller, whose books were burned by Hitler’s decree.” The film was censored and banned in the U.S due to objections by the German authorities. Then the film disappeared and the only copy was recently rediscovered. The film trailer is included.

Heideking, Jürgen, Christof Mauch, and Marc Frey. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996. Print. “Even paranoids have enemies. Hitler’s most powerful foes were the Allied powers, but he also feared internal conspiracies bent on overthrowing his malevolent regime. In fact, there was a small but significant internal resistance to the Nazi regime, and it did receive help from the outside world. Through recently declassified intelligence documents, this book reveals for the first time the complete story of America’s wartime knowledge about, encouragement of, and secret collaboration with the German resistance to Hitler—including the famous July 20th plot to assassinate the Fuehrer. The U.S. government’s secret contacts with the anti-Nazi resistance were conducted by the OSS, the World War II predecessor to the CIA. Highly sensitive intelligence reports recently released by the CIA make it evident that the U.S. government had vast knowledge of what was going on inside the Third Reich.”

Jull, Sandra. “Use Online Resources for Your Research Paper on Nazi Saboteurs in America.” Ezine Articles. 17 May 2010. Web. 31 May 2011. <>. A review of quality resources found online.

Katznelson, IRA. “Failure to Rescue: How FDR Hurt Jewish Immigrants.” New Republic 6 July 2013. Web. 12 July 2013. <>. “Level-headed yet deeply troubling, ‘FDR and the Jews’ [by Richard Breitman and Allan Lichtman] offers a history of American policy toward overseas Jews before and during World War II. With questions tangled and evidence mixed, Breitman and Lichtman … enter a deeply charged conversation about the degree of culpability of Franklin Roosevelt and, more broadly, the United States, as Hitler’s regime moved from extirpation to mass murder. Substituting cool reason and careful adjudication for polemic and accusation, their assessment of how the Roosevelt administration considered whether to remonstrate, to relax immigration policy, or to interdict the machinery for killing during the course of the Third Reich displays little patience for indictment. Assertively fair-minded, sometimes excessively so, FDR and the Jews pushes back against simplistic denunciations, and refuses to treat the era’s combination of constraints and decisions as a one-dimensional history of American abandonment. Situating Roosevelt within political and global circumstances, it weighs his actions with understanding and sympathy, though not always with approval.”

Kehr, Dave. “Film No Evil.” The New York Times. 23 May 2013. Web. 27 May 2013. <>. Book review: HOLLYWOOD AND HITLER, 1933-1939 by Thomas Doherty Illustrated. Columbia University Press. Sixty-eight years after the collapse of the Thousand Year Reich, Nazis remain a persistent presence on American screens. With their eye-­grabbing iconography, they provide easy cartoon villains for action films (‘Inglourious Basterds’), add moral import to dubious melodramas (‘The Reader’), fuel entire cable channels with documentary reconstructions of their crimes and on rare occasions motivate actual works of art. But as Thomas Doherty forcefully establishes in his wide-ranging and brightly written new book, “Hollywood and Hitler, 1933-1939,” Nazis were all but invisible in American movies at the time when depicting their savagery might have done the most good.”

Kluckhohn, Frank. “U.S. Now at War with Germany and Italy.” On This Day. New York Times. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. <>.

Kuttler, Hillel. “Seeking Kin: Honoring Those Who Assured Nazi Loot’s Return.” Jewish Telegraph Agency. JTA: The Global News Service of the Jewish People, 24 Oct. 2012. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <>. “Like many immigrants from Germany who fought in the U.S. military during World War II, Harry Ettlinger served his adopted country by translating captured materials and interpreting during interrogations of enemy prisoners. … But within that population of soldiers, Ettlinger played a unique role. He was assigned to a little-known department of the Allied forces that located and returned important documents and works of art that the Nazis had taken from public and private collections. The 350-member department operated in small groups attached to military units in Western Europe at the end of World War II and in its aftermath.”

Lichtblau, Eric. “Secret Papers Detail U.S. Aid for Ex-Nazis.” New York Times 13 Nov. 10. 13 Nov. 2010. Web. 15 Aug. 2011. <>. ”A secret history of the United States government’s Nazi-hunting operation concludes that American intelligence officials created a ‘safe haven’ in the United States for Nazis and their collaborators after World War II …”

Lineberry, Cate. The Secret Rescue: An Untold Story of American Nurses and Medics behind Nazi Lines. Little, Brown and (Canada), 2013. Print. “When 26 Army nurses and medics-part of the 807th Medical Air Evacuation Transport Squadron-boarded a cargo plane for transport in November 1943, they never anticipated the crash landing in Nazi-occupied Albania that would lead to their months-long struggle for survival. A drama that captured the attention of the American public, the group and its flight crew dodged bullets and battled blinding winter storms as they climbed mountains and fought to survive, aided by courageous villagers who risked death at Nazi hands to help them. A mesmerizing tale of the courage and heroism of ordinary people, THE SECRET RESCUE tells not only a new story of struggle and endurance, but also one of the daring rescue attempts by clandestine American and British organizations amid the tumultuous landscape of the war.”

Lipstadt, Deborah E. Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust, 1933-1945. New York: Free, 1986. Print. “This most complete study to date of American press reactions to the Holocaust sets forth in abundant detail how the press nationwide played down or even ignored reports of Jewish persecutions over a 12-year period. The conclusions amplify but do not seriously challenge previous studies; what is more significant here is the effort far from complete to explain press actions. While revealing more about major newspapers and correspondents than about the mass of smaller ones, and saying far too little about newsreels and American Jewish newspapers, this raises larger questions concerning the relationship between press coverage, public knowledge, and government policy that deserve serious consideration.”

Luick-Thrams, Michael. “Nazi Facism: Hitler and “Amerika”" Traces: We Bring HISTORY to LIFE. Web. 15 June 2013. <>. “Life in the Third Reich and Adolf Hitler: each evokes myriad images of their own, yet neither can be fully understood without the other. So pervasive and absolute was the influence of Adolf Hitler that his overbearing presence and the Nazi Party he helped create permeated virtually every aspect of German society from 1933 to 1945. Perhaps more than any other individual, he changed the course of the twentieth century and of Western civilization by initiating such a cataclysmic world war. Because history has recorded such a horrific, other-than-human picture of him, however, it is difficult to truly understand Adolf Hitler: the maniac, the menace—the man.” Also includes: “Third Reich = The Big Lie,” “Address by Adolf Hitler to the Reichstag, Sept. 1, 1939,” “Chronology of the Third Reich,” “Nature of Fascism,” “War: Bill Moyers Talks with Chris Hedges.”

Mayers, David. “Neither War Nor Peace: FDR’s Ambassadors in Embassy Berlin and Policy Toward Germany, 1933-1941.” Diplomacy & Statecraft 20.1 (2009): 50-68. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. “American policy toward Germany in the years before Pearl Harbor can be approached from any number angles. A rich literature already exists that emphasizes the geopolitical dimension of the German-U.S. relationship, as well as its economic and ideological complexities. I shall here explore an interpretative line that has been less fully developed in the historiography, namely, the viewpoint of U.S. diplomats posted in Berlin. Their experience in the Third Reich to FDR’s America and its equivocal response.”

Medoff, Rafael. “FDR Used the IRS against Jewish Activists.” Service, 20 May 2013. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. “During the Holocaust era, the object of U.S. government wrath was the Bergson Group, a political action committee led by Peter Bergson (Hillel Kook), a Zionist emissary from Palestine. The group used newspaper ads, rallies, and lobbying to press the Franklin Delano Roosevelt administration for the rescue of Jews from the Nazis.”

Medoff, Rafael. “How America First Learned of The Holocaust.” 11 June 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. “Seventy years ago this month America learned, for the first time, about the systematic mass murder of Europe’s Jews—but Allied officials and some leading newspapers downplayed the news.”

Medoff, Rafael. “Tarzan and The Holocaust.” 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <>. “In one of the Hebrew novellas, Tarzan helps smuggle Jewish refugees out of Europe and past the British naval blockade of Palestine. At one point in the story, Tarzan is captured by the British and imprisoned, although he later escapes. In real life, the Irgun Zvai Leumi underground militia in Palestine initiated the Aliyah Bet (unauthorized immigration) campaign in 1937. It brought an estimated 20,000 Jews to the Holy Land during the next four years. About 7,500 miles away, a handful of Jewish activists were looking for donors in Hollywood to help bankroll the Aliyah Bet operations. Hillel Kook (using the name Peter Bergson), Yitshaq Ben-Ami, Samuel Merlin, and Alex Rafaeli, followers of the Revisionist Zionist leader Ze’ev Jabotinsky and members of the Irgun, had been sent by Jabotinsky to the U.S. between 1938 and 1940 to seek financial and political support for Aliyah Bet and the creation of a Jewish state.”

Mikies, David. “Hollywood’s Creepy Love Affair With Adolf Hitler, in Explosive New Detail.” Tablet Magazine. 10 June 2013. Web. 17 June 2013. <>. Book – The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact with Hitler, Harvard University Press, 2013. “As it turns out, Hitler’s love for American movies was reciprocated by Hollywood. A forthcoming book by the young historian Ben Urwand … presents explosive new evidence about the shocking extent of the partnership between the Nazis and major Hollywood producers. Urwand … Digging through archives in Berlin and Washington, D.C., he has unearthed proof that Hollywood worked together with the Nazis much more closely than we ever imagined. Urwand has titled his riveting book The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact With Hitler, and as you turn its pages you realize with dismay that collaboration is the only fitting word for the relationship between Hitler and Hollywood in the 1930s. Using new archival discoveries, Urwand alleges that some of the Hollywood studio heads, nearly all of whom were Jewish, cast their lot with Hitler almost from the moment he took power, and that they did so eagerly—not reluctantly. What they wanted was access to German audiences. What Hitler wanted was the ability to shape the content of Hollywood movies—and he got it. During the ’30s, Georg Gyssling, Hitler’s consul in Los Angeles, was invited to preview films before they were released. If Gyssling objected to any part of a movie—and he frequently did—the offending scenes were cut. As a result, the Nazis had total veto power over the content of Hollywood movies.”

“News Brief.” JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 15 Oct. 1933. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <>. “The American Federation of Labor, composed of almost five million members of trades unions throughout the country, today adopted a resolution throwing the strength of the American labor movement solidly behind the boycott of German products until such time as the Nazi rulers of the Reich end their suppression of the German labor movement and their persecution of the Jews in Germany.”

Noah, Timothy. “Did the U.S. Wage Biowarfare Against Nazi Germany?” Slate Magazine. 1 Nov. 2001. Web. 15 June 2013. <>. “One of the very few moments of comic relief to be found in ‘Germs: Biological Weapons and America’s Secret War,’ by New York Times correspondents Judith Miller, Stephen Engelberg, and William Broad, concerns what the authors describe as ‘America’s only known biological attack.’ It occurred in the early 1940s, long before President Richard Nixon formally renounced the use of biological weapons. The target was the Third Reich’s answer to Alan Greenspan, a man with the improbable name of Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht.”

Norwood, Stephen H. “In Denial: American Universities’ Response to the Third Reich, Past and Present.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 46.4 (2011): 501-09. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Mar. 2013. “This article discusses the relationship between American universities and the Nazi regime in Germany. Particular focus is given to the tole of Harvard University and Columbia University in participating in academic dialogues and exchanges with German universities and hosting Nazi officials on visits to the U.S.”

Norwood, Stephen H. The Third Reich in the Ivory Tower: Complicity and Conflict on American Campuses. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. Print. “This is the first systematic exploration of the nature and extent of sympathy for Nazi Germany at American universities during the 1930s. Universities were highly influential in shaping public opinion and many of the nation’s most prominent university administrators refused to take a principled stand against the Hitler regime. Universities welcomed Nazi officials to campus and participated enthusiastically in student exchange programs with Nazified universities in Germany. American educators helped Nazi Germany improve its image in the West as it intensified its persecution of the Jews and strengthened its armed forces.”

Olson, Lynne. Those Angry Days: Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and America’s Fight over World War II, 1939-1941. New York: Random House, 2013. Print. “A fully fleshed-out portrait of the battle between the interventionists and isolationists in the eighteen months leading up to Pearl Harbor … a vivid, colorful evocation of a charged era.”

Oshinsky, David. “… Congress Disposes.” Rev. of FDR and the Jews. The New York Times 5 Apr. 2013. Web.  FDR and the Jews by Richard Breitman and Allan J. Lichtman. <>. “To fight World War II, Roosevelt needed support from legislators who wanted to keep out Europe’s Jews.”

Padover, S. K. “How the Nazis Picture America.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 3.4 (1939): 663-69. JSTOR. Web. 2 Feb. 2012. In 1939 the Nazis drew a picture of the United States for German consumption that was “a caricature not devoid of humor. …The Nazis see America as a rich, vulgar, corrupt, and basically uncultured land, owned by Jews, full of criminals, and clinging to a degenerate form of democracy.”

Plaut, Jams S. “Hitler’s Capital.” The Atlantic Online. The Atlantic, Oct. 1946. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <>. “After four years’ service In the Navy, James S. Plaut has resumed his duties as Director of the Institute of Modern Art, Boston. In 1943 he served as the Senior U.S. Naval Interrogation Officer in Northwest African waters, charged with the special interrogation of German U-boat crews. From November, 1944, to April, 1946, he was Director of the Art Looting Investigation Unit, OSS, and in this capacity he was directly responsible for recovering the works of art which had been looted by Rosenberg, Goring, and Hitler and hidden in Germany.”

Preparata, Guido Giacomo. Conjuring Hitler: How Britain and America Made the Third Reich. London: Pluto, 2005. Print. “A fascinating and controversial new perspective on Hitler’s rise to power; Provides startling evidence of Britain and America’s financial support for the Third Reich; Suggests that the western elite deliberately supported Nazism in the pre-war period to destabilise any alliance between Germany and Russia. Nazism is usually depicted as an eerie German phenomenon, the outcome of political blunders and unique economic factors: we are told that it could not be prevented, and that it will never be repeated. Guido Giacomo Preparata shows that the truth is very different: using meticulous economic analysis, he reveals that Hitler’s extraordinary rise to power was actually facilitated over the course of a decade following WWI – and eventually financed – by the British and American political classes.”

Reich, Simon. “The Ford Motor Company and the Third Reich.” Jewish Virtual Library – Homepage. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <>. “[T]he different degrees of success enjoyed by the Ford Motor Company’s subsidiaries in Britain and Gernany in the 1930s and 1940s were heavily influenced by the policies of each country’s government.”

Rollins, Peter C., and John E. O’Connor. Why We Fought: America’s Wars in Film and History. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 2008. Print. “Film moves audiences like no other medium; both documentaries and feature films are especially remarkable for their ability to influence viewers. Best-selling author James Brady remarked that he joined the Marines to fight in Korea after seeing a John Wayne film, demonstrating how a motion picture can change the course of a human life — in this case, launching the career of a major historian and novelist. In Why We Fought: America’s Wars in Film and History, editors Peter C. Rollins and John E. O’Connor explore the complexities of war films, describing the ways in which such productions interpret history and illuminate American values, politics, and culture.”

Schuessler, Jennifer. “Scholar Asserts That Hollywood Avidly Aided Nazis.” The New York Review of Books. The New York Times, 25 June 2013. Web. 27 June 2013. <>. “The list of institutions and industries that have been accused of whitewashing their links to the Third Reich is long, including various governments, the Vatican, Swiss banks and American corporations like I.B.M., General Motors and DuPont. Now a young historian wants to add a more glamorous name to that roll call: Hollywood. In ‘The Collaboration: Hollywood’s Pact With Hitler,’ Ben Urwand draws on a wealth of previously uncited documents to argue that Hollywood studios, in an effort to protect the German market for their movies, not only acquiesced to Nazi censorship but also actively and enthusiastically cooperated with that regime’s global propaganda effort.”

Shaffer, Ryan. “Long Island Nazis: A Local Synthesis of Transnational Politics.” Long Island History Journal 21.2 (2010). Long Island History Journal (LIHJ), Spring 2010. Web. 03 June 2013. <>. “This article offers an overview of the German-American Bund, and explores the national and local dimension of fascism in a democratic society. It focuses on the Bund’s local programs on Long Island and the ideology of the group, arguing that the group is not only pro-Nazi, but also ‘pro-American.’ By demonstrating the ideology is not constrained by borders, the Bund reconciled fascist and democratic principles. The organization claimed that fascism was a form of democracy, and that the two systems of government needed the other to exist. To further these aims, the Bund sought supporters in local settings and maintained a following until the outbreak of the Second World War.”

Shull, Michael S., and David Edward Wilt. Hollywood War Films: 1937 – 1945 ; an Exhaustive Filmography of American Feature-length Motion Pictures Relating to World War II.  McFarland, 1996. Print. “From 1937 through 1945, Hollywood produced over 1,000 films relating to the war. This enormous and exhaustive reference work first analyzes the war films as sociopolitical documents. Part one, entitled ‘The Crisis Abroad, 1937-1941,’ focuses on movies that reflected America’s increasing uneasiness. Part two, ‘Waging War, 1942-1945,’ reveals that many movies made from 1942 through 1945 included at least some allusion to World War II.”

Spivak, John L. Secret Armies: Exposing Hitler’s Undeclared War on the Americas. New York: Starling, 1939. Print.Secret Armies if the author’s “inside story of Hitler’s far-flung, under-cover poison campaign in the Americas [that would] seem scarcely credible, were it not so thoroughly document with original letters and records, citing chapter and verse, naming names, dates and places. His unanswerable, uncontradicted facts should go far toward jolting many of us out of our false sense of security [in 1939].”

Sutton, Antony C. Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler. Cutchogue, NY: Buccaneer, 2000. Print. “Business manipulation of Hitler’s accession to power in March 1933.”

“To Kill Hitler in 1944, Colby Says.” Schenectady Gazette 4 Aug. 1975: 40. Google News. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. CIA director William E. Colby testified that “he could accept a federal law barring the CIA from hatching assassination plots, but said he might have supported a plot to kill Adolf Hitler in 1944.”

United States. Cong. Committee Requested by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower through the Chief of Staff, Gen. George C. Marshall to the Congress of the United States in Concentration Camps in Germany. Atrocities and Other Conditions in Condentration Camps in Germany. By Alben W. Barkley and Committee. 79th Cong., 1st sess. Cong. Doc. 47. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1945. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. General Eisenhower requested that a joint Congressional committee hurriedly fly to Germany to view the atrocities and deplorable conditions of Nazi concentration camps. They wrote this report and submitted it to Congress.

Von Hassell, Agostino., Sigrid MacRae, and Simone Ameskamp. Alliance of Enemies: The Untold Story of the Secret American and German Collaboration to End World War II. New York: Thomas Dunne, 2006. Print. This book “tells the thrilling history of the secret World War II relationship between Nazi Germany’s espionage service, the Abwehr, and the American OSS, predecessor of the CIA.”

Wallace, Max. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the Rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin’s, 2003. Print. “Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh have long been exalted as two of the greatest American icons of the twentieth century. Now award-winning journalist Max Wallace uncovers groundbreaking and astonishing revelations about the poisonous effect these two so-called American heroes had on Western democracy and how the two of them—acting in league with the Nazis—almost brought democratic Europe to the verge of extinction.”

Wiener, Robert. “Detroit Motorized the Third Reich.” Spero News. 29 Mar. 2013. Web. 09 Apr. 2013. <>. “The hidden history of the Shoah and its connections to American and Middle East affairs have preoccupied writer Edwin Black since the 1970s, when he wrote the first of 10 books of investigative journalism, including IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation. … There is no other American city that has a special connection to the Third Reich other than Detroit. It had a special place in Hitler’s heart because of two leading Holocaust collaborators: Henry Ford and Albert Sloan, the president of General Motors.”

“World War II Remembered: The Generals and the Admirals.” LIFE. Ed. Ben Cosgove. Web. 01 July 2013. <>. LIFE’s photo galleries include Battle of Britain; Inside a Nazi Christmas Party, 1941; Women of Steel: Life with Female Factory Workers in World War II; World War II: The Photos We Remember; At the Gates of Hell: The Liberation of Bergen-Belsen; After the Fall: Photos of Hitler’s Bunker and more in 3 sections.

Wyman, David S. The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust, 1941-1945. New York: Pantheon, 1984. Print. “Bonhoeffer’s scattered observations about Jews and Jewish experiences, problematic passages, ambiguities, and contradictions.”

Zuckerman, Laurence. “FDR’s Jewish Problem.” The Nation. 17 July 2013. Web. 18 July 2013. <>. “Presidential scholars have consistently ranked Roosevelt as the best chief executive in the nation’s history for his handling of the Great Depression and World War II. But even among liberal Jews who still hold him in high regard for those achievements, his reputation has been tarnished as he has been viewed increasingly through the prism of the Holocaust. What started out in the late 1960s as legitimate historical revisionism—looking critically at what the Roosevelt administration and American Jewry did during the Holocaust—has morphed into caricature, with FDR often depicted as an unfeeling anti-Semite.”